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See detailNew insight in the Lymnaeids intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Belgium
Caron, Yannick ULiege

Conference (2011)

The present work was carried out in the frame of a Belgian Science Policy project (PONDSCAPE -“Towards a sustainable management of pond diversity at the landscape level”). During the summer 2008, 7103 ... [more ▼]

The present work was carried out in the frame of a Belgian Science Policy project (PONDSCAPE -“Towards a sustainable management of pond diversity at the landscape level”). During the summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeids snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters of 25 ponds each. Each cluster was located in a different geological region of Belgium. These snails belonged to the following species or genus: 2474 Galba truncatula (the main intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Belgium) and 4629 Radix sp. Moreover, several biological (presence of trampling and dungs, snail size …) and non biological factors (pH, depth, fences …) were also registered from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted based on Chelex® technique. Then the snail DNAs were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies the lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence (500-600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp Fasciola sp. sequence. Lymnaeid snails were found in 93 biotopes (66%). Thirty Galba truncatula (1.31%) and 7 Radix sp. (0.16%) were found positive for Fasciola sp. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was performed in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and relationships among the different recorded factors. For example, the geographic localization is one of the best explanatory variables for the abundance of the different snail species and the presence/absence of faecal material is the best explanatory variable for the presence of specific F. hepatica DNA material in the different screened snails. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of the metaflumizone-amitraz association in a case of canine straelensiosis (Straelensia cynotis)
Franc, A.; Mignon, Bernard ULiege

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2011), 155

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See detailProjectively equivariant quantizations over the superspace R^{p|q}
Mathonet, Pierre ULiege; Radoux, Fabian ULiege

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2011), 98(3), 311-331

We investigate the concept of projectively equivariant quantization in the framework of super projective geometry. When the projective superalgebra pgl(p+1|q) is simple, our result is similar to the ... [more ▼]

We investigate the concept of projectively equivariant quantization in the framework of super projective geometry. When the projective superalgebra pgl(p+1|q) is simple, our result is similar to the classical one in the purely even case: we prove the existence and uniqueness of the quantization except in some critical situations. When the projective superalgebra is not simple (i.e. in the case of pgl(n|n)\not\cong sl(n|n)), we show the existence of a one-parameter family of equivariant quantizations. We also provide explicit formulas in terms of a generalized divergence operator acting on supersymmetric tensor fields. [less ▲]

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See detailDe quelques aspects juridiques du mécénat d'entreprise en faveur des pouvoirs publics
Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULiege; Delvaux, Thierry ULiege

in Journal des Tribunaux (2011), 2011(n°6440), 429-438

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See detailReproductive failure, possible maternal infanticide and cannibalism in wild moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax
Culot, Laurence ULiege; Lledo-Ferrer, Yvan; Hoelscher, Oda et al

in Primates : Journal of Primatology (2011), 52

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See detailPilot proof of concept clinical trials of Stochastic Targeted (STAR) glycemic control.
Evans, Alicia; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Le Compte, Aaron et al

