References of "2011"
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See detailSustainable and Innovative Solutions for Sewage Sludge Management
Spinosa, Ludovico; Ayol, Azize; Baudez, Jean-Christophe et al

in Water (2011), 3(2), 702-717

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See detailPotential contribution of prenatal estrogens to the sexual differentiation of mate preferences in mice.
Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie ULiege

in Hormones and Behavior (2011), 59(1), 83-9

The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by perinatal actions of gonadal hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and ... [more ▼]

The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by perinatal actions of gonadal hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estrogens, that exposure to prenatal estrogens completely defeminized their potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Therefore, we determined here whether mate preferences were also affected in female AFP-KO mice. We observed a robust preference for an estrous female over an intact male in female AFP-KO mice, which were ovariectomized in adulthood and subsequently treated with estradiol and progesterone, whereas similarly treated WT females preferred the intact male over the estrous female. Gonadally intact WT males preferred the estrous female over the male, but only when visual cues were blocked by placing stimulus animals behind opaque partitions. Furthermore, when given the choice between an intact male and a castrated male, WT females preferred the intact male, whereas AFP-KO females showed no preference. Finally when given the choice between an estrous female and an ovariectomized female, WT males preferred the estrous female whereas AFP-KO females preferred the ovariectomized female or showed no preference depending on whether they could see the stimulus animals or not. Taken together, when AFP-KO females are tested under estrous conditions, they do not show any male-directed preferences, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male in these females. However, they do not completely resemble males in their mate preferences suggesting that the male-typical pattern of mate preferences is not solely organized by prenatal estrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of female sexual behavior requires prepubertal estradiol.
Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie ULiege

in Journal of Neuroscience (2011), 31(15), 5574-8

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions ... [more ▼]

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally [between postnatal day 15 (P15) and P25] significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood, whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5-P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15 and P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild-type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females, whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailSex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?
Naninck, E. F. G.; Lucassen, P. J.; Bakker, Julie ULiege

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2011), 23(5), 383-92

Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men ... [more ▼]

Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is characterised by major physical and behavioural transformations, it is unclear why the incidence of depression increases so dramatically in girls during this otherwise generally healthy developmental period. Although psychological and environmental factors are also involved, we discuss the neuroendocrinological factors determining adolescent vulnerability to depression. In particular, we address the role of sex steroids in mood regulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis maturation and sexual differentiation of the brain, with a focus on hippocampal plasticity. [less ▲]

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See detailPostnatal and adult exposure to estradiol differentially influences adult neurogenesis in the main and accessory olfactory bulb of female mice.
Veyrac, Alexandra; Bakker, Julie ULiege

in FASEB Journal (2011), 25(3), 1048-57

Neurons incorporated into the adult main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) derive from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Despite some recent studies on the role of olfactory ... [more ▼]

Neurons incorporated into the adult main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) derive from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Despite some recent studies on the role of olfactory neurogenesis in sociosexual behaviors mediated by hormones, data on the implication of estrogens are still lacking. Taking advantage of female aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, which are unable to produce estradiol across their life span, we investigated the role of estradiol exposure during early postnatal and adult periods on adult neurogenesis in the MOB and AOB. We found that proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult female SVZ was not influenced by estradiol. However, whereas adult exposure to estradiol influences the turnover of MOB newborn neurons, the survival of those in the AOB depends on exposure to estradiol during the early postnatal period. Finally, based on their expression of Zif268, we showed that newborn neurons in the MOB responded to sociosexual odors, albeit to a lesser extent in ArKO females, suggesting a contribution of estradiol during the early postnatal period to this response. Together, these results suggest that the survival and functional integration of newborn neurons in the adult female MOB and AOB are differentially influenced by estrogens from the early postnatal period to adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailFarmer perceptions and pathological constraints in helmeted guinea fowl farming in the Borgou department in North-East Benin
Boko, C. K.; Kpodekon, M. T.; Farougou, S. et al

in African Journal of Agricultural Research (2011), 6

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See detailQuestionnement agroécologique: les systèmes participatifs de garantie comme critique de la certification et nouveau mode de gouvernance?
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Brandenburg, Alfio; Isaguirre, Katya

in SFER Online http://www.sfer.asso.fr/les_colloques2/les_transversalites_de_l_agriculture_biologique/programme_actes_du_colloque (2011)

Ce papier propose un questionnement agroécologique sur la transition agroécologique comme un processus de réflexivité de second ordre. Nous construisons cette hypothèse en prenant le cas de l’émergence ... [more ▼]

