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See detailIdentification des zones déficitaires en desserte forestière à l'échelle d'un territoire communal
Colson, Vincent; Braun, Matthieu; Debaty, Joëlle et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2011), (114), 26-36

La voirie forestière est un des éléments permettant la bonne mobilisation des bois. Encore faut-il qu'elle soit suffisante et bien répartie. Afin d'évaluer ces deux aspects, une technique est à l'essai ... [more ▼]

La voirie forestière est un des éléments permettant la bonne mobilisation des bois. Encore faut-il qu'elle soit suffisante et bien répartie. Afin d'évaluer ces deux aspects, une technique est à l'essai actuellement dans quelques communes pilotes. [less ▲]

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See detailCoping with Minority Status: Responses to Exclusion and Inclusion
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Contemporary Sociology: a Journal of Reviews (2011), 40(2), 158-159

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See detailNotched Specimens Fracture Prediction with an Advanced GTN Model
Fansi Tchonko, Joseph ULg; Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed ULg; Balan, Tudor et al

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2011), 488-489

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See detailLa tradizione fiorentina della Supplicatione d’Italia al re di Francia. Con una nuova edizione critica
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Filologia e Critica (2011), XXXV(2), 1-33

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See detailEffect of imputing markers from a low-density chip on the reliability of genomic breeding values in Holstein populations.
Dassonneville, Romain; Brondum, R. F.; Druet, Tom ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2011), 94(7), 3679-86

The purpose of this study was to investigate the imputation error and loss of reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) or genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV) when using genotypes imputed from a ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the imputation error and loss of reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) or genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV) when using genotypes imputed from a 3,000-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to a 50,000-marker SNP panel. Data consisted of genotypes of 15,966 European Holstein bulls from the combined EuroGenomics reference population. Genotypes with the low-density chip were created by erasing markers from 50,000-marker data. The studies were performed in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) using a BLUP model for prediction of DGV and in France using a genomic marker-assisted selection approach for prediction of GEBV. Imputation in both studies was done using a combination of the DAGPHASE 1.1 and Beagle 2.1.3 software. Traits considered were protein yield, fertility, somatic cell count, and udder depth. Imputation of missing markers and prediction of breeding values were performed using 2 different reference populations in each country: either a national reference population or a combined EuroGenomics reference population. Validation for accuracy of imputation and genomic prediction was done based on national test data. Mean imputation error rates when using national reference animals was 5.5 and 3.9% in the Nordic countries and France, respectively, whereas imputation based on the EuroGenomics reference data set gave mean error rates of 4.0 and 2.1%, respectively. Prediction of GEBV based on genotypes imputed with a national reference data set gave an absolute loss of 0.05 in mean reliability of GEBV in the French study, whereas a loss of 0.03 was obtained for reliability of DGV in the Nordic study. When genotypes were imputed using the EuroGenomics reference, a loss of 0.02 in mean reliability of GEBV was detected in the French study, and a loss of 0.06 was observed for the mean reliability of DGV in the Nordic study. Consequently, the reliability of DGV using the imputed SNP data was 0.38 based on national reference data, and 0.48 based on EuroGenomics reference data in the Nordic validation, and the reliability of GEBV using the imputed SNP data was 0.41 based on national reference data, and 0.44 based on EuroGenomics reference data in the French validation. [less ▲]

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See detailA hybrid bioregulatory model of angiogenesis during bone fracture healing
Peiffer, Veronique; Gerisch, Alf; Vandepitte, Dirk et al

in Biomechanics & Modeling in Mechanobiology (2011), 10(3), 383-395

Bone fracture healing is a complex process in which angiogenesis or the development of a blood vessel net work plays a crucial role. In this paper, a mathematicalmodel is presented that simulates the ... [more ▼]

Bone fracture healing is a complex process in which angiogenesis or the development of a blood vessel net work plays a crucial role. In this paper, a mathematicalmodel is presented that simulates the biological aspects of fracture healing including the formation of individual blood vessels. The model consists of partial differential equations, several of which describe the evolution in density of the most important cell types, growth factors, tissues and nutrients. The other equations determine the growth of blood vessels as a result of themovement of leading endothelial (tip) cells. Branching and anastomoses are accounted for in the model. The model is applied to a normal fracture healing case and subjected to a sensitivity analysis. The spatiotemporal evolution of soft tissues and bone, as well as the development of a blood vessel network are corroborated by comparison with experimental data. Moreover, this study shows that the proposed mathematical framework can be a useful tool in the research of impaired healing and the design of treatment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailHier, da und dort - regionale Variation und standardsprachlicher Gebrauch bei den primären Lokaldeiktika im Deutschen
Möller, Robert ULg

in Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik (2011), 39(2011), 1-23

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See detailUn fantôme près du Curtius au XVIIe siècle
George, Philippe ULg

in Liège Museum : Bulletin Trimestriel des Musées de la Ville de Liège (2011)

