References of "2011"
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See detailImpact of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet interactions on climate sensitivity
Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Loutre, M.-F. et al

in Climate Dynamics (2011), 37(5-6), 1005-1018

We use the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to show the effect of coupling interactive ice sheets on the climate sensitivity of the model on a millennial time scale. We compare the ... [more ▼]

We use the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to show the effect of coupling interactive ice sheets on the climate sensitivity of the model on a millennial time scale. We compare the response to a 2xCO2 warming scenario between fully coupled model versions including interactive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet models and model versions with fixed ice sheets. For this purpose an ensemble of different parameter sets have been defined for LOVECLIM, covering a wide range of the model's sensitivity to greenhouse warming, while still simulating the present-day climate and the climate evolution over the last millennium within observational uncertainties. Additional freshwater fluxes from the melting ice sheets have a mitigating effect on the model's temperature response, leading to generally lower climate sensitivities of the fully coupled model versions. The mitigation is effectuated by changes in heat exchange within the ocean and at the sea-air interface, driven by freshening of the surface ocean and amplified by sea-ice-related feedbacks. The strength of the effect depends on the response of the ice sheets to the warming and on the model's climate sensitivity itself. With the ensemble approach in this study we cover a wide range of possible model responses. [less ▲]

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See detailRobert CRYER, Tamara HERVEY, Bal SOKHI-BULLEY et Alexandra BOHM, Research Methodologies in EU and International Law, Oxford, Hart, 2011, 143 p.
Defossez, Alexandre ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2011), 47(4),

Cet ouvrage propose, principalement à l’attention des jeunes doctorants mais son thème intéressera tout auteur de doctrine, une synthèse des différentes méthodologies de la recherche (heuristique) et de ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage propose, principalement à l’attention des jeunes doctorants mais son thème intéressera tout auteur de doctrine, une synthèse des différentes méthodologies de la recherche (heuristique) et de la critique (herméneutique) juridique dans le domaine du droit européen et du droit international. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-9 splice variants in endothelial cells: identification of novel variants and functional characterization
Heusschen, Roy ULg; De Bree, Martijn; Griffioen, Arjan et al

in Angiogenesis (2011)

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See detailClosure to "Energy Dissipation and Turbulent Production in Weak Hydraulic Jumps" by E. Mignot and R. Cienfuegos
Mignot, E.; Peltier, Yann ULg; Cienfuegos, R.

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2011), 137(8), 862-863

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See detailMaxwell rigidity and topological constraints in amorphous phase-change networks
Micoulaut, M.; Otjacques, C.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2011), 1393

By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that ... [more ▼]

By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity. [less ▲]

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See detailA partial hybrid stress solid-shell element for the analysis of laminated composites
Rah, Kamran; Van Paepegem, Wim; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineerinrg (2011), 200(49-52), 35263539

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has ... [more ▼]

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has eight nodes with only displacement degrees of freedoms, and three-dimensional constitutive models can be directly employed in the present formulation without any additional treatment. The assumed interlaminar stress field provides very accurate interlaminar stress calculation through the element thickness. These elements can be stacked on top of each other to model multilayer structures, fulfilling the interlaminar stress continuity at the interlayer surfaces and zero traction conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the laminate. The present solid-shell does not show the transverse shear, trapezoidal and thickness locking phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de V. DUJARDIN et M. DUMOULIN: Jean-Charles Snoy. Homme dans la Cité, artisan de l’Europe, 1907-1991
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2011), XXXIII(4), 34-37

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See detailIs there really an Azores diversity enigma? Insights from the phylogeography of the heather Erica scoparia s.l.
Desamore, Aurélie ULg

Poster (2011)

The Azorean flora, in contrast to that of other archipelagos, is characterized by a paucity of evolutionary radiations and the widespread distribution of most endemics. Several hypotheses, including ... [more ▼]

The Azorean flora, in contrast to that of other archipelagos, is characterized by a paucity of evolutionary radiations and the widespread distribution of most endemics. Several hypotheses, including isolation from the continent, recent age, ecological homogeneity, and limited paleoclimatic variations, have been proposed to account for this pattern. These hypotheses are tested here within the context of the molecular phylogeography of the heather Erica scoparia s.l., a Mediterraneo-Atlantic species complex distributed across Macaronesia, North Africa and southwestern Europe. The marked molecular radiation of this species in the Azores, including an array of single-island endemics, suggests that the apparent homogeneity of the Azorean flora might, in fact, conceal undetected patterns of endemism that are similar to those observed in the Canarian flora for morphological data. Haplotype richness was higher in the Azores than in the Canaries and extensive dispersal mediated allopatry is apparent at the molecular level. The Azores were colonized at least twice independently by E. scoparia, whereas the Canarian haplotypes are monophyletic, suggesting that the greater distance between the Azores and the continent does not necessarily hamper the chances of successful colonization. [less ▲]

