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See detailRelaxation schemes for min max generalization in deterministic batch mode reinforcement learning
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Boigelot, Bernard ULg et al

in 4th International NIPS Workshop on Optimization for Machine Learning (OPT 2011) (2011, December)

We study the min max optimization problem introduced in [Fonteneau, 2011] for computing policies for batch mode reinforcement learning in a deterministic setting. This problem is NP-hard. We focus on the ... [more ▼]

We study the min max optimization problem introduced in [Fonteneau, 2011] for computing policies for batch mode reinforcement learning in a deterministic setting. This problem is NP-hard. We focus on the two-stage case for which we provide two relaxation schemes. The first relaxation scheme works by dropping some constraints in order to obtain a problem that is solvable in polynomial time. The second relaxation scheme, based on a Lagrangian relaxation where all constraints are dualized, leads to a conic quadratic programming problem. Both relaxation schemes are shown to provide better results than those given in [Fonteneau, 2011]. [less ▲]

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See detailLotze en Amérique. Le renouveau réaliste en philosophie chez Santayana
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

Conference (2011, December)

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See detailQuantile regression in nonparametric location-scale models with censored data
Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Van Keilegom, Ingrid

Conference (2011, December)

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See detailDe kortstondige lotgevallen van de PEN-clubs tijdens het interbellum in Spanje. Een geschiedenis van politieke en regionale polarisatie
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg; Adriaensen, Brigitte

in Nederlandse Letterkunde (2011), 16(3), 257-275

Three separate PEN Clubs were founded in Spain during the turbulent period between the wars. The first Spanish PEN Club met for the first time in the celebrated Madrid restaurant Lhardy on 5th July 1922 ... [more ▼]

