References of "2011"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailUn projet belge de recours collectif au regard des modèles espagnol et québécois
Frankignoul, Laurent ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBacterial diversity of field-caught mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, from different geographic regions of Madagascar.
Zouache, Karima; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Raquin, Vincent et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2011)

Symbiotic bacteria are known to play important roles in the biology of insects, but the current knowledge of bacterial communities associated with mosquitoes is very limited and consequently their ... [more ▼]

Symbiotic bacteria are known to play important roles in the biology of insects, but the current knowledge of bacterial communities associated with mosquitoes is very limited and consequently their contribution to host behaviors is mostly unknown. In this study, we explored the composition and diversity of mosquito-associated bacteria in relation with mosquitoes’ habitats. Wild Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were collected in three different geographic regions of Madagascar. Culturing methods and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of the rrs amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the major phyla. Isolated bacterial genera were dominated by Bacillus, followed by Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium and Enterobacter. Common DGGE bands belonged to Acinetobacter, Asaia, Delftia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium. Double infection by maternally inherited Wolbachia pipientis prevailed in 98% of males (n = 272) and 99% of females (n = 413); few individuals were found to be monoinfected withWolbachia wAlbB strain. Bacterial diversity (Shannon–Weaver and Simpson indices) differed significantly per habitat whereas evenness (Pielou index) was similar. Overall, the bacterial composition and diversity were influenced both by the sex of individuals and by the environment inhabited by the mosquitoes; the latter might be related to both the vegetation and the animal host populations that Aedes used as food sources. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de I. Leventi, Chr. Mitsopoulou, Ιερά και λατρείες της Δήμητρας στον αρχαἰο ελληνικό κόσμο
Paul, Stéphanie ULg

in Kernos : Revue Internationale et Pluridisciplinaire de Religion Grecque (2011), 24

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSingle thermal plume in locally heated vertical soap films
Adami, Nicolas ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg; Caps, Hervé ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2011), 84

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (33 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComment j'explore... Une arythmie ventriculaire chez le sportif
Tombeux, C.; MELON, Pierre ULg; Close, P. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2011), 66(1), 30-33

How I explore : ventricular arrhythmhmias in athletes <br />SUMMARY : Documented ventricular tachyarrhythmias or related symptoms need meticulous cardiac investigations. The mechanism of ventricular ... [more ▼]

How I explore : ventricular arrhythmhmias in athletes <br />SUMMARY : Documented ventricular tachyarrhythmias or related symptoms need meticulous cardiac investigations. The mechanism of ventricular arrhythmia must be defined. The prognosis is related to underlying cardiac electrical or structural disorders. In the absence of cardiovascular abnormalities, the prognosis is good. No disqualification to competitive activity is required in most cases. Assessment of the risk of sudden death remains a continuing challenge in athletes. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of ventricular arrhythmias encountered in trained athletes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (17 ULg)
Full Text
See detailProspects for harmonized biodiversity assessments using national forest inventory data
McRoberts, Ronald E.; Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne et al

in Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne; McRoberts, Ronald E. (Eds.) National Forest Inventories - contributions to Forest Biodiversity Assessments (2011)

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to ... [more ▼]

