References of "2011"
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See detailSynthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of alkali metals doped tin dioxide
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaib, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Structure (2011), 1004(1-3), 222-226

In order to improve the photocatalytic properties of tin dioxide, crystallized powders of SnO(2) photocatalysts doped by alkali metals (Li, Na and K) were synthesized by sol-gel process. The physical ... [more ▼]

In order to improve the photocatalytic properties of tin dioxide, crystallized powders of SnO(2) photocatalysts doped by alkali metals (Li, Na and K) were synthesized by sol-gel process. The physical properties of these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Scanning electron microscopy and Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The photocatalytic tests under UV radiation conducted on four aromatic compounds (phenol, paranitrophenol, pentachlorophenol and benzoic acid) showed that tin dioxide modified by sodium possesses good photocatalytic activity; The Li-doped SnO(2) is moderately active, while modification by potassium does not improve this activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Herschel view of nebulae around evolved massive stars
Vamvatira-Nakou, Chloi ULg; Royer, P.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

Conference (2011)

The detailed study of the nebulae ejected from Luminous Blue Variables and the circumstellar bubbles around Wolf-Rayet stars, which radiate strongly in the IR due to the heating of dust, is crucial for ... [more ▼]

The detailed study of the nebulae ejected from Luminous Blue Variables and the circumstellar bubbles around Wolf-Rayet stars, which radiate strongly in the IR due to the heating of dust, is crucial for understanding the massive stars evolution. With Herschel, the largest telescope ever flown in space, we are able to study the gas and the dust in these circumstellar environments in the full far-infrared waveband. In the context of 'Mass-loss of Evolved StarS' Herschel guaranteed time key programme, we have obtained imaging and spectroscopic observations of nebulae associated with Luminous Blue Variable and Wolf-Rayet stars using PACS, one of the three instruments onboard Herschel. A description of these observations and first results of the data analysis are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailClosure to "Energy Dissipation and Turbulent Production in Weak Hydraulic Jumps" by E. Mignot and R. Cienfuegos
Mignot, E.; Peltier, Yann ULg; Cienfuegos, R.

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2011), 137(8), 862-863

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See detailSurvol des keratodermies palmo-plantaires acquises.
Devillers, C; FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; Lesuisse, M et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2011), 66(10), 535-9

Palmoplantar keratodermas affect a vast group of the population. Their origin is genetic or acquired. They represent manifestations of several distinct diseases. The precise semiologic examination is ... [more ▼]

Palmoplantar keratodermas affect a vast group of the population. Their origin is genetic or acquired. They represent manifestations of several distinct diseases. The precise semiologic examination is important for elucidating the differential diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailA partial hybrid stress solid-shell element for the analysis of laminated composites
Rah, Kamran; Van Paepegem, Wim; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineerinrg (2011), 200(49-52), 35263539

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has ... [more ▼]

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has eight nodes with only displacement degrees of freedoms, and three-dimensional constitutive models can be directly employed in the present formulation without any additional treatment. The assumed interlaminar stress field provides very accurate interlaminar stress calculation through the element thickness. These elements can be stacked on top of each other to model multilayer structures, fulfilling the interlaminar stress continuity at the interlayer surfaces and zero traction conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the laminate. The present solid-shell does not show the transverse shear, trapezoidal and thickness locking phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 5 years with denosumab : two-year results from the FREEDOM trial extension
Chapurlat, R.; Bone, H. G.; Brandi M L et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2011), 70(S3), 166-167

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See detailCompte rendu de Alain SEGUY-DUCLOT, "Dialogue sur le Théétète"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2011), (1), 168-170

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See detailSource parameters of the 2008 Bukavu-Cyangugu earthquake estimated from InSAR and teleseismic data
d'Oreye, Nicolas; Gonzalez, P.; Shuler, A. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2011)

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See detailCoping with Minority Status: Responses to Exclusion and Inclusion
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Contemporary Sociology: a Journal of Reviews (2011), 40(2), 158-159