Ce papier propose un questionnement agroécologique sur la transition agroécologique comme un processus de réflexivité de second ordre. Nous construisons cette hypothèse en prenant le cas de l’émergence des Systèmes Participatif de Garantie (SPG) au Brésil comme une critique de la certification déléguée à une tierce partie et une proposition alternative de gouvernance face au contrôle de conformité marchand. Nous prenons en particulier le cas d’Ecovida et de sa certification participative qui est à l’origine des SPG brésiliennes. Le statut de notre communication est prospectif : après avoir précisé ce que nous entendons par réflexivité, nous posons une série de questions qui portent à la fois sur l’apprentissage et la réflexivité de cette expérience#!Cette mise à l’épreuve nous intéresse dans la mesure où elle peut nous informer sur ce que peuvent devenir des modes de gouvernance réflexifs dans le monde de la bio. [less ▲]

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See detailA mechanistic basis for potent, glycoprotein B-directed gammaherpesvirus neutralization.
Glauser, Daniel L; Kratz, Anne*-Sophie; Gillet, Laurent ULiege et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2011), 92(Pt 9), 2020-33

Glycoprotein B (gB) is a conserved, essential component of gammaherpes virions and so potentially vulnerable to neutralization. However, few good gB-specific neutralizing antibodies have been identified ... [more ▼]

Glycoprotein B (gB) is a conserved, essential component of gammaherpes virions and so potentially vulnerable to neutralization. However, few good gB-specific neutralizing antibodies have been identified. Here, we show that murid herpesvirus 4 is strongly neutralized by mAbs that recognize an epitope close to one of the gB fusion loops. Antibody binding did not stop gB interacting with its cellular ligands or initiating its fusion-associated conformation change, but did stop gB resolving stably to its post-fusion form, and so blocked membrane fusion to leave virions stranded in late endosomes. The conservation of gB makes this mechanism a possible general route to gammaherpesvirus neutralization. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific and extensive endometrial deregulation is present before conception in IVF/ICSI repeated implantation failures (IF) or recurrent miscarriages.
Lédée, Nathalie; Munaut, Carine ULiege; Aubert, Julie et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2011), 225(4), 554-64

The objective was to examine if IVF/ICSI repeated implantation failures (IF) or recurrent miscarriages (RM) could be related to preconceptional endometrial deregulations. IF was defined as the absence of ... [more ▼]

The objective was to examine if IVF/ICSI repeated implantation failures (IF) or recurrent miscarriages (RM) could be related to preconceptional endometrial deregulations. IF was defined as the absence of pregnancy despite the transfer of at least ten IVF/ICSI good quality embryos, and RM as having at least three unexplained miscarriages. Fertile controls (FC) were women who had given birth at least once. Endometrial biopsy was performed in the mild luteal phase of a non-conceptual cycle (five women were selected in each group). Affymetrix chips (GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus2.0 Array) were used for hybridization. Data were normalized by the gcRMA method, and raw p values adjusted by the Bonferroni procedure (1%). Differential expression of selected genes was analysed using real-time PCR. Gene networks and biological functions were explored using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Endometrial gene expression profiles at the time of uterine receptivity differ dramatically in the endometrium among FC, RM, and IF patients. Compared to FC, 2126 and 2477 genes are differentially expressed in IF and RM groups, respectively, and 2363 between IF and RM. In both conditions, differential gene expression referred mainly to DNA transcription and expression. Other main cellular functions deregulated in IF conditions correspond to cell morphology, cellular development, cell cycle, and cellular assembly, while in RM conditions, deregulated cellular functions relate to cell signalling (degradation of cyclic AMP and calcium metabolism) and cellular maintenance. In both conditions, there is an over-representation of deregulations related to the haematological system. In the IF condition, cell-mediated immune response and nervous system development and function are highly deregulated, while in RM patients, main deregulations are in organ and tissue development, humoral immune response, and muscular system development and function. Extensive endometrial deregulations are present before conception in patients who experienced IF or RM with both distinct and common deregulation. [less ▲]

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See detailDes interactions complexes entre les origines du VIH et sa pandemie, les activites coloniales en Afrique et la medecine coloniale Belge au Congo
DOUPAGNE, Gaëlle ULiege; Toukouki, A.; Moutschen, Michel ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2011), 66(9), 478-84

In this review article on the origin of HIV, we start from a historical fact which involved physicians from Liege working in Belgian Congo: the vaccination against polio of hundreds of thousands of ... [more ▼]

In this review article on the origin of HIV, we start from a historical fact which involved physicians from Liege working in Belgian Congo: the vaccination against polio of hundreds of thousands of Congolese between 1957 and 1960. We explain the genesis of an alternative hypothesis postulating that this campaign was at the origin of HIV pandemy. We show that the hypothesis is unfounded in view of genetic and epidemiological evidence on the one hand and after thorough examination of the activity reports of the Laboratoire Medical de Stanleyville on the other. In the second part of the article, we analyse the importance of other factors which might have contributed to the emergence of the pandemy. Some of these are clearly iatrogenic such as the prophylactic injections of pentamidine against trypanosomiasis, others are of demographic and sociological nature. All of them have a direct link with colonisation. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution au développement et à la mise en place d’une approche innovante dans une formation en handball pour les éducateurs sportifs. Exploitation en milieu universitaire d’un projet développé pour des entraîneurs
Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc ULiege

in Eid, C. (Ed.) Les programmes de formation universitaire. Actes du Colloque Didactique et TICE IV (2011)