in Annals of intensive care (2011), 1

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to achieve consistently. STAR (Stochastic TARgeted) is a flexible, model-based TGC approach directly ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to achieve consistently. STAR (Stochastic TARgeted) is a flexible, model-based TGC approach directly accounting for intra- and inter- patient variability with a stochastically derived maximum 5% risk of blood glucose (BG) < 4.0 mmol/L. This research assesses the safety, efficacy, and clinical burden of a STAR TGC controller modulating both insulin and nutrition inputs in pilot trials. METHODS: Seven patients covering 660 hours. Insulin and nutrition interventions are given 1-3 hourly as chosen by the nurse to allow them to manage workload. Interventions are calculated by using clinically validated computer models of human metabolism and its variability in critical illness to maximize the overlap of the model-predicted (5-95th percentile) range of BG outcomes with the 4.0-6.5 mmol/L band while ensuring a maximum 5% risk of BG < 4.0 mmol/L. Carbohydrate intake (all sources) was selected to maximize intake up to 100% of SCCM/ACCP goal (25 kg/kcal/h). Maximum insulin doses and dose changes were limited for safety. Measurements were made with glucometers. Results are compared to those for the SPRINT study, which reduced mortality 25-40% for length of stay >/=3 days. Written informed consent was obtained for all patients, and approval was granted by the NZ Upper South A Regional Ethics Committee. RESULTS: A total of 402 measurements were taken over 660 hours (~14/day), because nurses showed a preference for 2-hourly measurements. Median [interquartile range, (IQR)] cohort BG was 5.9 mmol/L [5.2-6.8]. Overall, 63.2%, 75.9%, and 89.8% of measurements were in the 4.0-6.5, 4.0-7.0, and 4.0-8.0 mmol/L bands. There were no hypoglycemic events (BG < 2.2 mmol/L), and the minimum BG was 3.5 mmol/L with 4.5% < 4.4 mmol/L. Per patient, the median [IQR] hours of TGC was 92 h [29-113] using 53 [19-62] measurements (median, ~13/day). Median [IQR] results: BG, 5.9 mmol/L [5.8-6.3]; carbohydrate nutrition, 6.8 g/h [5.5-8.7] (~70% goal feed median); insulin, 2.5 U/h [0.1-5.1]. All patients achieved BG < 6.1 mmol/L. These results match or exceed SPRINT and clinical workload is reduced more than 20%. CONCLUSIONS: STAR TGC modulating insulin and nutrition inputs provided very tight control with minimal variability by managing intra- and inter- patient variability. Performance and safety exceed that of SPRINT, which reduced mortality and cost in the Christchurch ICU. The use of glucometers did not appear to impact the quality of TGC. Finally, clinical workload was self-managed and reduced 20% compared with SPRINT. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal concentrations in nectar feeding
Kim, Wonjung; Gilet, Tristan ULiege; Bush, John W.M.

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2011), 108(40), 16618

Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest ener- getic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentra ... [more ▼]

Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest ener- getic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentra- tion makes it the most difficult to transport. We here demonstrate that the sugar concentration that optimizes energy transport depends exclusively on the drinking technique employed. We iden- tify three nectar drinking techniques: active suction, capillary suction, and viscous dipping. For each, we deduce the dependence of the volume intake rate on the nectar viscosity and thus infer an optimal sugar concentration consistent with laboratory mea- surements. Our results provide the first rationale for why suction feeders typically pollinate flowers with lower sugar concentration nectar than their counterparts that use viscous dipping. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêts et limites du bilan neuropsychologique dans le cadre de l’expertise médicolégale
Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Douleur et Analgésie (2011), 24(1), 41-55

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See detailION MOBILITY – MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A NEW APPROACH FOR THE SCREENING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD
Goscinny, Séverine ULiege; Touilloux, Romain; Joly, Laure et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2011)

Pesticide residue analysis requires methods that can determine hundreds of compounds at low levels in complex food matrices. This challenge has given rise to multi residue methods, the only efficient ... [more ▼]

Pesticide residue analysis requires methods that can determine hundreds of compounds at low levels in complex food matrices. This challenge has given rise to multi residue methods, the only efficient analytical approach. This type of analytical method entails a “generic” extraction followed by a soft or no purification step to avoid any analytes looses. With over a 1000 active compounds with different physical chemical properties, gas and liquid chromatography are used as complementary separative techniques. In the past decade, the determination has been performed on tandem mass analyzers, a powerful tool to overcome co-eluting compounds with excellent sensitivity. Nevertheless, these instruments can guarantee these results per acquisition cycles for more or less 150 compounds. This represents a serious limitation when the number of pesticides to be sought for monitoring and MRL enforcement is growing each year. As multiple injections from the same sample are not viable for laboratories, alternative options have to be explored. We propose the investigation of ion mobility (IM) coupled with mass spectrometry as a new approach for pesticide residue analysis in food. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of haptoglobin polymorphisms and deficiency on susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and on severity of murine colitis.
Marquez, L.; Shen, C.; Cleynen, I. et al

in Gut (2011), 61(4), 528-534

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has ... [more ▼]

