References of "2011"
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See detailA study of institutional environment and household food security at local level in Rwanda
Mathai, Jose A.; Musabanganji, Edouard ULg; Niwemahoro, Celine et al

in Rwanda Journal (2011), 22(Série B : Social Sciences), 96-128

The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used ... [more ▼]

The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye district by using structured interview schedule, as well using a case study of a rice cooperative in Huye district. Focus group discussions with all stake holders concerned with food security at local level enriched the data that we collected by other means. The general conclusion that emerges from the study is that in order to attain the food security at local level in Rwanda lot more to be done. Among other things, strengthening existing local institutions like farmer cooperatives, improving agricultural production technology, diversifying household income sources for better access, and genuine integration of food security concerns in the district development plans. The researchers come out with certain policy recommendations that may make the local level food security more sustainable which includes, among others, the orientation of the households well into the new modes of agricultural production and planning of household income. The need for much more local level institutional support in many areas is highlighted. On the whole, the study addressed the concerns of food access among rural households in Rwanda, and also the much wanted institutional support being exposed. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron-deficient 1- and 2-aza-1,3-dienes: a comprehensive survey of their synthesis and reactivity
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg; Masschelein, Kurt; Stevens, Christian

in Chemical Society Reviews (2011), 40

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See detailInterface cerveau-ordinateur : une aide à la communication ?
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Lugo, Zulay; Noirhomme, Quentin ULg et al

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma et états de conscience altérée (2011)

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See detailDirect nano-in-micropatterning of TiO2 thin layers and TiO2/Pt nanoelectrode arrays by deep X-ray lithography
Faustini, M.; Marmiroli, B.; Malfatti, L. et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2011), 21

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See detailFamiliarité spatiale dans deux communes périurbaines belges
Dubois, Charline ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Cahiers de Géographie du Quebec (2011), 55(154), 51-65

Analysing spatial familiarity aims to measure how places included in the life-world and in the cognitive map are familiar. Based on the study of Gale, Golledge, Halperin & Couclelis (1990), this paper ... [more ▼]

Analysing spatial familiarity aims to measure how places included in the life-world and in the cognitive map are familiar. Based on the study of Gale, Golledge, Halperin & Couclelis (1990), this paper explores the spatial familiarity of the inhabitants of two municipalities at the fringe of Liege (Belgium): it questions the links between the cognitive dimensions (visual, nominal, localisation) and themselves and the behavioural dimension (passing). It seeks new relevant places for the population of these urban fringe as well as the favourable factors to a good familiarity of a place. Finally, it scrutinizes the influence of people's mobility – period of residence, commuting to work, modes of transport – on spatial familiarity. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of English Grain Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes in China
Xu, Zhao-Huan; Chen, Julian; Cheng, Deng-Fa et al

in Journal of Economic Entomology (2011), 104(3), 1080-1086

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See detailDes outils pour soutenir les apprenants en bachelier - Aide à la résolution de problèmes en physique. Aide à la maîtrise de la langue française.
Jacquet, Maud; Gourdange, Brigitte; Maes, Estelle et al

Report (2011)

Le rapport rend compte des actions mises en oeuvre pour soutenir les bacheliers dans leur apprentissage de la physique (en médecine) et du français (en logopédie). Ces actions sont supportées par des ... [more ▼]

Le rapport rend compte des actions mises en oeuvre pour soutenir les bacheliers dans leur apprentissage de la physique (en médecine) et du français (en logopédie). Ces actions sont supportées par des dispositifs d'apprentissage en ligne. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Activity of Meprin-a, a Pro-Migratory and Pro-Angiogenic Protease, in Colorectal Cancer
Lottaz, Daniel; Maurer, Christoph A; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(11), 26450

Meprin-α is a metalloprotease overexpressed in cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of this protease in a subset of colorectal tumors. The impact of increased meprin-α levels on tumor progression is ... [more ▼]