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to which the variables are now assessed. Two conclusions were evident: (1) most countries currently assess most of the variables, but (2) consensus is lacking on assessment methods and necessary field crew expertise, suggesting that harmonization would require emphasis on field operations. For each of the seven essential features into which the 13 variables were grouped, more detailed assessments were conducted. For forest categories, the conclusion was that the only major difference in classification systems used by European NFIs was whether potential or actual vegetation was used to define classes. Thus, the prospects for harmonization of forest categories are considered excellent. For forest structure, the prospects depend on the variable. For tree species, the prospects are excellent because the variable is assessed in the same manner by all NFIs. For dbh and height, considerable variability in measurementthresholds were found, but otherwise the harmonization prospects are good. For social position, definitions of classes varied, but harmonized estimates of proportions for dominant, intermediate, and suppressed classes are considered possible. Prospects for harmonized estimates of layers are consideraly poorer because of different definitions, thresholds and the uncertainty associated with visual assessment methods. Harmonized estimation of forest age is impeded by the increasing proportion of uneven-aged stands for which age is often not assessed, different definitions, and different assessment methods. However, agreement on dominant age as a reference definition would greatly increase the prospects. Deadwood is becoming an increasingly popular indicator of sustainable forest management. Unfortunately, considerable variability was found in deadwood definitions, components (e.g., stumps, limbs), sampling methods, and measurement thresholds. Thus, harmonized deadwood estimation will require development of bridges. Harmonization of regeneration estimates faces challenges due to differences in assessment approaches such as presence/absence versus coverage and all species versus dominant species. Harmonized estimation may be restricte to change in regeneration success. Harmonized estimation for ground vegetation also faces serious challenges due to differences in the components assessed (e.g., small trees, shrubs, herbs, bryophytes, lichens), difference in height thresholds, and differences in categories for which ground vegetation is reported. Forest naturalness integrates many of the other essential feature. However, many countries do not assess naturalness, and among those that do, assessment variables, methods, and reporting classes vary considerably. For harmonized assessment using NFI variables, the hemeroby approach, which emphasizes indications of human influence, is extremely sensitive to plot size. Harmonization using the ecosystem processes approach requires a common dbh threshold and similar plot sizes. The overall conclusion is that harmonization will be considerably easier for some essential features than for others. The factors leading to difficulties often are related to different definitions, different reporting classes, different measurement thresholds, and different features of sampling protocols such as plot sizes and configurations. Nevertheless, construction of reference definitions and bridges greatly facilitate harmonization for all essential features as is illustrated in Chap. 5. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMesoporous SiO2 thin films containing ZnO photoluminescent nanoparticles. Simultaneous SAXS / WAXS / Ellipsometry investigations
Krins, Natacha ULg; Bass, J. D.; Julián-López, B. et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2011), 21

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMotives to begin physical education studies. Comparative analysis in Algeria and Wallonia
Kerfes, Nabil; Alem, Jaouad; Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2011)

There are many reasons explaining why students choose one professional project and/or an academic programme. Usually, they consider higher education according to various aspects focusing on the content of ... [more ▼]

There are many reasons explaining why students choose one professional project and/or an academic programme. Usually, they consider higher education according to various aspects focusing on the content of the programme as well as on professions to which the latter leads. This study is in the field on comparative education. It offers a comprehensive reading of two education systems in a spirit of openness and expansion of knowledge. With inspiration from two studies conducted in the education of physical educators in very different cultural contexts (Research Group MJS, 1993, for Algeria – Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire, 2003, for French-speaking Belgium), we have assumed that the students’ motives for registering in studies in physical education should differ considerably. The purpose of this research has therefore been to determine the reasons motivating students to begin a physical education programme at the university or at a non university context. Our research was based, firstly, on the analysis of official texts concerning the organization of higher education in the field of physical education and, secondly, on data collected from the actions involved in four educational institutions, two in the Algiers region and two in the Liege region. In both cultural contexts, one institution belonged to one university and the other one was organized in a non university context. Our results relate to a total sample of 290 subjects (40 members of teaching staffs, 108 students and 142 graduates). The staff members were interviewed while the subjects of two other groups have responded to questionnaires. The Arabic version of each instrument was translated from an original French version. One expert has assured the validity check. In this paper, we are focusing our attention on the analysis of the responses provided by the three types of actors to a question aiming to identify, through four levels Lickert scales, the degree of importance accorded by subject to nine reasons of registration for studies in physical education. Answer were encoded in a computer database and processed using the Statistica software (Stat Soft, 2006). No significant difference was identified when comparing the answers of respondents. However, we noticed that the love of sport and the desire to do sport belonged to the most important reasons for the registration of the new students for training programs in physical education. Cultural context does not seem to affect the opinions of the subjects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAntibody evasion by a gammaherpesvirus o-glycan shield.
Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Lété, Céline ULg; Guillaume, Antoine ULg et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2011), 7(11), 1002387

All gammaherpesviruses encode a major glycoprotein homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350. These glycoproteins are often involved in cell binding, and some provide neutralization targets. However, the ... [more ▼]

