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See detailBiological aspects of angiogenesis in multiple myeloma.
Otjacques, Eléonore ULg; Binsfeld, Marilène ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in International Journal of Hematology (2011), 94(6), 505-18

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the aberrant expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow (BM). One of the hallmarks of this disease is the close ... [more ▼]

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the aberrant expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow (BM). One of the hallmarks of this disease is the close interaction between myeloma cells and neighboring cells within the BM. Angiogenesis, through the activation of endothelial cells, plays an essential role in MM biology. In the current review, we describe the angiogenesis process in MM by identifying the interacting cells, the pro- and anti-angiogenic cytokines modulated, and the extracellular matrix degrading proteases liable to participate in the pathophysiology. Finally, we highlight the impact of hypoxia (through hypoxia-inducible factor-1) and constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB in this tumor-induced neo-vascularization. [less ▲]

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See detailVade-Mecum à l'usage des gestionnaires de mosquées en Région wallonne
Husson, Jean-François ULg; Beckers, Paul; Berger, Cécile et al

Learning material (2011)

Ensuing various ad hoc training sessions organized for mosque administrators with governmental support, this vade mecum is aimed at administrators of officially recognized mosques in Wallonia. It presents ... [more ▼]

Ensuing various ad hoc training sessions organized for mosque administrators with governmental support, this vade mecum is aimed at administrators of officially recognized mosques in Wallonia. It presents the general environment relating to mosques in Wallonia and deals various specific aspects such as recognition procedure, budgets, accounts, public tendering, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailKurt Smith, Matter Matters. Metaphysics and Methodology in the Early Modern Period
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in Bulletin cartésien (2011)

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See detailGobernabilidad desde las agrupaciones usuarias del agua con fines agrícolas en 8 municipios del territorio de la Mancomunidad de Municipios de la cuenca del río Naranjo (MANCUERNA)
Estrada Orozco, Nick Kenner ULg; Mux, Victor

in Tikalia (2011), XXIX(1-2), 37-46

En Guatemala, para alcanzar los Objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio se implemen- tan Programas Conjuntos con el apoyo del Sistema de Naciones Unidas. Existen en la actualidad cinco Programas Conjuntos ... [more ▼]

En Guatemala, para alcanzar los Objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio se implemen- tan Programas Conjuntos con el apoyo del Sistema de Naciones Unidas. Existen en la actualidad cinco Programas Conjuntos apoyando temas de seguridad alimen- taria, construcción de la paz, cambio climático, género y gobernabilidad económi- ca del agua. En el marco del programa conjunto: “Gobernabilidad económica en agua y sanea- miento” se decidió realizar un estudio que permitiera conocer la gobernabilidad en el sector a partir de hacer un inventario de las agrupaciones usuarias de agua con fines agrícolas y conocer algunas de sus características, este estudio contó con la asesoría técnica de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación –FAO– y el apoyo en campo de las comunidades asociadas por el agua y el medio ambiente de la cuenca del río Naranjo –CADISNA– en coordina- ción con el Ministerio de Agricultura Ganadería y Alimentación –MAGA– y go- biernos locales. El estudio se realizó en 8 municipios, 3 del departamento de Quetzaltenango y 5 de San Marcos, se identificaron 126 grupos de riego, de ellos, 73 pudieron ser carac- terizados. Se conoció que el 92% de los 73 grupos tiene una junta directiva que vela por el funcionamiento del sistema y la producción se ve diversificada en al menos 14 diferentes hortalizas siendo la principal el cultivo de la Papa. Sin embar- go sólo el 45% paga una tarifa a su grupo y el 60% de los usuarios necesita crédito para poder producir, haciendo uso de al menos 271.99 Lts/seg de agua para fines agrícolas. [less ▲]

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See detailpi N transition distribution amplitudes: Their symmetries and constraints from chiral dynamics
Pire, Bernard; Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg; Szymanowski, Lech

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2011), 84

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See detailMultiparametric observation and analysis of the Sea
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

in Ocean Dynamics (2011)