Meprin-α is a metalloprotease overexpressed in cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of this protease in a subset of colorectal tumors. The impact of increased meprin-α levels on tumor progression is not known. We investigated the effect of this protease on cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro and studied the expression of meprin-α mRNA, protein and proteolytic activity in primary tumors at progressive stages and in liver metastases of patients with colorectal cancer, as well as inhibitory activity towards meprin-α in sera of cancer patient as compared to healthy controls. We found that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)- induced migratory response of meprin-transfected epithelial cells was increased compared to wild-type cells in the presence of plasminogen, and that the angiogenic response in organ-cultured rat aortic explants was enhanced in the presence of exogenous human meprin-α. In patients, meprin-α mRNA was expressed in colonic adenomas, primary tumors UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I, II, III and IV, as well as in liver metastases. In contrast, the corresponding protein accumulated only in primary tumors and liver metastases, but not in adenomas. However, liver metastases lacked meprin-α activity despite increased expression of the corresponding protein, which correlated with inefficient zymogen activation. Sera from cancer patients exhibited reduced meprin-α inhibition compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, meprin-α activity is regulated differently in primary tumors and metastases, leading to high proteolytic activity in primary tumors and low activity in liver metastases. By virtue of its pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic activity, meprin-α may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections à herpèsvirus chez les ruminants et les éléphants
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Thiry, J.

in Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France (2011), 164

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See detailInterpretations of Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Tracks by Inuit Hunters: Inter-rater Reliability and Inferences Concerning Accuracy
Wong, Pamela; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter; Fekken, Cynthia et al

in Canadian Field-Naturalist (2011), 125(2), 140-153

due to their tracking experience in pursuing Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), Inuit hunters could provide non-invasive estimates of Polar Bear characteristics from tracks, and Polar Bear monitoring programs ... [more ▼]

due to their tracking experience in pursuing Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), Inuit hunters could provide non-invasive estimates of Polar Bear characteristics from tracks, and Polar Bear monitoring programs could benefit from Inuit input. We determined i) inter-rater reliability of estimates of the sex, age, and size of Polar Bears, and estimates of the age of tracks made by a group of nine Inuit hunters who interpreted 78 tracks; ii) we made preliminary comparisons of sex and size estimates with conventional (scientific) estimates; iii) we catalogued the Polar Bear hunting experience and track interpretation techniques of nine Inuit hunters; and iv) we explored relationships between hunting experience and the ability to interpret tracks. The group of Inuit hunters made reliable and consistent estimates of Polar Bear sex, age, and size, as well as estimates of age of track (after data from one participant was excluded). Although our comparisons are based on small samples, our findings suggest that Inuit hunters may be accurate in estimating the sex of Polar Bears (74.42% agreement with genetic determinations) and the size of Polar Bears from their tracks. our data indicate shared tracking techniques used by hunters may explain high agreement in making specific estimates, while individual hunting experience and particular methods used to interpret tracks may lead to inter-rater reliability and accuracy in interpreting tracks. [less ▲]

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See detail10 façons d’interpréter une neuropathie asymétrique
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2011)

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See detailFunctional analysis of hydrogen photoproduction in respiratory-deficient mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Lecler, Renaud ULg; Godaux, Damien ULg; Vigeolas, Hélène ULg et al

in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2011), 36

In this paper, mitochondrial mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii defective for respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), complex III (ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and both ... [more ▼]

In this paper, mitochondrial mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii defective for respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), complex III (ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and both complexes I and III were analyzed for H2 photoproduction. Several parameters were followed during the S-deficiency stage and the anaerobic stage leading to H2 photoproduction. At the early aerobic S-deficiency stage, starch and neutral lipids accumulated in all strains but their amount was significantly decreased in mutants compared to wild type. During the H2 photoproduction process, whereas starch content strongly decreased in all strains, neutral lipid amount remained nearly unchanged, suggesting that starch degraded by glycolysis is the preferential substrate for energy production during anaerobiosis. The mutants displayed a decrease in H2 photoproduction correlating to the number of active mitochondrial proton-pumping sites lost in the strains. Our results thus highlight the critical role of oxidative phosphorylation during the first (aerobic) stage of S-starvation when carbon resources are accumulated. [less ▲]

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See detailStable isotopes of captive Cetaceans (Killer Whales and Bottlenose dolphins)
Caut, Stéphane; Laran, Sophie; Garcia-Hartmann, Emmanuel et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2011), 214

There is currently a great deal of interest in using stable-isotope methods to investigate diet, trophic level and migration movement in wild cetaceans. Fundamental to the interpretation of these methods ... [more ▼]