All gammaherpesviruses encode a major glycoprotein homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350. These glycoproteins are often involved in cell binding, and some provide neutralization targets. However, the capacity of gammaherpesviruses for long-term transmission from immune hosts implies that in vivo neutralization is incomplete. In this study, we used Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) to determine how its gp350 homolog - gp180 - contributes to virus replication and neutralization. A lack of gp180 had no impact on the establishment and maintenance of BoHV-4 latency, but markedly sensitized virions to neutralization by immune sera. Antibody had greater access to gB, gH and gL on gp180-deficient virions, including neutralization epitopes. Gp180 appears to be highly O-glycosylated, and removing O-linked glycans from virions also sensitized them to neutralization. It therefore appeared that gp180 provides part of a glycan shield for otherwise vulnerable viral epitopes. Interestingly, this O-glycan shield could be exploited for neutralization by lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibody. The conservation of O-glycosylation sites in all gp350 homologs suggests that this is a general evasion mechanism that may also provide a therapeutic target. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (27 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGéographie, tourisme et tourisme rural : une critique de quatre ouvrages
Dubois, Charline ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2011), 57

Four books studying either tourism in a global sense or more specifically rural tourism, have been explored and subjected to some reviews: The Geography of Tourism and Recreation - Environment, Place and ... [more ▼]

Four books studying either tourism in a global sense or more specifically rural tourism, have been explored and subjected to some reviews: The Geography of Tourism and Recreation - Environment, Place and Space by C. Michael Hall and Stephen J. Page (2005), Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business by Derek Hall, Irene Kirkpatrick and Morag Mitchell (2005), Tourism and tourism spaces by Gareth Shaw and Allan M. Williams (2004), and Rural Tourism and Recreation: Principles to Practice by Lesley Roberts and Derek Hall (2001). After the step of synthesis of each one, their own developments and their utilities will be discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (5 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFaut-il interdire le Bisphenol A dans les récipients destinés à contenir des aliments ?
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg

in Culture, le magazine culturel en ligne de l'Université de Liège - DOSSIER/ Controverses scientifiques - http://culture.ulg.ac.be/jcms/prod_494506/dossier/-controverses-scientifiques?section=cdu_5047 (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDie Narrenburg im Waldwinkel. Theodor Storms Auseinandersetzung mit Adalbert Stifter
Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Sprachkunst. Beiträge zur Literaturwissenschaft (2011), 42(1), 1-28

Comme l'ont déjà évoqué plusieurs chercheurs, la nouvelle "Waldwinkel" (1874) de Theodor Storm montre de nombreuses correspondances avec le récit "Die Narrenburg" (1842) d'Adalbert Stifter. Or jusqu'à ... [more ▼]

Comme l'ont déjà évoqué plusieurs chercheurs, la nouvelle "Waldwinkel" (1874) de Theodor Storm montre de nombreuses correspondances avec le récit "Die Narrenburg" (1842) d'Adalbert Stifter. Or jusqu'à présent, ce rapport étroit entre ces deux textes narratifs n'a pas encore été étudié en profondeur. Cet article vise dès lors à analyser les continuités et discontinuités entre ces deux récits. Une étude minutieuse des stratégies narratives ainsi qu'une analyse comparative des personnages principaux permettent de constater que la nouvelle de Storm fait, certes, renaître le monde de Stifter, mais pour le faire apparaître comme un non-lieu, une utopie. La noblesse, qui chez Stifter parvient encore à se renouveler en s'alliant à la bourgeoisie, est ainsi, chez Storm, vouée au déclin. Le monde représenté dans "Waldwinkel" est, quant à lui, marqué par la réalité du capitalisme et du combat de tous contre tous. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContrasted views on environmental migration: the case of Tuvaluan migration to New Zealand
Shen, Shawn; Gemenne, François ULg

in International Migration (2011), 49

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthesis and organocatalytic applications of imidazol(in)ium-2- thiocarboxylates
Hans, Morgan ULg; Wouters, Johan; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in European Journal of Organic Chemistry (2011), (35), 7083-7091

