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See detailDuden - Deutsches Universalwörterbuch
Auberle, Anette; Eickhoff, Birgit; Haller-Wolf, Angelika et al

Book published by Dudenverlag - 7ème éd. (2011)

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See detailEffects of dietary protein content and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid or DL-methionine supplementation on performance and oxidative status of broiler chickens.
Swennen, Quirine; Geraert, Pierre-Andre; Mercier, Yves et al

in The British journal of nutrition (2011), 106(12), 1845-54

Besides its typical role as an amino acid in protein synthesis, methionine is an important intermediate in methylation reactions. In addition, it can also be converted to cysteine and hence plays a role ... [more ▼]

Besides its typical role as an amino acid in protein synthesis, methionine is an important intermediate in methylation reactions. In addition, it can also be converted to cysteine and hence plays a role in the defence against oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to investigate further the role of DL-methionine (DLM) and its hydroxy analogue, DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (DL-HMTBA), on zootechnical performance and oxidative status of broiler chickens. Male broiler chickens were reared on two diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (low-protein, 18.3 % v. high-protein, 23.2 % CP) and were supplemented either with 0.25 % DLM or 0.25 % DL-HMTBA. Reducing the dietary protein content resulted in an impaired body weight gain (P < 0.0001). However, supplementation of DL-HMTBA to the low-protein diet partially alleviated these negative effects (P = 0.0003). This latter phenomenon could be explained by the fact that chickens fed DL-HMTBA-supplemented diets displayed a better antioxidant status as reflected in lower lipid peroxidation probably as a consequence of their higher hepatic concentrations of total and reduced glutathione compared with their DLM counterparts. On the other hand, within the high protein levels, uric acid might be an important antioxidant to explain the lower lipid peroxidation of high-protein DL-HMTBA-supplemented chickens. Hepatic methionine sulfoxide reductase-A gene expression was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the present study indicates that there are interactions between dietary protein content and supplementation of methionine analogues with respect to broiler performance and antioxidant status, also suggesting a causal link between these traits. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of skin barrier repair following preconditioning by a biotechnology-driven extract from samphire (Crithmum maritimum) stem cells.
CAUCANAS, Marie ULg; Montastier, Christiane; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2011), 10(4), 288-93

Background With aging, the barrier repair kinetics following any weakening of the epidermal permeability barrier function is commonly slowed down. Objective To assess the recovery rate of the epidermal ... [more ▼]

Background With aging, the barrier repair kinetics following any weakening of the epidermal permeability barrier function is commonly slowed down. Objective To assess the recovery rate of the epidermal permeability barrier function following controlled stripping and applications of samphire and control formulations. Method In 12 healthy subjects older than 50 years, controlled stratum corneum (SC) strippings were used to increase the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) just above 15 g/m(2) /h. This procedure followed a 14-day skin preconditioning by daily applications of formulations enriched or not with a samphire (Crithmum maritimum) biomass. An untreated skin site served as control. The epidermal permeability repair kinetics was assessed for 14 days by daily measurements of both TEWL and the colorimetric value a*. Results A rapid (96 h) recovery to lower TEWL values was obtained at each of the samphire-preconditioned sites (0.1% serum, 0.05% cream, the serum-cream association, and 0.5% silicone oil). This process was significantly (P < 0.001) faster than that on both the placebo-preconditioned (silicone oil) and the untreated sites. No adverse inflammatory and sensory reactions were recorded. At the sites preconditioned by samphire formulations, the SC moisture (capacitance) was higher at completion of the study compared to inclusion. Conclusions The present experimental pilot study brings some clues supporting a beneficial boosting effect of samphire cell biomass on the kinetics of epidermal permeability barrier repair. [less ▲]

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See detailNote synthétique sur l'évaluation et le calcul de la vulnérabilité des ménages au Niger : février 2011
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions ... [more ▼]

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions nationales et internationales présentes au Niger d’élaborer leurs stratégies, de cibler les populations ou zones bénéficiaires de leurs interventions ainsi que de prévenir et gérer les crises alimentaires. Cependant, les nombreuses crises alimentaires chroniques du Niger (1996-1997, 2001, 2004-2005, 2009-2010) suscitent néanmoins un certain questionnement quant à l’efficacité et l’efficience de cette évaluation. Cette note décrira certaines méthodologies d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité alimentaire les plus usitées au Niger. Au total, trois méthodologies ont été caractérisées, celle de la Cellule de Coordination du Système d’Alerte Précoce (CC/SAP), de certains Partenaires Techniques et Financiers (Save The Children, Action Contre la Faim, …) et du CC/SAP et de l’Institut National de la Statistique du Niger (INS-Niger). Cette description permettra de mieux cerner les spécificités de chacune d’elles et d’élaborer certaines remarques et recommandations. Ce document introduira, tout d’abord, le concept de vulnérabilité repris dans la littérature. Ensuite, il décrira les différentes méthodologies de calcul et d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité utilisées au Niger. Enfin, ces méthodologies seront analysées et critiquées en vue de présenter des propositions d’améliorations. Il en ressort que le niveau d’analyse de la vulnérabilité doit être affiné d’un point de vue départemental et communal. Il est essentiel de réaliser une distinction entre les ménages urbains et ruraux étant donné la diversité des stratégies opérées par ces ménages. L’évaluation de la vulnérabilité des ménages pastoraux et/ou transhumants devrait être repensée pour améliorer la prise en compte de ceux-ci. La recommandation principale de cette note est d’augmenter le nombre de ménages de l’échantillon d’analyse dans le but de mieux caractériser la vulnérabilité des ménages urbains, ruraux, pastoraux et de produire des indices de vulnérabilité par commune. [less ▲]