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See detailBrain functional integration decreases during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Perlbarg, Vincent; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 57(1), 198-205

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol ... [more ▼]

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol anesthesia is associated with a significant reduction in the capacity of the brain to integrate information. To assess the functional structure of the whole brain, functional integration and partial correlations were computed from fMRI data acquired from 18 healthy volunteers during resting wakefulness and propofol-induced deep sedation. Total integration was significantly reduced from wakefulness to deep sedation in the whole brain as well as within and between its constituent networks (or systems). Integration was systematically reduced within each system (i.e., brain or networks), as well as between networks. However, the ventral attentional network maintained interactions with most other networks during deep sedation. Partial correlations further suggested that functional connectivity was particularly affected between parietal areas and frontal or temporal regions during deep sedation. Our findings suggest that the breakdown in brain integration is the neural correlate of the loss of consciousness induced by propofol. They stress the important role played by parietal and frontal areas in the generation of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of multibody systems and their structural components
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Lemaire, Etienne ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg et al

in Blajer, W.; Arczewski, K.; Fraczek, J. (Eds.) et al Multibody Dynamics: Computational Methods and Applications (2011)

This work addresses the optimization of flexible multibody systems based on the dynamic response of the full system with large amplitude motions and elastic deflections. The simulation model involves a ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the optimization of flexible multibody systems based on the dynamic response of the full system with large amplitude motions and elastic deflections. The simulation model involves a nonlinear finite element formulation, a time integration scheme and a sensitivity analysis and it can be efficiently exploited in an optimization loop. In particular, the paper focuses on the topology optimization of structural components embedded in multibody systems. Generally, topology optimization techniques consider that the structural component is isolated from the rest of the mechanism and use simplified quasi-static load cases to mimic the complex loadings in service. In contrast, we show that an optimization directly based on the dynamic response of the flexible multibody system leads to a more integrated approach. The method is applied to truss structural components. Each truss is represented by a separate structural universe of beams with a topology design variable attached to each one. A SIMP model (or a variant of the power law) is used to penalize intermediate densities. The optimization formulation is stated as the minimization of the mean compliance over a time period or as the minimization of the mean tip deflection during a given trajectory, subject to a volume constraint. In order to illustrate the benefits of the integrated design approach, the case of a two degrees-of-freedom robot arm is developed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the response of GFP microbial biosensors sensitive to substrate limitation in scale-down bioreactors
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Gorret, Nathalie et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2011), 55(2), 131-139

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains not completely understood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used as biosensors of the heterogeneities generated in a two-compartment scale-down reactor. The stress promoters have been chosen for their responsiveness to carbon limitation corresponding to the global substrate profiles encountered in intensive fed-batch cultures. From our results, it can be concluded that the exposure of microbial cells to substrates heterogeneities tends to decrease the GFP expression level in fed-batch mode. Fluorescence intensities have been monitored at the single cell level by using flow cytometry. During the course of the fed-batch culture, a drop at the level of the intracellular GFP content has been observed for the two scale-down operating conditions and for the two promoters sensitive to substrate limitation (rpoS and csiE). The fluorescence drop can be attributed to the repression of these promoters but also to the release of GFP to the extracellular medium according to the increase of the fluorescence level of the supernatant. This leakage has been observed for all the operating conditions, i.e. the scale-down reactors and the culture operating in the normal mode, i.e. in a well-mixed bioreactor. Interestingly, GFP leakage is more pronounced in the case of the cultures operated in the normal mode. Indeed, staining by propidium iodide tends to be more elevated for the microbial cells cultured under the normal mode by comparison with those cultured in scale-down conditions, indicating a higher permeability of the membrane. These results suggest that GFP microbial biosensors could be used to detect simultaneously mixing imperfections and their impact on the viability of microorganisms. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical modeling of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in tissue engineering using continuum models
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Gerisch, A.

in Geffen, A. (Ed.) Cellular and Biomolecular Mechanics and Mechanobiology (2011)

Key factors in the formation of cell aggregates in tissue engineering and other fields are the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Other important factors are culture conditions such as nutrient and ... [more ▼]