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has been shown to be over-represented in different immune diseases. Results in Crohn's disease (CD) are contradictory.AimsTo determine whether Hp plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease, both genetically and functionally.Methods1061 patients with CD, 755 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 152 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, as well as 452 healthy controls, were genotyped using touch-down PCR. To confirm association results, 464 CD trios and 151 UC trios were genotyped. Serum Hp concentrations were determined in 62 individuals of different genotype. Colitis was induced in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and oxazolone (Oxa). Cytokine production was evaluated by mRNA quantification in colonic tissue and ELISA on supernatants of mesenteric lymph node cells.ResultsPrevalence of Hp2 was higher in CD and UC than in controls. In the confirmatory cohorts, Hp2 was over-transmitted to the affected offspring. Serum Hp concentrations were higher in individuals with genotypes Hp11 and Hp21 than in those with Hp22 (1.38 vs 0.89 g/l). DSS- and Oxa-induced colitis were more severe in Hp-deficient mice than in control mice and accompanied by higher concentrations (although not statistically significantly different) of tissue mRNA for cytokines. Interleukin-17 production was significantly higher in the presence of Hp-deficient serum compared with wild-type serum.ConclusionsThe Hp gene may play a role in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Its implication in other immune diseases underscores the common pathways between these diseases. Experimental models of colitis showed that Hp has a protective role in inflammatory colitis, most likely by inhibiting the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailCytochrome P450-mediated cardiovascular drug interactions.
SCHEEN, André ULiege

in Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology (2011), 7(9), 1065-82

Introduction: There are numerous drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to cardiovascular medications and many of these are mediated via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Some of these may lead to serious ... [more ▼]

Introduction: There are numerous drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to cardiovascular medications and many of these are mediated via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Some of these may lead to serious adverse events and it is, therefore, essential that clinicians are aware of the important interactions that occur. Areas covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the CYP-mediated cardiovascular DDIs that lead to a loss of efficacy or potential toxicity. Cardiovascular drugs may be victims or act as perpetrators of DDIs. The paper analyzes CYP-mediated drug interactions concerning anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, antiarrhythmics, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering drugs and oral antidiabetic agents. Expert opinion: Cardiovascular DDIs involving the CYP system are numerous. Additionally, the spectrum of drugs prescribed is constantly changing, particularly with cardiovascular diseases and it is not necessarily the case that drugs that had shown safety earlier will always show safety. Clinicians are encouraged to develop their knowledge of CYP-mediated DDIs so that they can choose safe drug combination regimens, adjust drug dosages appropriately and conduct therapeutic drug monitoring for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices. [less ▲]

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See detailSibutramine on cardiovascular outcome.
SCHEEN, André ULiege

in Diabetes Care (2011), 34 Suppl 2

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See detailA graphical method for practical and informative identifiability analyses of physiological models: A case study of insulin kinetics and sensitivity
Docherty, Paul D.; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lotz, Thomas F. et al

in Biomedical Engineering Online (2011), 10

Background: Derivative based a-priori structural identifiability analyses of mathematical models can offer valuable insight into the identifiability of model parameters. However, these analyses are only ... [more ▼]

Background: Derivative based a-priori structural identifiability analyses of mathematical models can offer valuable insight into the identifiability of model parameters. However, these analyses are only capable of a binary confirmation of the mathematical distinction of parameters and a positive outcome can begin to lose relevance when measurement error is introduced. This article presents an integral based method that allows the observation of the identifiability of models with two-parameters in the presence of assay error. Methods: The method measures the distinction of the integral formulations of the parameter coefficients at the proposed sampling times. It can thus predict the susceptibility of the parameters to the effects of measurement error. The method is tested in-silico with Monte Carlo analyses of a number of insulin sensitivity test applications. Results: The method successfully captured the analogous nature of identifiability observed in Monte Carlo analyses of a number of cases including protocol alterations, parameter changes and differences in participant behaviour. However, due to the numerical nature of the analyses, prediction was not perfect in all cases. Conclusions: Thus although the current method has valuable and significant capabilities in terms of study or test protocol design, additional developments would further strengthen the predictive capability of the method. Finally, the method captures the experimental reality that sampling error and timing can negate assumed parameter identifiability and that identifiability is a continuous rather than discrete phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based optimal PEEP in mechanically ventilated ARDS patients in the Intensive Care Unit
Sundaresan, Ashwath; Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey M et al

in Biomedical Engineering Online (2011), 10

Background: The optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is still widely debated in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Current methods of selecting PEEP only ... [more ▼]