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See detailCoping with Minority Status: Responses to Exclusion and Inclusion
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Contemporary Sociology: a Journal of Reviews (2011), 40(2), 158-159

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See detailNotched Specimens Fracture Prediction with an Advanced GTN Model
Fansi Tchonko, Joseph ULg; Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed ULg; Balan, Tudor et al

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2011), 488-489

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See detailLa tradizione fiorentina della Supplicatione d’Italia al re di Francia. Con una nuova edizione critica
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Filologia e Critica (2011), XXXV(2), 1-33

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See detailLe Michelsberg de Pont-de-Bonne (province de Liège, Belgique)
Delye, Emmanuel ULg; Gilson, Simon-Pierre; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Revue Archéologique de Picardie (2011)

Since the beginning of research on the éperon barré of Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgium), we have recovered artefacts attributed to the Middle Neolithic. More recently, during excavation of the entrance ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of research on the éperon barré of Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgium), we have recovered artefacts attributed to the Middle Neolithic. More recently, during excavation of the entrance system of the fortification, a pot hole and a waste accumulation zone have been analysed. These structures contained abundant archaeological material (ceramic sherd, lithic and bone artefact and fauna). Three radiometric dates have been obtained. The ceramic assemblage is typical of the Belgian Michelsberg and a decorated vase shows Bischheim affinities. [less ▲]

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See detailK-type geomagnetic index nowcast with data quality control
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Warnant, René ULg

in Annals of Geophysics = Annali di Geofisica (2011), 54(3), 285-295

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See detailCarbon and nitrogen flows during a bloom of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi: Modelling a mesocosm experiment
Joassin, Pascal ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Soetaert, Karline et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2011), 85

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during experimental blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi induced inmesocosms over a period of 23 ... [more ▼]

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during experimental blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi induced inmesocosms over a period of 23 days. The model describes carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling through E. huxleyi and the microbial loop, and computes pH and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The main innovations are: 1) the representation of E. huxleyi dynamics using an unbalanced growthmodel in carbon and nitrogen, 2) the gathering of formulations describing typical processes involved in the export of carbon such as primary production, calcification, cellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion, transparent exopolymer (TEP) formation and viral lyses, and 3) an original and validated representation of the calcification process as a function of the net primary production with a modulation by the intra-cellular N:C ratio mimicking the effect of nutrients limitation on the onset of calcification. It is shown that this new mathematical formulation of calcification provides a better representation of the dynamics of TA, DIC and calcification rates derived from experimental data compared to classicaly used formulations (e.g. function of biomass or of net primary production without anymodulation term). In a first step, the model has been applied to the simulations of present pCO2 conditions. It adequately reproduces the observations for chemical and biological variables and provides an overall view of carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Carbon and nitrogen budgets are derived from the model for the different phases of the bloom, highlighting three distinct phases, reflecting the evolution of the cellular C:N ratio and the interaction between hosts and viruses. During the first phase, inorganic nutrients are massively consumed by E. huxleyi increasing its biomass. Uptakes of carbon and nitrogen are maintained at a constant ratio. The second phase is triggered by the exhaustion of phosphate (PO4 3−). Uptake of carbon and nitrogen being uncoupled, the cellular C:N ratio of E. huxleyi increases. This stimulates the active release of DOC, acting as precursors for TEP. The third phase is characterised by an enhancement of the phytoplankton mortality due to viral lysis. A huge amount of DOC has been accumulated in the mesocosm. [less ▲]

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See detailDe buitenlandse betrekkingen van Vlaanderen, de Franse Gemeenschap, het Waals Gewest en het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest
Lanneau, Catherine ULg; Criekemans, David

in Van den Wijngaert, Mark (Ed.) Van een unitair naar een federaal België. 40 jaar beleidsvorming in Gemeenschappen en Gewesten (1971-2011) (2011)

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See detailA new Barremian (Early Cretaceous) ichthyosaur from western Russia
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Masure, Edwige; Arkhangelsky, Maxim et al

in Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (2011), 31(5), 1010-1025

A new ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur, Sveltonectes insolitus gen. et sp. nov., is described from a sub-complete and three-dimensionally preserved specimen from the late Barremian of western Russia. This new ... [more ▼]