Key factors in the formation of cell aggregates in tissue engineering and other fields are the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Other important factors are culture conditions such as nutrient and oxygen supply and the characteristics of the environment (medium versus hydrogel). As mathematical models are increasingly used to investigate biological phenomena, it is important that processes such as cell adhesion are adequately described in the models. Recently a technique was developed to incorporate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in continuum models through the use of non-local terms. In this study we apply this technique to model adhesion in a cell-in-gel culture set-up often found in tissue engineering applications. We briefly describe the biological issues underlying this study and the various modeling techniques used to capture adhesive behaviour. We furthermore elaborate on the numerical techniques that were developed in the course of this study. Finally, we consider a tissue engineering model that describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the concentration of cells, matrix, hydrogel, matrix degrading enzymes and oxygen/nutrients in a cell-in-gel culture system. Sensitivity analyses indicate a clear influence of the different adhesive processes on the final cell and collagen density and distribution, demonstrating the significance of cell adhesion in tissue engineering and the potential of the proposed mathematical technique. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of transrectal palpation for early pregnancy diagnosis in Egyptian buffaloes.
Karen, A. M.; Darwish, S.; Ramoun, A. et al

in Tropical Animal Health & Production (2011), 43(1), 5-7

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of transrectal palpation (TRP) for diagnosing early pregnancy in buffaloes and the false diagnoses of the TRP test by using the pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of transrectal palpation (TRP) for diagnosing early pregnancy in buffaloes and the false diagnoses of the TRP test by using the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) test. Pregnancy was diagnosed in 168 buffalo-cows once by TRP and PAG-RIA test between days 31 and 55 after breeding. The sensitivity of TRP for detecting pregnant buffalo-cows was 37.5% at days 31-35, increased to 93.8% at days 46-50 and reached 100% at days 51-55 (P < 0.01). All cases of false negative diagnoses (n = 10) had PAG concentration higher than the threshold (>/=1.8 ng/mL) for diagnosing pregnancy. The specificity of TRP for detecting non-pregnant buffalo cows ranged between 90.9%, and 100% between days 31 and 55. All cases of false positive diagnoses (n = 5) made by TRP had PAG concentrations lower than the threshold for diagnosing pregnancy. It could be concluded that TRP is an accurate method for diagnosing pregnant and non-pregnant buffalo cows from day 46 after breeding. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles.
Mok, H.; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Chiu, H. et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2011), 8

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast ... [more ▼]

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held) and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae) that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1) causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2) generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of P2X1 ion channels increases endotoxemia associated coagulation and organ damage through neutrophil hyperresponsiveness.
Lecut, Christelle ULg; Faccinetto, Céline ULg; Evans, Richard J et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis [=JTH] (2011), 9(suppl S2),

ATP-gated P2X1 ion channels contribute to arterial thrombosis by amplifying platelet activation. In the search for novel anti-platelet strategies, targeting P2X1 ion channels is appealing. However, in ... [more ▼]

ATP-gated P2X1 ion channels contribute to arterial thrombosis by amplifying platelet activation. In the search for novel anti-platelet strategies, targeting P2X1 ion channels is appealing. However, in this study we found that lack or inhibition of P2X1 channels enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst activity ex vivo. <br />To study the consequence of P2X1 deficiency on neutrophil function in vivo, P2X1-/- mice were used in a model of endotoxin-induced sepsis. Upon injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations reached higher levels in the P2X1-/- mice, and circulating neutrophils expressed higher levels of surface CD11b compared to wild-type mice. Neutrophil relocalization into the lungs of LPS-treated P2X1-/- mice was also significantly augmented, reflecting a higher activation state of P2X1-/- neutrophils under conditions of sepsis. Accordingly, more extensive lipid peroxidation was observed in the liver of LPS-treated P2X1-/- mice, indicative of exaggerated oxidative damage. Concomitantly, the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes were higher in the plasma of LPS-treated P2X1-/- mice and thrombocytopenia was worsened as compared to wild type mice. Elevated numbers of microthrombi were also found in the lungs of these mice. These observations coincided with a higher susceptibility of P2X1-/- mice to LPS-induced septic shock than wild type animals. <br />Our results strongly suggest that P2X1 ion channels play a protective role in sepsis by negatively regulating systemic neutrophil activation, thereby limiting oxidative damage, activation of coagulation and platelet accumulation into the lungs. Therefore, since antagonists of P2X1 ion channels may not only target platelets but also affect neutrophils, inhibiting these channels in the highly inflammatory environment of severe sepsis or of acute coronary syndromes might be detrimental. [less ▲]