Background: The optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is still widely debated in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Current methods of selecting PEEP only provide a range of values and do not provide unique patient-specific solutions. Model-based methods offer a novel way of using non-invasive pressure-volume (PV) measurements to estimate patient recruitability. This paper examines the clinical viability of such models in pilot clinical trials to assist therapy, optimise patient-specific PEEP, assess the disease state and response over time. Methods: Ten patients with acute lung injury or ARDS underwent incremental PEEP recruitment manoeuvres. PV data was measured at increments of 5 cmH(2)O and fitted to the recruitment model. Inspiratory and expiratory breath holds were performed to measure airway resistance and auto-PEEP. Three model-based metrics are used to optimise PEEP based on opening pressures, closing pressures and net recruitment. ARDS status was assessed by model parameters capturing recruitment and compliance. Results: Median model fitting error across all patients for inflation and deflation was 2.8% and 1.02% respectively with all patients experiencing auto-PEEP. In all three metrics' cases, model-based optimal PEEP was higher than clinically selected PEEP. Two patients underwent multiple recruitment manoeuvres over time and model metrics reflected and tracked the state or their ARDS. Conclusions: For ARDS patients, the model-based method presented in this paper provides a unique, non-invasive method to select optimal patient-specific PEEP. In addition, the model has the capability to assess disease state over time using these same models and methods. [less ▲]

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See detailGas Sensing with Au-Decorated Carbon Nanotubes
Zanolli, Zeila ULiege; Leghrib, Radouane; Felten, Alexandre et al

in ACS Nano (2011), 5(6), 4592-4599

The sensing properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with gold nanopar- ticles have been investigated by means of combined theoretical and experimental approaches. On one hand, first-principles and ... [more ▼]

The sensing properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with gold nanopar- ticles have been investigated by means of combined theoretical and experimental approaches. On one hand, first-principles and nonequilibrium Green's functions techniques give access to the microscopic features of the sensing mechanisms in individual nanotubes, such as electronic charge transfers and quantum conductances. On the other hand, drop coating deposition of carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles onto sensor substrates and their characterization in the detection of pollutants such as NO2, CO, and C6H6 provide insight into the sensing ability of nanotube mats. Using the present combined approaches, the improvement in the detection of some specific gases (NO2 and CO) using Au-functionalized nanotubes is explained. However, for other gases such as C6H6, the Au nanoparticles do not seem to play a crucial role in the sensing process when compared with pristine CNTs functionalized with oxygen plasma. Indeed, these different situations can be explained by identifying the relationship between the change of resistance (macroscopic feature) and the shift of the Fermi level (microscopic feature) after gas adsorption. The understanding of the sensing ability at the atomic level opens the way to design new gas sensors and to tune their selectivity by predicting the nature of the metal that is the most appropriate to detect specific molecular species. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials during light interference in migraine.
Ambrosini, Anna; Coppola, Gianluca; Gerardy, Pierre-Yves et al

in Neuroscience letters (2011), 492(2), 80-3

Migraine patients show interictally a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP) and a lack of habituation of evoked potentials. Photic drive on high-frequency flash ... [more ▼]

Migraine patients show interictally a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP) and a lack of habituation of evoked potentials. Photic drive on high-frequency flash stimulation is another well-known interictal feature in migraineurs, associated with alpha-rhythm hyper-synchronisation. We compared therefore the influence of light stimulation on IDAP in healthy volunteers (HV) and migraine patients. A continuous flash stimulation was delivered during the recording of auditory evoked potentials at suprathreshold increasing stimulation intensities. IDAP was measured as the amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF) slope. In HV, the ASF slope decreased during flash stimulation, whereas, on average, there was no significant change in migraineurs. A closer analysis of migraineurs disclosed two subgroups of patients with no detectable clinical differences: one, the largest, in which the ASF slope was normal at baseline, but increased during light stimulation, the other with an increased ASF slope at rest and a decrease during light interference. Visual sensory overload is able to increase IDAP in the majority of migraineurs, which contrasts with HV. We hypothesise that this could be due to hyper-synchronisation of the alpha rhythm because of photic drive and possibly thalamo-cortical dysfunction. A minority of migraineurs have, like HV, an IDAP reduction during light interference. They are, however, characterised, unlike most HV, by a high IDAP at baseline. Besides underscoring the pathophysiological heterogeneity of migraine, these results suggest that light interference might improve the phenotyping of migraine patients who have a normal IDAP in the resting condition. [less ▲]

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See detailIs chronic migraine a never-ending migraine attack?
Schoenen, Jean ULiege

in Pain (2011), 152(2), 239-40

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