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See detailÉvolution de l’impact environnemental lié à la gestion des déchets ménagers en Belgique (Liège) durant les trente dernières années
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Digneffe, Jean-Marc et al

in SFGP (Ed.) Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés (2011)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the improvement of waste management through the last thirty years. Four steps of time and of technologies of waste treatment were evaluated. The first scenario is ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study was to evaluate the improvement of waste management through the last thirty years. Four steps of time and of technologies of waste treatment were evaluated. The first scenario is situated before 1970 with waste landfilling without recuperation and valorization of gas. The second one considers the situation between 1990 and 2009 with a unit comprising grinding and sorting of waste to obtain fluff which was burnt in an incinerator, remaining waste being sent to sanitary landfill with recuperation and valorization of gas. The third one is the current one, in operation since 2009, with incineration of the whole of the residual municipal waste. The last scenario is about future considering the current installation and adding a biomethanation of the biodegradable fraction of household waste. Main result of this study is the improvement through years starting from the important environmental impact of landfilling to a negative impact with the current installation coupled with biomethanation. Global warming impact from the eighties was reduced by 4 in the years 1990-2008, by 6 for the current scenario alone or coupled with a biomethanation plant. Valorization of electricity is helpful to reduce consumptions of fuels and associated impacts. This study confirms the improvement of technologies and emissions of waste management through years. [less ▲]

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See detailAtlas linguistique de la Wallonie. Tome 17. Famille, vie et relations sociales
Baiwir, Esther ULg

Book published by PULg - Presses universitaires de Liège - Sciences Humaines (2011)

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See detailL’interdiction de la discrimination sur la base de l’âge dans les relations de travail belges
Kefer, Fabienne ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Dirix, E. (Eds.) Rapports belges au Congrès de l'Académie Internationale de Droit Comparé à Washington (2011)

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See detailCarbonate system in the water masses of the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during February and March 2008
Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fine, R. A. et al

in Biogeosciences (2011), 8

Carbonate system variables were measured in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) from ... [more ▼]

Carbonate system variables were measured in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) from February to March 2008. Eddies detached from the retroflection of the Agulhas Current increased the gradients observed along the fronts. Minima in the fugacity of CO2, fCO2, and maxima in pH on either side of the frontal zone were observed, noting that within the frontal zone fCO2 reached maximum values and pH was at a minimum. Vertical distributions of water masses were described by their carbonate system properties and their relationship to CFC concentrations. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) offered pHT,25 values of 7.56 and 7.61, respectively. The UCDW also had higher concentrations of CFC-12 (>0.2 pmol kg−1) as compared to deeper waters, revealing that UCDW was mixed with recently ventilated waters. Calcite and aragonite saturation states (Ω) were also affected by the presence of these two water masses with high carbonate concentrations. The aragonite saturation horizon was observed at 1000 m in the subtropical area and north of the Subantarctic Front. At the position of the Polar Front, and under the influence of UCDW and LCDW, the aragonite saturation horizon deepened from 800 m to 1500 m at 50.37° S, and reached 700 m south of 57.5° S. High latitudes proved to be the most sensitive areas to predicted anthropogenic carbon increase. Buffer coefficients related to changes in [CO2], [H+] and Ω with changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT) offered minima values in the Antarctic Intermediate Water and UCDW layers. These coefficients suggest that a small increase in CT will sharply decrease the status of pH and carbonate saturation. Here we present data that suggest that south of 55° S, surface water will be under-saturated with respect to aragonite within the next few decades. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleolar structure across evolution: the transition between bi- and tri-compartmentalized nucleoli lies within the class Reptilia.
Lamaye, Francoise; Galliot, Sonia; Alibardi, Lorenzo et al

in Journal of Structural Biology (2011), 174(2), 352-9

Two types of nucleolus can be distinguished among eukaryotic cells: a tri-compartmentalized nucleolus in amniotes and a bi-compartmentalized nucleolus in all the others. However, though the nucleolus ... [more ▼]