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See detailLeukemic cell xenograft in zebrafish embryo for investigating drug efficacy.
Pruvot, Benoist ULg; Jacquel, Arnaud; Droin, Nathalie et al

in Haematologica (2011), 96(4), 612-6

Zebrafish were proposed as an alternative to mammalian models to assess the efficacy and toxicity of antileukemic drugs. Due to the limited number of transgenic zebrafish leukemia models, we explored ... [more ▼]

Zebrafish were proposed as an alternative to mammalian models to assess the efficacy and toxicity of antileukemic drugs. Due to the limited number of transgenic zebrafish leukemia models, we explored human leukemic cell xenograft in zebrafish embryos. Human leukemic cell lines and blast cells sorted from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia were injected 48 hours post-fertilization and remained in the circulation of zebrafish embryos for several days without affecting their development. Imatinib and oxaphorines did not demonstrate any toxicity on normal zebrafish embryos and decreased the leukemic burden in animals xenografted with sensitive leukemic cell lines. Two other molecules, all-trans retinoic acid and the translation inhibitor 4EGI-1, demonstrated teratogenic effects at concentrations shown to be efficient in vitro, which precluded investigation of their antileukemic activity in such models. Altogether, xenografted leukemic cells in zebrafish embryos are a pharmacologically relevant model for screening non-teratogenic drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mécénat féminin en France et en Bourgogne (XVe-XVIe siècles). Nouvelles perspectives. Actes de la journée d'études internationale tenue à l'Université de Liège, le 10 mai 2010
Fagnart, Laure ULg; L'Estrange, Elizabeth

Book published by De Boeck (2011)

Le rôle joué par les femmes de pouvoir au Moyen Âge et au tout début de la Renaissance dans la commande d’œuvres artistiques et culturelles constitue un champ de recherche de plus en plus prolifique. La ... [more ▼]

Le rôle joué par les femmes de pouvoir au Moyen Âge et au tout début de la Renaissance dans la commande d’œuvres artistiques et culturelles constitue un champ de recherche de plus en plus prolifique. La présente collection d’articles, suscitée par une journée d’études intitulée "Le mécénat féminin en France et en Bourgogne (XVe-XVIe siècles). Nouvelles perspectives", qui a eu lieu à l’Université de Liège en 2010, illustre l’importance des femmes mécènes, en France et en Bourgogne, dans les domaines de l’architecture, de l’orfèvrerie, des manuscrits enluminés, de la peinture et de la sculpture, ainsi que dans la traduction et dans l’organisation des cérémonials. Dans leurs fonctions respectives, celles de reine, reine mère, duchesse, régente, dame d’honneur, les femmes font usage des œuvres d’art et des rites pour promouvoir leurs intérêts personnels et dynastiques, confrontées qu’elles sont aux difficultés liées à leur sexe et à leur statut de femme de pouvoir, ou à des difficultés telles que les rivalités, la guerre, ou la folie. Même s’il est clair que les cours française et bourguignonne constituent l’espace le plus favorable à l’efflorescence du mécénat féminin, cette collection démontre toutefois l’existence d’un même phénomène, important, en dehors des sphères royales. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tensions du jugement professoral. Ethnographie des décisions d’orientation scolaire dans les conseils de classe
Andre, Géraldine ULg

in Education et Formation (2011), 295

L’enseignement technique, d’une manière relative, et l’enseignement professionnel, d’une manière absolue, sont décriés en Communauté française de Belgique comme des filières de relégation. Non seulement ... [more ▼]

L’enseignement technique, d’une manière relative, et l’enseignement professionnel, d’une manière absolue, sont décriés en Communauté française de Belgique comme des filières de relégation. Non seulement, les élèves y aboutiraient au terme de trajectoires d’échecs, sans avoir posé de choix personnel. Mais surtout la contribution des acteurs institutionnels (enseignants, agents des CPMS et directeurs) serait essentielle à ce processus à travers leurs décisions dans les conseils de classe. Au-delà de cette lecture, ce texte vise à comprendre la manière dont les acteurs institutionnels pratiquent l’orientation scolaire en saisissant par l’ethnographie leurs catégories et leurs préoccupations. En analysant leurs pratiques d’orientation, d’une part, en fonction de leurs représentations sur les différentes filières de l’enseignement secondaire, et, d’autre part, selon leur inscription dans un champ scolaire, ce texte vise à souligner les tensions éthiques rencontrées par les acteurs institutionnels pour établir leurs décisions dans les conseils de classe. En se centrant sur les propriétés distinctives des établissements scolaires, ce texte indique également que la position de ceux-ci dans le champ scolaire peut aviver ou stabiliser les questionnements éthiques des acteurs institutionnels. [less ▲]

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