Five imidazol(in)ium-2-thiocarboxylates bearing cyclohexyl, mesityl, or 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituents on their nitrogen atoms were prepared from the corresponding imidazol(in)ium chlorides or ... [more ▼]

Five imidazol(in)ium-2-thiocarboxylates bearing cyclohexyl, mesityl, or 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituents on their nitrogen atoms were prepared from the corresponding imidazol(in)ium chlorides or tetrafluoroborates in a one-pot, two-step procedure involving the in situ generation of free N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with a strong base followed by trapping with carbonyl sulfide. The resulting NHC•COS zwitterions were isolated in high yields and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of SIMes•COS was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Experimental data and DFT calculations indicated that the negative charge on the thiocarboxylate anion is preferentially delocalized on the sulfur atom. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the NHC•COS zwitterions undergo thermolysis at temperatures ranging between 110 and 180 °C in the solid state. They are also rather labile in solution. Unlike the related NHC•CS2 betaines, which are highly stable, crystalline materials, they displayed the same type of behavior as the analogous carboxylate adducts, which readily lose their CO2 moiety upon heating or dissolution. Thus, imidazol(in)ium-2-thiocarboxylates acted as convenient NHC precursors in two model organocatalytic transformations. Of the five thiocarboxylates examined, ICy•COS was the most efficient at promoting the acylation of benzyl alcohol with vinyl acetate, whereas SIMes•COS afforded the highest activity in benzoin condensation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of the alveoli slopes on the discharge capacity of Piano Key Weirs
Machiels, Olivier ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 34th IAHR world congress (2011)

Piano Key Weir is a cost effective solution for rehabilitation as well as for new dam project with a high level of constraints (space, flood discharge, reservoir level).If the efficiency of the Piano Key ... [more ▼]

Piano Key Weir is a cost effective solution for rehabilitation as well as for new dam project with a high level of constraints (space, flood discharge, reservoir level).If the efficiency of the Piano Key Weir has already been well demonstrated, the definition of its optimal geometry has been still poorly approached. In order to improve the design of the complex geometry of this structure, the study of the influence of the mean geometrical parameters on the discharge capacity is an essential stage. Following a former experimental study of the flow over Piano Key Weirs, highlighting the mean influence of three geometrical parameters, this paper presents the results of an experimental parametric study. These results highlight the influence of the alveoli bottom slopes on the Piano Key Weir release capacity. Comparisons with numerical and analytical results, as well as design advices are also provided. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRobust maximum weighted independent-set problems on interval graphs
Talla Nobibon, Fabrice ULg; Leus, Roel

Report (2011)

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate ... [more ▼]

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate solutions. For a discrete scenario set, we nd that the problem is NP-hard for each of the robustness criteria; we also provide pseudo-polynomial time algorithms when there is a constant number of scenarios and show that the problem is strongly NP-hard when the set of scenarios is unbounded. When the scenario set is a Cartesian product, we prove that the problem is equivalent to a maximum weighted independent-set problem on the same interval graph but without uncertainty for the rst objective function and that the scenario set can be reduced for the second objective function. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA naming convention for the Piano Key Weirs geometrical parameters
Pralong, Julien; Vermeulen, Julien; Blancher, Benoit et al

in Erpicum, Sébastien; Laugier, Frédérique; Boillat, Jean-Louis (Eds.) et al Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs - PKW 2011 (2011)

Flood management is more than ever an issue for dam designers and engineering consulting firms in charge of rehabilitation works. Piano Key Weirs are a new cost-effective type of spillway designed to ... [more ▼]