Two types of nucleolus can be distinguished among eukaryotic cells: a tri-compartmentalized nucleolus in amniotes and a bi-compartmentalized nucleolus in all the others. However, though the nucleolus' ultrastructure is well characterized in mammals and birds, it has been so far much less studied in reptiles. In this work, we examined the ultrastructural organization of the nucleolus in various tissues from different reptilian species (three turtles, three lizards, two crocodiles, and three snakes). Using cytochemical and immunocytological methods, we showed that in reptiles both types of nucleolus are present: a bi-compartmentalized nucleolus in turtles and a tri-compartmentalized nucleolus in the other species examined in this study. Furthermore, in a given species, the same type of nucleolus is present in all the tissues, however, the importance and the repartition of those nucleolar components could vary from one tissue to another. We also reveal that, contrary to the mammalian nucleolus, the reptilian fibrillar centers contain small clumps of condensed chromatin and that their surrounding dense fibrillar component is thicker. Finally, we also report that Cajal bodies are detected in reptiles. Altogether, we believe that these results have profound evolutionarily implications since they indicate that the point of transition between bipartite and tripartite nucleoli lies at the emergence of the amniotes within the class Reptilia. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a formic/acetic acid treatment of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) for delignification
Simon, Mathilde ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

Poster (2011)

Lignin is a promising molecule constituting a renewable alternative to some petrochemical industry products. Lignin is an aromatic cross-linked heteropolymer composed of three phenylpropanoids (p ... [more ▼]

Lignin is a promising molecule constituting a renewable alternative to some petrochemical industry products. Lignin is an aromatic cross-linked heteropolymer composed of three phenylpropanoids (p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl and syringyl units) linked together via radical coupling reactions by specific ether or carbon-carbon bonds. With this phenylpropanoid structure, lignin is a rich resource of biobased products that could find high-valued applications in a lot of different areas like petrochemical polymer reinforcement and replacement, antioxidants, stabilizers, resins and vanillin production... The first challenge of the valorization of lignins is their extraction from raw materials. Lignins can be found in different lignocellulosic substrates like grasses, softwood and hardwood. This extraction process needs the development of suitable biomass treatments, allowing efficient lignin recuperation without degradation. This one could lead to the loss of some interesting properties and so of some valorization possibilities. In this study, beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) was collected in the region of Gaume (Belgium). Beech wood particles were delignified at atmospheric pressure by a mixture of formic acid/acetic acid/water. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of treatment parameters for delignification. The optima of two independent variables, namely time (1h30, 3h, 4h30) and temperature (87°C, 97°C, 107°C), were determined on delignification yield, pulp yield, concentration of degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural). Moreover, the impact of these two variables on the amount of residual linkages between phenylpropanoid units was evaluated by semi-quantitative bidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR-HSQC). Our results highlight that the delignification yields increase when cooking time and temperature are elevated. Nevertheless, under these conditions, pulp yield decreases as hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and cellulose occurs. The hydrolysates of carbohydrates (free sugars or oligosaccharides) are contained in the black liquor. At elevated temperature and time, the amount of degradation products in the black liquor is increased. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic and thermoelectric properties of Fe2VAl: The role of defects and disorder
Bilc, Daniel ULg; Ghosez, Philippe ULg

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2011), 83

Using first-principles calculations, we show that Fe2VAl is an indirect band-gap semiconductor. Our calculations reveal that its semimetallic character (which is sometimes assigned) is not an ntrinsic ... [more ▼]

Using first-principles calculations, we show that Fe2VAl is an indirect band-gap semiconductor. Our calculations reveal that its semimetallic character (which is sometimes assigned) is not an ntrinsic property but originates from magnetic antisite defects and site disorder, which introduce localized in-gap and resonant states changing the electronic properties close to the band gap. These states negatively affect the thermopower S and the power factor equal to S2σ, decreasing the good thermoelectric performance of intrinsic Fe2VAl. [less ▲]

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See detailCobalt-mediated radical copolymerization of conjugated and non-conjugated monomers
Hurtgen, Marie ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Fustin, Charles-André et al

in Polymer Preprints (2011), 52(2), 626-627

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See detailPancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation: a minireview
SQUIFFLET, Jean-Paul ULg; LeDinh, Hieu; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2011), 43

Pancreas preservation by cold storage using University of Wisconsin solution was the <br />mainstay method used for pancreas transplantation during the past 2 decades. Other <br />solutions, such as HTK ... [more ▼]