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See detailClimat, race, caractère national et langage chez James Dunbar (1780). Un cas journalistique de transmission des "Lumières écossaises tardives".
Droixhe, Daniel ULg; Collart, Muriel

in Lumières (2011), 17(2e semestre), 77-99

What is Dunbar's position towards Dubos', Montesquieu's and Ferguson's climatology and environmental influence on race? To which extent did he suscribe to Helvetius's and Hume's skeptical considerations ... [more ▼]

What is Dunbar's position towards Dubos', Montesquieu's and Ferguson's climatology and environmental influence on race? To which extent did he suscribe to Helvetius's and Hume's skeptical considerations about this determination? We link this opposition to the one, established by Z. Sternhell, between a mere "Enlightement" associating Locke and Kant and a pre-romantic anti-Enlightenment illustrated by Burke or Herder. We consider the reception of Dunbar's Essays in the French, British and German scientific press. [less ▲]

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See detailProblèmes du bilinguisme dans l'Antiquité gréco-romaine
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Genet, Jean-Philippe (Ed.) Langues et histoire. Actes du colloque de l'Ecole doctorale d'histoire de Paris 1 INHA, 20 et 21 octobre 2006 (2011)

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See detailDiscovering the lichen diversity of a remote tropical island: working list of species collected on Reunion (Mascarene archipelago, Indian Ocean)
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; van den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, Maarten et al

in Herzogia (2011), 24(2), 325-349

463 lichen taxa are reported from the island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago) in the Indian Ocean. This report is based on extensive collections recently made by the authors or hosted in B and LG. A ... [more ▼]

463 lichen taxa are reported from the island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago) in the Indian Ocean. This report is based on extensive collections recently made by the authors or hosted in B and LG. A total of c. 600 species is estimated for the number of lichenized fungi present on the island; although this is a low figure for a varied tropi- cal area, this is plausible due to its small size and remoteness. The significance of the lichen diversity of the island lays in its endemics, which need further study for a reliable assessment, and in the occurrence of a poorly known southern hemisphere element (“austral” species). The discovery of the following in Reunion is of special interest as it considerably enlarges their distribution range: Anzia corallophora, Caloplaca caesiosorediata, Coccocarpia delicatula, Fuscopannaria praetermissa, Gomphillus morchelloides, G. pedersenii, Gyalideopsis bispora, Heterodermia koyana, Hypotrachyna evansii, Lithogyalideopsis zeylandica, Lobaria asperula, Megaloblastenia marginiflexa var. dimota, Menegazzia capitata, Myeloconis erumpens and Pannaria squamulosa. [less ▲]

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See detailResonance-assisted tunneling in mixed regular-chaotic systems
Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Mouchet, Amaury; Ullmo, Denis

in Keshavamurthy, Srihari; Schlagheck, Peter (Eds.) Dynamical Tunneling - Theory and Experiment (2011)

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See detailPost-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador
Proano-Perez, F.; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2011), 101(1-2), 65-72

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See detail2D-Vertical Model for Free Surface Incompressible Flows: Validation and Applications
Detrembleur, Sylvain; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg

in Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress - Balance and Uncertainty (2011)

Efficient design of hydraulic structures such as weirs and bottom outlets requires a detailed description of the complex turbulent flows occurring on these structures. Compared to laboratory experiments ... [more ▼]

Efficient design of hydraulic structures such as weirs and bottom outlets requires a detailed description of the complex turbulent flows occurring on these structures. Compared to laboratory experiments, numerical modeling offers more flexibility and cost-effectiveness to test different designs. The non-hydrostatic 2D-vertical model presented here solves the RANS equations for incompressible flows in the vertical plane. It is based on the projection method for pressure-velocity coupling, while free surface tracking is conducted by means of the level set technique and Sussman’s velocity extension algorithm. It enables to predict accurately the flow pattern in the vertical plane and deals with multiple interfaces (jets, drops…). The solver has been validated for both steady and unsteady free surface flows, based on theoretical and experimental data. The paper will detail the application of the model to a pressurized flow and to a sloshing tank. [less ▲]