Flood management is more than ever an issue for dam designers and engineering consulting firms in charge of rehabilitation works. Piano Key Weirs are a new cost-effective type of spillway designed to improve dams discharge capacity. These structures are particularly attractive: they can easily be built on existing structures and enable very high discharge capacities. Therefore, Piano Key Weirs are nowadays studied worldwide. Piano Key Weir description involves a lot of geometrical parameters (more than 30), which designations are not already universally defined. A naming convention is required to enhance exchanges and cooperation between the numerous developers. A naming convention has been developed at EDF – Hydro Engineering Center in cooperation with the Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions (LCH), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and the Laboratory of Hydrology, Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions (HACH), University of Liege. This paper describes the proposed naming convention and gives definitions and notations of the various geometrical parameters. This work represents a first attempt which should be updated with the contribution of stakeholders involved in this topic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 198 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDu droit à l'enfant au travail psychique de la parentalité: approche psychanalytique de la maternité lesbienne
Naziri, Despina ULg

in Cliniques Méditerranéennes (2011), (83 (1)), 109-124

This article presents the first hypotheses and questions developped from a clinical study in the representation of the parental function by lesbian couples asking for Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID ... [more ▼]

This article presents the first hypotheses and questions developped from a clinical study in the representation of the parental function by lesbian couples asking for Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID). The early French speaking and English speaking reference on the debate on same sex parenthood within the psychoanalytical communities led us to structure our qualitative data analysis (case analysis of thirty two couples around two main issues. First, AID can be seen as an experience which introduces a third person to the lesbian couple and carries an important paradox for the psyche ol all those involved; secondly, it is useful to analyse the psychic developments linkec to access to same sex parenthood, and in particular how subjects construe themselves as biological or social mothers. This two-pronged analysis based on clinical cases actually serves a metapsychological reflection on the concept of psychic bisexuality. as a key element of psychic development for lesbian couples. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (12 ULg)
See detailMaîtrise de la situation d’enseignement-apprentissage et savoirs professionnels des futurs enseignants
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Maubant, Philippe; Martineau, Stéphane (Eds.) Fondements des pratiques professionnelles des enseignants (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSimulations numériques de figures de diffractions à l'usage de la sixième secondaire et du premier baccalauréat
Leblanc, Christophe ULg

in Bulletin de l'Association Belge des Professeurs de Physique et de Chimie [Bulletins de l'ABPPC] (2011), 49(190),

La diffraction constitue de nos jours un phénomène physique incontournable pour la recherche (diffraction par rayons X, diffraction de neutrons, cristallographie, ...) et est, à juste titre, enseignée ... [more ▼]

La diffraction constitue de nos jours un phénomène physique incontournable pour la recherche (diffraction par rayons X, diffraction de neutrons, cristallographie, ...) et est, à juste titre, enseignée aussi bien en dernière année de secondaire qu'à l'université. Le logiciel présenté ci-dessous est un programme permettant de réaliser des figures de diffractions de manière simple et intuitive. Il existe naturellement déjà de nombreux programmes de simulations de figures de diffractions que l'on peut facilement trouver sur internet. Cependant ceux-ci sont, pour la plupart, ou bien limités (à la connaissance de l'auteur) à quelques cas particuliers - diffractions sur une ou plusieurs fentes, un rond, plus rarement un carré - ou bien complexes à l'utilisation. Bien que ces programmes soient dignes d'intérêts et peuvent se montrer utiles dans le cadre d'un enseignement, leurs limitations empêchent d'acquérir une intuition réelle de ce qu'est la diffraction. Par exemple, quelle est la figure de diffraction obtenue par un réseau cristallin cubique, un réseau hexagonal, ou encore une hélice ? C'est précisément cette faille pédagogique que vient combler le logiciel présenté ci-dessous. En effet, celui-ci permet d'obtenir la figure de diffraction de « n'importe quelle forme » (en deux dimensions), « forme » entièrement paramétrable par l'utilisateur au moyen d'un simple fichier bitmap ; format de fichier graphique le plus répandu et le plus simple à employer. Il est naturellement également possible d'effectuer de la diffraction de manière expérimentale au moyen d'un simple laser hélium-néon (facilement accessible dans le commerce et d'un prix modéré) et de diapositives. Cependant, outre que le logiciel présenté ci-dessous peut-être obtenu gratuitement par simple demande à l'auteur, celui-ci se montre beaucoup plus souple d'utilisation que de simples diapositives car entièrement paramétrable, et, comme tout logiciel, échappe aux aléas expérimentaux (poussières sur les diapositives, problèmes d'alignements diapositives-laser, nécessité d'un local sombre, ...) [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (4 ULg)