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See detailNotched Specimens Fracture Prediction with an Advanced GTN Model
Fansi Tchonko, Joseph ULg; Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed ULg; Balan, Tudor et al

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2011), 488-489

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See detailLa tradizione fiorentina della Supplicatione d’Italia al re di Francia. Con una nuova edizione critica
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Filologia e Critica (2011), XXXV(2), 1-33

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See detailLe Michelsberg de Pont-de-Bonne (province de Liège, Belgique)
Delye, Emmanuel ULg; Gilson, Simon-Pierre; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Revue Archéologique de Picardie (2011)

Since the beginning of research on the éperon barré of Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgium), we have recovered artefacts attributed to the Middle Neolithic. More recently, during excavation of the entrance ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of research on the éperon barré of Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgium), we have recovered artefacts attributed to the Middle Neolithic. More recently, during excavation of the entrance system of the fortification, a pot hole and a waste accumulation zone have been analysed. These structures contained abundant archaeological material (ceramic sherd, lithic and bone artefact and fauna). Three radiometric dates have been obtained. The ceramic assemblage is typical of the Belgian Michelsberg and a decorated vase shows Bischheim affinities. [less ▲]

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See detailSTRATEGY FOR ASSESSING IMPACTS OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN TELEOSTEANS
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Klaren, Peter; Celis, Niko et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2011)

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See detailIndependent single photon emitters – a versatile source for the generation
von Zanthier, J.; Maser, A.; Wiegner, R. et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailLe secteur privé à la rescousse de la faune sauvage en Afrique de l’Ouest. Evaluation écologique et économique de la Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri au Burkina Faso
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lungren, Clark; Moumouni, Dermé

in Parcs & Réserves (2011), 66(4), 12-22

Le Burkina Faso, s’est engagé depuis plusieurs années dans le domaine de la conservation de la Nature, mais souffre du manque de moyens nécessaires pour entretenir et développer son potentiel faunique. En ... [more ▼]

Le Burkina Faso, s’est engagé depuis plusieurs années dans le domaine de la conservation de la Nature, mais souffre du manque de moyens nécessaires pour entretenir et développer son potentiel faunique. En 1996, le Burkina Faso s’est engagé dans une réforme inédite dans ce pays visant à ouvrir la gestion de la faune au secteur privé. Cet article présente à travers l’exemple de la Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri comment le concessionnaire a pu, en mettant en œuvre un certain nombre d’aménagements et certaines activités de gestion de terrain, redynamiser la faune qui s’est multipliée par 3 en 12 ans et comment l’activité de grande chasse a pu créer une dynamique économique favorable à l’Etat, aux communautés locales et aux prestataires de services locaux et étrangers. L’analyse économique compare également les résultats économiques de la ZCK à d’autres zones de chasse d’Afrique Centrale et de l’Ouest. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of thresholding techniques on X-ray soil microtomogram analyses
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg; Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011), 13

Using X-ray microtomography, 3D soil structure can be visualised and analysed through useful factors like pore size distribution, shape, connectivity, orientation, etc. X-ray scans yield grey-level 2D ... [more ▼]