There is currently a great deal of interest in using stable-isotope methods to investigate diet, trophic level and migration movement in wild cetaceans. Fundamental to the interpretation of these methods is the need to understand how diet isotopic values are reflected in consumer tissues. In this study, we investigated patterns of isotopic discrimination between diet and blood constituents of two species of cetaceans (killer whale, Orcinus orca and 19 bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncutus) fed with controlled diets during 350 days. Diet discrimination factors ( ) for plasma were estimated to 13C =2.3‰ and 1520 N =1.8‰ respectively for both species and to 13C =2.7‰ and 1521 N =0.5‰ for red blood cells (RBC). Delipidation had no significant effect on carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of blood constituents, confirming that cetacean blood no serving as reservoirs of lipids. In contrast, carbon isotopic values are higher in delipidated samples of blubber, liver and muscle of orca tissues. The mean half life for plasma was 32.9 days for killer whales and 27.2 days for bottlenose dolphin and for RBC was greater than 175 days. The potential for conflict between fisheries and cetaceans has heightened the need for trophic information about this taxa within those ecosystems. These results provide the first published stable isotope turnover rates and discrimination factors for cetaceans, which are essential if conclusions are to be drawn on issues concerning trophic structures, carbon sources and diet reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining intercropping with semiochemical releases: optimization of alternative control of Sitobion avenae 1 in wheat crops in China
Wang, Guang; Cui, Liang-Liang; Dong, Jie et al

in Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (2011)

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See detailRepresenting real numbers in a generalized numeration system
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Le Gonidec, Marion; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Journal of Computer & System Sciences (2011), 77

We show how to represent an interval of real numbers in an abstract numeration system built on a language that is not necessarily regular. As an application, we consider representations of real numbers ... [more ▼]

We show how to represent an interval of real numbers in an abstract numeration system built on a language that is not necessarily regular. As an application, we consider representations of real numbers using the Dyck language. We also show that our framework can be applied to the rational base numeration systems. [less ▲]

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See detailFossil bees and their plant associates
Michez, D.; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULg; Engel, M. S.

in Evolution of plant–pollinator relationships (2011)

The bees comprise a derived monophyletic group (Anthophila) of pollen-consuming (secondarily phytophagous) wasps of the superfamily Apoidea, and that diverged from a grade of predatory apoid wasps ... [more ▼]

The bees comprise a derived monophyletic group (Anthophila) of pollen-consuming (secondarily phytophagous) wasps of the superfamily Apoidea, and that diverged from a grade of predatory apoid wasps (formerly “Sphecidae”) sometime in the mid Cretaceous (∼120–125 megaannum) (Michener 1944, 1979, 2007; Brothers 1975, 1998; Alexander 1992; Ronquist 1999; Engel 2001a, 2011; Danforth et al. 2006). Seven contemporary families are usually acknowledged: Andrenidae, Apidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, Melittidae, Megachilidae and Stenotritidae, including ∼1200 genera and ∼20 000 species (Michener 2007; Engel 2005, 2011). Two fossil families are also described: Paleomelittidae from middle Eocene Baltic amber, and a stem-group, Melittosphecidae from Cretaceous Burmese amber which, as discussed below, may or may not be a bee (Engel 2001a; Poinar and Danforth 2006; Ohl and Engel 2007). Bees likely arose concomitantly with the diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) (Michener 1979; Grimaldi 1999; Engel 1996, 2001a; Crepet et al. 2004; Grimaldi and Engel 2005). Represented by more than 250 000 described species, angiosperms are the most diversified group of vascular plants, covering nearly all terrestrial and many aquatic habitats (Soltis and Soltis 2004). The congruent rise of flowering plants and numerous phytophagous insect lineages, such as bees, ditrysian Lepidoptera, and various flowering-visiting beetles and flies, has fuelled the notion of coradiation between these lineages. Such a conclusion is supported by the observation of flowers with specific combinations of traits that are correlated with particular pollinators (Bronstein et al. 2006). Selection for insect-pollinated clades is also supported by the fact that deliverance by pollinators of unconsumed pollen to the host plant's female reproductive organs is clearly less stochastic and more efficient than alternative ancestral wind, water or gravity dispersive methods (Labandeira 1998). Lastly, association with pollinators increases opportunities for the evolution of specialization and subsequent diversification (Vamosi and Vamosi 2010). © The Systematics Association 2012. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of z-MMP-2 in Zebrafish lymphangiogenesis
Paupert, Jenny ULg; Pendeville, Hélène; Detry, Benoît ULg et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailpi N transition distribution amplitudes: Their symmetries and constraints from chiral dynamics
Pire, Bernard; Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg; Szymanowski, Lech

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2011), 84

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See detailMicropapules paroxysmales prurigineuses tronculaires.
CAUCANAS, Marie ULg; PIERARD, Gérald ULg; FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg et al

in Dermatologie Actualité (2011), 127

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