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See detail“Josephine Baker: articulation et altérité transatlantiques.”
Bada, Valérie ULg

in de Buron-Brun, Bénédicte (Ed.) Altérité, identité, interculturalité. Perceptions et représentations de l’étranger en Europe et dans l’Arc Atlantique (2011)

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See detailSpectroscopic data for atomic tungsten transitions of interest in fusion plasma research
Quinet, Pascal ULg; Palmeri, P; Biémont, Emile ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2011), 44

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See detailBifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn: ionospheric signatures of consecutive reconnection events at the magnetopause
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

This work reports for the first time on bifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn observed with the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini. The observation sequence starts with an intensification on the ... [more ▼]

This work reports for the first time on bifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn observed with the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini. The observation sequence starts with an intensification on the main oval, close to noon, which is possibly associated with dayside reconnection. Consecutive bifurcations appear with the onset of dayside reconnection, between 11 and 18 magnetic local time, while the area poleward of the main emission expands to lower latitudes. The bifurcations depart with time from the main ring of emission, which is related to the open-closed field line boundary. The augmentation of the area poleward of the main emission following its expansion is balanced by the area occupied by the bifurcations, suggesting that these auroral features represent the amount of newly open flux and could be related to consecutive reconnection events at the flank of the magnetopause. The observations show that the open flux along the sequence increases when bifurcations appear. Magnetopause reconnection can lead to significant augmentation of the open flux within a couple of days and each reconnection event opens ∼10% of the flux contained within the polar cap. Additionally, the observations imply an overall length of the reconnection line of ∼4 hours of local time and suggest that dayside reconnection at Saturn can occur at several positions on the magnetopause consecutively or simultaneously. [less ▲]

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See detailDensity functional theory beyond the linear regime: Validating an adiabatic local density approximation
Helbig, N.; Fuks, J. I.; Casula, M. et al

in Physical Review. A (2011), 83

We present a local density approximation (LDA) for one-dimensional (1D) systems interacting via the soft-Coulomb interaction based on quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results for the ground-state ... [more ▼]

We present a local density approximation (LDA) for one-dimensional (1D) systems interacting via the soft-Coulomb interaction based on quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results for the ground-state energies and ionization potentials of finite 1D systems show excellent agreement with exact calculations obtained by exploiting the mapping of an N-electron system in d dimensions onto a single electron in N×d dimensions, properly symmetrized by the Young diagrams. We conclude that 1D LDA is of the same quality as its three-dimensional (3D) counterpart, and we infer conclusions about 3D LDA. The linear and nonlinear time-dependent responses of 1D model systems using LDA, exact exchange, and the exact solution are investigated and show very good agreement in both cases, except for the well-known problem of missing double excitations. Consequently, the 3D LDA is expected to be of good quality beyond the linear response. In addition, the 1D LDA should prove useful in modeling the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields, where this specific 1D model is often used. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives on genome-wide multi-stage family-based association studies.
Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Statistics in Medicine (2011), 30(18), 2201-2221

With the establishment of large consortiums of researchers, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have become increasingly popular and feasible. Although most of these association studies focus on ... [more ▼]

With the establishment of large consortiums of researchers, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have become increasingly popular and feasible. Although most of these association studies focus on unrelated individuals, a lot of advantages can be exploited by including families in the analysis as well. To overcome the additional genotyping cost, multi-stage designs are particularly useful. In this article, I offer a perspective view on genome-wide family-based association analyses, both within a model-based and model-free paradigm. I highlight how multi-stage designs and analysis techniques, which are quite popular in clinical epidemiology, can enter GWA settings. I furthermore discuss how they have proven successful in reducing analysis complexity, and in overcoming one of the most cumbersome statistical hurdles in the genome-wide context, namely controlling increased false positives due to multiple testing. [less ▲]

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See detailChloroplastic and mitochondrial metal homeostasis.
Nouet, Cécile ULg; Motte, Patrick ULg; Hanikenne, Marc ULg

in Trends in Plant Science (2011), 16(7), 395-404

Transition metal deficiency has a strong impact on the growth and survival of an organism. Indeed, transition metals, such as iron, copper, manganese and zinc, constitute essential cofactors for many key ... [more ▼]

Transition metal deficiency has a strong impact on the growth and survival of an organism. Indeed, transition metals, such as iron, copper, manganese and zinc, constitute essential cofactors for many key cellular functions. Both photosynthesis and respiration rely on metal cofactor-mediated electron transport chains. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are, therefore, organelles with high metal ion demand and represent essential components of the metal homeostasis network in photosynthetic cells. In this review, we describe the metal requirements of chloroplasts and mitochondria, the acclimation of their functions to metal deficiency and recent advances in our understanding of their contributions to cellular metal homeostasis, the control of the cellular redox status and the synthesis of metal cofactors. [less ▲]

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