In the context of education of the beginning Belgian handball coaches, we are currently developing a project based on a mixed program (presential and e-learning) and on the use of a competencies based ... [more ▼]

In the context of education of the beginning Belgian handball coaches, we are currently developing a project based on a mixed program (presential and e-learning) and on the use of a competencies based framework. We wish to test tools that could be, in a long term perspective, extended to the entire course of this level of preparation but also to other contexts. For this, we are analyzing processes aiming to transfer the technology developed to the physical education teacher education. Gradually, changes are made in order to offer training ever closer to the professsional reality, more consistent, with more meaning for the participants and involving them more in a process of knowledge building. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel FH mutations in families with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) and patients with isolated type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
Gardie, Betty; Remenieras, Audrey; Kattygnarath, Darouna et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (2011), 48(4), 226-34

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing humans to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas; in 20% of affected families, type 2 papillary ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing humans to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas; in 20% of affected families, type 2 papillary renal cell cancers (PRCCII) also occur with aggressive course and poor prognosis. HLRCC results from heterozygous germline mutations in the tumour suppressor fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. METHODS: As part of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) 'Inherited predispositions to kidney cancer' network, sequence analysis and a functional study of FH were preformed in 56 families with clinically proven or suspected HLRCC and in 23 patients with isolated PRCCII (5 familial and 18 sporadic). RESULTS: The study identified 32 different germline FH mutations (15 missense, 6 frameshifts, 4 nonsense, 1 deletion/insertion, 5 splice site, and 1 complete deletion) in 40/56 (71.4%) families with proven or suspected HLRCC and in 4/23 (17.4%) probands with PRCCII alone, including 2 sporadic cases. 21 of these were novel and all were demonstrated as deleterious by significant reduction of FH enzymatic activity. In addition, 5 asymptomatic parents in 3 families were confirmed as carrying disease-causing mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified and characterised 21 novel FH mutations and demonstrated that PRCCII can be the only one manifestation of HLRCC. Due to the incomplete penetrance of HLRCC, the authors propose to extend the FH mutation analysis to every patient with PRCCII occurring before 40 years of age or when renal tumour harbours characteristic histologic features, in order to discover previously ignored HLRCC affected families. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion du comportement des vertébrés - 25H
Poncin, Pascal ULiege

Learning material (2011)

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of Blocked vs. Random Practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(1), 15-48

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain damage, the cognitive mechanisms involved in the acquisition of a new skill are still not well understood. The present review focuses on the conditions that optimize skill acquisition, and more specifically on the contextual interference effect (CIE), which refers to the advantage of a ‘random’ over a ‘blocked’ practice condition in skill learning tasks. According to both the ‘elaboration’ and ‘reconstruction’ hypotheses, the CIE can be explained by the fact that the random schedule requires more cognitive activity than the blocked one. However, if the CIE has been consistently demonstrated in laboratory studies, it is not so clear in fieldbased studies. We discuss this ‘laboratory and field dilemma’, and suggest that two main factors – task complexity and individual variables – may explain the discrepancy between the two types of studies. [less ▲]

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See detailMid infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies coupled with factorial discriminant analysis technique to identify sheep milk from different feeding systems
Karoui, Romdhane; Hammami, Moncef; Rouissi, Hamadi et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 127(2), 743-748

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed ... [more ▼]

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed soybean). The MIR spectra were scanned throughout the first 11 weeks of the lactation stage. When factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) with leave one-out cross-validation was applied, separately, to the three spectral regions in the MIR (i.e. 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)), the classification rate was not satisfactory. Therefore, the first principal component (PCs) scores (corresponding to 3, 10 and 10 for, respectively, the 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)) of the principal component analysis (PCA) extracted from each of the data sets were pooled (concatenated) into a single matrix and analysed by FDA. Correct classification amounting to 71.7% was obtained. Finally, the same procedure was applied to the MIR and fluorescence data sets and 98% of milk samples were found to be correctly classified. Milk samples belonging to control and soybean groups were 100% correctly classified. Regarding milk samples originating from the scotch bean group, only 2 out of 33 samples were misclassified. It was concluded that concatenation of the data sets collected from the two spectroscopic techniques is an efficient tool for authenticating milk samples according to their feeding systems, regardless of the lactation stage. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation von Extraktionskolonnen in der industriellen Praxis
Buchbender, Florian; Schmidt, Markus; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege et al