A new ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur, Sveltonectes insolitus gen. et sp. nov., is described from a sub-complete and three-dimensionally preserved specimen from the late Barremian of western Russia. This new taxon is supported by 11 cranial, dental, and postcranial autapomorphies, and is also characterized by features previously considered as autapomorphic for some other Ophthalmosauridae, such as a processus narialis on the prefrontal and relatively long hindfins with pre- and postaxial accessory digits. We conducted a new phylogenetic analysis of Thunnosauria, which supports a ‘Stenopterygius-origin’ for Ophthalmosauridae. Sveltonectes is regarded as the sister taxon of Aegirosaurus, which shares a similar skull roof construction. Contrary to most other Cretaceous ichthyosaurs, Sveltonectes is characterized by delicate and sharply pointed teeth, confirming that the Ophthalmosauridae were ecologically highly diversified during the Early Cretaceous [less ▲]

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See detailBrain functional integration decreases during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Perlbarg, Vincent; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 57(1), 198-205

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol ... [more ▼]

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol anesthesia is associated with a significant reduction in the capacity of the brain to integrate information. To assess the functional structure of the whole brain, functional integration and partial correlations were computed from fMRI data acquired from 18 healthy volunteers during resting wakefulness and propofol-induced deep sedation. Total integration was significantly reduced from wakefulness to deep sedation in the whole brain as well as within and between its constituent networks (or systems). Integration was systematically reduced within each system (i.e., brain or networks), as well as between networks. However, the ventral attentional network maintained interactions with most other networks during deep sedation. Partial correlations further suggested that functional connectivity was particularly affected between parietal areas and frontal or temporal regions during deep sedation. Our findings suggest that the breakdown in brain integration is the neural correlate of the loss of consciousness induced by propofol. They stress the important role played by parietal and frontal areas in the generation of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of a ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-UV method for the detection and quantification of erectile dysfunction drugs and some of their analogues found in counterfeit medicines
Sacré, Pierre-Yves ULg; Deconinck, Eric; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2011), 1218

Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a permanently growing problem. Control laboratories are constantly analysing counterfeit medicines. In industrialised countries, one of the main counterfeited class of ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a permanently growing problem. Control laboratories are constantly analysing counterfeit medicines. In industrialised countries, one of the main counterfeited class of medicines are erectile dysfunction drugs. This paper describes the development and validation of a fast method to detect and quantify the three authorised phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and five analogues. The method is based on the use of a sub-2 microns polar-embedded column with a gradient using acetonitrile as organic modifier and 10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) as aqueous component of the mobile phase. The separation was achieved in less than 4.5 min. The method has also been compared to the registered HPLC method for the assay of Viagra® which was considered as the reference method. The method is also compatible with on-line coupling mass spectrometry and will significantly reduce analysis times and solvent consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the response of GFP microbial biosensors sensitive to substrate limitation in scale-down bioreactors
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Gorret, Nathalie et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2011), 55(2), 131-139

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used as biosensors of the heterogeneities generated in a two-compartment scale-down reactor. The stress promoters have been chosen for their responsiveness to carbon limitation corresponding to the global substrate profiles encountered in intensive fed-batch cultures. From our results, it can be concluded that the exposure of microbial cells to substrates heterogeneities tends to decrease the GFP expression level in fed-batch mode. Fluorescence intensities have been monitored at the single cell level by using flow cytometry. During the course of the fed-batch culture, a drop at the level of the intracellular GFP content has been observed for the two scale-down operating conditions and for the two promoters sensitive to substrate limitation (rpoS and csiE). The fluorescence drop can be attributed to the repression of these promoters but also to the release of GFP to the extracellular medium according to the increase of the fluorescence level of the supernatant. This leakage has been observed for all the operating conditions, i.e. the scale-down reactors and the culture operating in the normal mode, i.e. in a well-mixed bioreactor. Interestingly, GFP leakage is more pronounced in the case of the cultures operated in the normal mode. Indeed, staining by propidium iodide tends to be more elevated for the microbial cells cultured under the normal mode by comparison with those cultured in scale-down conditions, indicating a higher permeability of the membrane. These results suggest that GFP microbial biosensors could be used to detect simultaneously mixing imperfections and their impact on the viability of microorganisms. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite Element Computational Homogenization of Nonlinear Multiscale Materials in Magnetostatics
Niyonzima, Innocent ULg; V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Dular, Patrick ULg et al

in 18th Conference on the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields (COMPUMAG2011) (2011)

This paper deals with the modelling of nonlinear multiscale materials in magnetostatics by means of a finite element computational homogenization method. The method couples a macroscale problem with many ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the modelling of nonlinear multiscale materials in magnetostatics by means of a finite element computational homogenization method. The method couples a macroscale problem with many microscale problems. During the upscaling step, the homogenized magnetic permeability and its derivative with respect to the magnetic field are calculated from the microscale solution and transferred to the macroscale. The downscaling step consists in imposing proper boundary conditions for the microscale problems from the macroscale solution. Results are validated by comparison with those obtained with classical finite element brute force approach. [less ▲]

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