Using X-ray microtomography, 3D soil structure can be visualised and analysed through useful factors like pore size distribution, shape, connectivity, orientation, etc. X-ray scans yield grey-level 2D images, which can be recombined to form 3D structures. Treatments of the grey-level images can consist of either a binarization -distinguishing soil and pores- or a permeability level attribution directly linked to the grey-level values. The latter leads to problems in order to assign a permeability for each point (in soil a same grey level value can be assigned to points with a different permeability), as well as to analyse the 3D structure. On the other hand, treatment of black and white 3D structures is well-handled. However, the impact of the choice of one thresholding technique on the resulting images has already been demonstrated. Moreover, thresholding methods are various and numerous. Many of them are based on the image histogram analysis. But because of the soil complexity, the relevance of these techniques becomes debatable, with a risk of producing non reliable images. We propose to palliate this with a simple new algorithm based on physical measurements: it uses a loop fixing the threshold value in order to match the measured porosity for each sample. In this communication, our point is to highlight the impact of different thresholding techniques on the analysis and interpretation of our soil microtomograms. The underlying questions could be: Does the thresholding method influence our conclusions? Are the results depending on the sample itself or on the methodology? In order to answer these questions we tested the Otsu technique and our physically based algorithm. Soils samples were removed from the upper layer (Ap horizon) of a silty soil (Gentinnes, Brabant Walloon, Belgium) in plots with different management practices. In fact, since 2004, the field has been cultivated in conventional tillage (CT) or reduced tillage (RT). In order to empty the meso- and macroporosity, samples were placed under a 1.5 MPa pressure (Richards apparatus). Samples were then scanned by X-ray microtomography using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desktop micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium). The cone beam source operated at 100 kV, using an aluminium filter. The detector configuration, i.e. 1048x2000 pixels with a 16-bit X-ray camera, and the distance source-object-camera were adjusted to produce images with a pixel size of 17 µm. Porosity was measured for each scanned sample. Then the threshold methods -the Otsu technique on one hand and our developed algorithm on the other - were applied, and morphological factors were calculated for both methods. A comparison of the first results shows a threshold influence on average porosity and number of pores, but also on connectivity factors and size distribution. The apparent porosity of the images, as well as connectivity, is underestimated with the Otsu technique. Despite the fact that the changes induced by thresholding are more important for RT than CT, global conclusions about the comparison of these agricultural practices are approximately the same in this case. However, differences between tillage systems are less important with the Otsu method, confirming the impact of choosing the adapted threshold method. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the response of GFP microbial biosensors sensitive to substrate limitation in scale-down bioreactors
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Gorret, Nathalie et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2011), 55(2), 131-139

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used as biosensors of the heterogeneities generated in a two-compartment scale-down reactor. The stress promoters have been chosen for their responsiveness to carbon limitation corresponding to the global substrate profiles encountered in intensive fed-batch cultures. From our results, it can be concluded that the exposure of microbial cells to substrates heterogeneities tends to decrease the GFP expression level in fed-batch mode. Fluorescence intensities have been monitored at the single cell level by using flow cytometry. During the course of the fed-batch culture, a drop at the level of the intracellular GFP content has been observed for the two scale-down operating conditions and for the two promoters sensitive to substrate limitation (rpoS and csiE). The fluorescence drop can be attributed to the repression of these promoters but also to the release of GFP to the extracellular medium according to the increase of the fluorescence level of the supernatant. This leakage has been observed for all the operating conditions, i.e. the scale-down reactors and the culture operating in the normal mode, i.e. in a well-mixed bioreactor. Interestingly, GFP leakage is more pronounced in the case of the cultures operated in the normal mode. Indeed, staining by propidium iodide tends to be more elevated for the microbial cells cultured under the normal mode by comparison with those cultured in scale-down conditions, indicating a higher permeability of the membrane. These results suggest that GFP microbial biosensors could be used to detect simultaneously mixing imperfections and their impact on the viability of microorganisms. [less ▲]

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See detailBesatzungsjahre am Rhein. Die belgischen Streitkräfte im Köln-Bonner-Raum 1945-1950
Brüll, Christoph ULg

in Geschichte in Köln (2011), 58

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg betrachtete Belgien die Präsenz seiner Armee in Deutschland als Instrument zur Durchsetzung seiner Interessen gegenüber den „Besiegten“. Der Köln-Bonner-Raum stand dabei wie der ... [more ▼]

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg betrachtete Belgien die Präsenz seiner Armee in Deutschland als Instrument zur Durchsetzung seiner Interessen gegenüber den „Besiegten“. Der Köln-Bonner-Raum stand dabei wie der deutsch-belgische Grenzraum aus ökonomischen, aber auch historischen Gründen im Mittelpunkt der belgischen Ansprüche. Der Beitrag zeichnet die belgische Besatzung am Rhein in den ersten Nachkriegsjahren nach und fragt dabei vor allem nach dem Verhältnis zur deutschen Zivilbevölkerung. [less ▲]

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