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2011), 84(4), 540-546

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See detailIs the baboon model appropriate for endometriosis studies?
Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Defrère, Silvie; Squifflet, Jean et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2011), 96(3), 728-7333

Objective To determinethe prevalence of spontaneous endometriosis andthe incidence of induced endometriosis after endocervical canal resection in baboons. Design Induction and follow-up of endometriosis ... [more ▼]

Objective To determinethe prevalence of spontaneous endometriosis andthe incidence of induced endometriosis after endocervical canal resection in baboons. Design Induction and follow-up of endometriosis in baboons, which is one of the primate species that develop spontaneous endometriosis. Forty-one baboons were checked for the presence of spontaneous endometriosis. We then attempted to induce endometriosis in 30 of them by endocervical canal resection. Setting Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya, and Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Animal(s) Forty-one baboons were checked for spontaneous endometriosis and 30 of them were used to develop a model of induced endometriosis. Intervention(s) A total of 41 baboons underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for 10 months. In a first step, 30 of this number subsequently underwent endocervical canal resection. In a second step, 20 of the 30 underwent uterine horn resection. Main Outcome Measure(s) Follow-up by laparoscopy. Result(s) Two of the 41 baboons were diagnosed with spontaneous endometriosis (4.8%). Twelve months after the surgical procedure to induce endometriosis, 8 of 29 animals presented with endometriotic lesions diagnosed by using laparoscopy and confirmed by histologic examination. The incidence of induced endometriosis in our model was thus 27.6%. In 2 baboons, endometriosis disappeared over time, resulting in a final rate of 20.7% (6/29). Conclusion(s) The rate of spontaneous endometriosis is very low (4.8%). Endometriosis can be induced (with a rate of just 27.6%) by endocervical canal resection to stimulate retrograde menstruation. [less ▲]

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See detailResults of a haplotype-based GWAS for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in the horse.
Dupuis, Marie-Capucine ULiege; Zhang, Zhiyan ULiege; Druet, Tom ULiege et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (2011)

Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a major upper-airway disease of horses that causes abnormal respiratory noise during exercise and can impair performance. Etiopathogenesis remains unclear but ... [more ▼]

Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a major upper-airway disease of horses that causes abnormal respiratory noise during exercise and can impair performance. Etiopathogenesis remains unclear but genetic factors have been suspected for many decades. The objective of this study was to identify risk loci associated with RLN. To that end we genotyped 234 cases (196 Warmbloods, 20 Trotters, 14 Thoroughbreds, and 4 Draft horses), 228 breed-matched controls, and 69 parents with the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip. Using these data, we quantified population structure and performed single-marker and haplotype-based association studies, as well as family-based linkage analyses. We accounted for population stratification by modeling a random polygenic background effect with covariance structure estimated from genome-wide SNP data. Using the haplotype-based approach, we identified two genome-wide suggestive loci in Warmbloods, respectively on chromosomes 21 (p = 1.62 x 10(-6)) and 31 (p = 1.69 x 10(-5)). The two signals were driven by the enrichment of a "protective" haplotype in controls compared to cases. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual arousal, is it for mammals only?
Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege

in Hormones and Behavior (2011), 59(5), 645-55

Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species ... [more ▼]

Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dosage de l'inuline: mise au point
DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege; Souvignet, Marie; Dubourg, Laurence et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2011), 69(3), 273-84

L’inuline, polymère de fructose, reste le marqueur de référence du débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG). Popularisé par les études de Smith et Shannon, son dosage n’en demeure pas moins complexe et ... [more ▼]

L’inuline, polymère de fructose, reste le marqueur de référence du débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG). Popularisé par les études de Smith et Shannon, son dosage n’en demeure pas moins complexe et sujet à des interférences dont celle du glucose est la plus importante. Il existe deux grands types de dosages de l’inuline : les méthodes de dosage « acide » et enzymatiques. Le dosage « acide » consiste en un dosage colorimétrique du fructose obtenu après hydrolyse de l’inuline en milieu très acide. Le dosage du fructose englobe différentes méthodes de dosage dont la plus utilisée est la réaction à l’anthrone. Toutes ces méthodes présentent des interférences au glucose. Différentes méthodes « enzymatiques » ont été décrites au cours du temps. Celles-ci apparaissent plus précises et sans doute moins sujettes aux interférences même si peu d’études comparatives sont disponibles. Plusieurs auteurs ont également développé des dosages de type CLHP. Cette méthode spécifique et précise demeure cependant moins adaptée à la routine. Ainsi, si l’utilisation de l’inuline comme marqueur de référence n’est pas remise en cause, son dosage reste délicat, sujet aux interférences et à une certaine interprétation. Des études supplémentaires restent nécessaires pour valider analytiquement et comparativement les techniques de dosage de l’inuline. [less ▲]

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