Pancreas preservation by cold storage using University of Wisconsin solution was the <br />mainstay method used for pancreas transplantation during the past 2 decades. Other <br />solutions, such as HTK, Celsior, and SCOT 15, could not demonstrate any advantage for <br />short preservation periods. But the advent of clinical islet transplantation and the larger <br />use of controlled non–heart-beating donors have prompted the transplantation community <br />to develop methods for increasing pancreas graft quality while preventing ischemic <br />reperfusion damages. Oxygenation by 1- or 2-layer methods during pancreas preservation, <br />as well as the use of perfluorocarbons, might increase the islet yield. Based on the former <br />methods, there is a renewed interest in machine perfusion and oxygenation in pancreas <br />preservation for pancreas transplantation and islet preparation. [less ▲]

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See detailCouverture de pertes de substance du tibia distal par lambeau pedicule perforant en helice : deux cas cliniques.
Bous, Aurélie ULg; Ronsmans, C.; NIZET, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthetique (2011)

Distal lower leg soft tissue defect is frequently a challenge to repair, particularly on the tibial crest. The coverage of this kind of lesion has some limitations because of regional minimal blood supply ... [more ▼]

Distal lower leg soft tissue defect is frequently a challenge to repair, particularly on the tibial crest. The coverage of this kind of lesion has some limitations because of regional minimal blood supply and paucity of local soft-tissue flaps. The perforator pedicled propeller (PPP) method tries to find a new place in lower leg reconstruction in bringing similar tissues at the recipient site and avoiding long and difficult free flap transfer or muscular sacrifice. The authors report on the use of PPP method for a tibial crest exposure after trauma and for a soft tissue defect with osteomyelitis on the tibial crest. [less ▲]

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See detailProfil des vendeurs de viande de chasse et évaluation de la biomasse commercialisée dans les marchés municipaux de Brazzaville, Congo.
Mbete, Roger Albert; Banga-Mboko, Henri; Ngokaka, Christophe et al

in Tropical Conservation Science (2011), 4(2), 203-217

The consumption of wildlife meat is an important source of animal protein for rural and urban population in Congo. A survey on bushmeat trade was undertaken in 21 municipal markets during four weeks, in ... [more ▼]

The consumption of wildlife meat is an important source of animal protein for rural and urban population in Congo. A survey on bushmeat trade was undertaken in 21 municipal markets during four weeks, in Brazzaville. The objective of this study was to define the traders’ profile and to evaluate the quantities of games and meat merchandised on the municipal markets. The study methodology combined two approaches: a quantitative one using a questionnaire as principal tool for collecting data, and a qualitative one associating informal survey methods via individual or group interviews. The results showed that women were the most involved in this trade (52%). Markets trader’s monthly income was estimated at 210,428 (US$420) ± 49,128 (US$98,256) FCFA. On average, the bushmeat traders’ were 39 ± 10 years old and 69% of them attended the two levels of secondary education. During four weeks, 3,711 animal carcasses were recorded on the 21 surveyed markets, representing almost 35,790 kg of biomass. Overall, 35 animal species were identified, including 9 the hunting of which was prohibited. The mammals constituted 93.8% of total number of hunted animals, with three dominant orders as the artiodactyls (49.2%), the rodents (22.6%) and the primates (17.7%), of which the Cephalophus, the Potamochoerus, the Atherurus and the Cercopithecus were the most represented. It was also noticed that trapping, an activity which leads to great losses, becomes very important, followed by be helpful alternatives to meet Congolese demand for bushmeat. For a sustainable management of the Congo’s faunic resources, this study suggests the introduction gun-hunting. The Congo-Ocean Railway and the National Road n°2 were used regularly in the transportation of game, to a 72% level. The district of Niari, Lekoumou, Sangha and Pool were the main sources of supply. At the present time, the meat quantities offered in Brazzaville markets don’t seem to be reduced because hunting areas extend always further, often to the detriment of protected areas. Despite the fact that such business squarely growths and shows evidence of overexploitation, activities promoting game farming and breeding of domestic species, in Brazzaville suburbs, are needed to mitigate the impact of bushmeat trade. [less ▲]

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