Three separate PEN Clubs were founded in Spain during the turbulent period between the wars. The first Spanish PEN Club met for the first time in the celebrated Madrid restaurant Lhardy on 5th July 1922, precisely nine months after the International PEN Club was set up in London. It did not have its own accommodation, but gathered roughly once a month in this restaurant under the chairmanship of the renowned writer José Martínez Ruiz, better known by his pen-name of *Azorín*. It appears from the list of the club’s members, which was published in November 1923, that this varied company included a number of prestigious authors such as Díez-Canedo, Ramiro de Maeztu, Enrique de Mesa, Ramón Pérez de Ayala and José María Salaverría. In addition, the Spanish delegation also aspired to an international profile by incorporating nineteen international honorary members at the top of the list of members, originating from Spanish-speaking America, Portugal and England. Although several regional authors joined this first PEN Club, remarkably enough there were only two Catalan writers on the list: Eugenio D’Ors and Angel Guimerá, the latter as an honorary member. There was a great deal of criticism of the snobbish nature of the *banquetes*, the costly feasts the members took part in at their own expense. One of the fiercest critics was undoubtedly Rafael Cansinos Assens, who not only denounced the elitist nature of the gatherings, but was also annoyed by what he considered the overly regional and national tenor that characterised the club. However, the fact that the club was less internationally oriented did not mean, in the national context, that it reflected only one end of the ideological spectrum. The elitist nature of the club did not stop members with republican sympathies (such as Roberto Castrovido and Luis de Tapia) from joining. Journalists who had taken a critical attitude to the military campaigns in Morocco, such as Alfonso Hernández Catá and Manuel Ciges Aparicio, also found their way to the PEN Club. Even someone like Julio Camba, at that time closely linked to anarchist circles, was a member. It is striking that there were also a substantial number of members from the Liga de Educación Política, an association that José Ortega y Gasset had set up and which was part of the liberal Partido Reformista. The founding of the first Spanish PEN Club in 1922 also coincided with the structural crisis the Ateneo Científico, Literario y Artístico de Madrid found itself in at about that time . It comes as no surprise that many of those in the PEN membership list in 1923 are also to be found in the January 1922 list of Athenaeum members. So the Spanish PEN Club was a valid alternative in the quest for a way of giving Spain’s literary life a minimum of independence and social embedment. Spain’s first PEN Club was not destined for a long life, however. Several reasons for this have been given over the years: the previously mentioned aristocratic nature of the club, the diversity of interests and poetics of its members, the lack of fellow-feeling among Spanish writers and the elitism of the Madrid writers with regard to authors from the periphery, especially those from Catalonia. But the increasing effect of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who came to power in 1923, was also part of it. The same ideological polarisation and militarization had already led to the downfall of the Athenaeum in Madrid in 1924; a similar scenario was also to be played out at the German PEN Club in 1933. It was in 1924, two years after the Spanish club had been set up, that its Catalan counterpart came into being. On 7th January, in his capacity as chairman, the Catalan grammarian and liberal intellectual Pompeu Fabra sent out a letter in which he invited the Catalan intelligentsia to join the club. Although this letter emphasised that the PEN Club ‘had no political or propaganda tenor whatsoever’, it was obvious that cultural nationalism underlay the establishment of the Catalan delegation. Even before the club had been set up, its future secretary, Millàs Raurell, was already pointing out, in a letter sent to the International PEN member Herman Ould on 11th January 1923, that the Catalan club had no connection with the one in Madrid. This new delegation wanted to represent the ‘Catalan nation’, which belonged to a different culture from its Spanish counterpart. The Catalan association possibly had an even harder time of it than the Spanish PEN Club under the regime of Primo de Rivera: under these circumstances, for example, it was out of the question to organise an international PEN congress in Barcelona. This did change, however. After the Catalan PEN Club had fallen into obscurity for many years, in 1934 it enjoyed a new boost, at the time of the Second Republic. In May of that year the club was re-established in the Athenaeum in Barcelona, which from then on served as the club’s seat. The absolute climax of the activities of the Catalan PEN Club, however, was when the international PEN congress was held in Barcelona from 21st to 25th May 1935. It was the perfect opportunity to showcase the wealth of the Catalan artistic heritage and to give Catalan literature an international boost. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 put a final end to this glorious revival. The success of the international PEN congress in Barcelona was not to everyone’s taste, however. In a newspaper article, Ramón Gómez de la Serna criticised the total absence of Spanish writers from the congress. The prevailing dissatisfaction was the main reason for setting up what was called the ‘Second Madrid PEN Club’. The fact that this second Madrid – not Spanish – club developed in an extremely tense and polarised atmosphere hardly needs mentioning. Although there were still a number of republicans and liberals at the first banquet, such as Max Aub, Américo Castro, Tomás Navarro Tomás, Pedro Salinas, Luis de Tapia and Guillermo de Torre, their numbers steadily declined. The lists of participants at each of the feasts show that it was mainly writers with right-wing affinities (with all the shades of meaning that ‘right-wing’ implies) who attended. They included both adherents of Primo de Rivera’s Falangism (fascists) (Fernández Almagro, Manuel Machado, Sánchez Mazas) and more moderate right-wing intellectuals such as Baroja, el Conde de Romanones et al. As Miguel A. Iglesias has already pointed out in an article on this third PEN Club, this majority of right-wing intellectuals was an even more conspicuous presence since these right-wing movements were socially and politically in the minority during the Second Republic. The various Spanish PEN Clubs between the wars were neither the first nor the most successful attempt to unite Spanish writers regardless of their aesthetic or political tenor. In the 19th century the various liberal Athenaea were founded, as well as a considerable number of other associations that tried to defend the rights of authors, artists and musicians. A number of other initiatives arose between the wars, such as the Unión de Autores, the banquets that *La Gaceta Literaria* organised, and the publishing house named Compañía Iberoamericana de Publicaciones, which was set up with the financial support of the Bauer Bank. Despite their good credentials and undoubtedly extremely noble intentions, these initiatives were all to end in failure. The extreme heteronomy of the Spanish literary and artistic fields and the political polarisation between the wars explain why not only the PEN Clubs, but also other associations turned out not to be feasible in that period. [less ▲]

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See detailFibrosis and pulmonary function tests - New therapeutic options for respiratory diseases.
Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Proceedings of the Meeting of German specialists in internal medicine (ECVIM-CA-Internal Medicine) - Viernheim - 3rd December 2011 (2011, December)

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See detailConstrained sparse estimation for improved fault isolation
Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2011), 133(12), 121602

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See detailRapport d'activité du projet Health CoP 2011
Denis, Brigitte ULg; Snoeck, Céline ULg

Report (2011)

Rapport d'activité en lien avec les actions menées en milieu hospitalier. Création et animation de communautés de pratique supportées par les TIC.

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See detailChronique bibliographique - 2005-2008
Veymiers, Richard ULg; Bricault, Laurent; Budischovsky, Marie-Christine et al

in Bricault, Laurent; Veymiers, Richard (Eds.) Bibliotheca Isiaca II (2011)

Chronique bibliographique qui, sur le modèle de "l’Inventaire Bibliographique des Isiaca" (IBIS), publié dans les "ÉPRO" entre 1972 et 1991, recense, avec un commentaire critique, les publications ... [more ▼]

Chronique bibliographique qui, sur le modèle de "l’Inventaire Bibliographique des Isiaca" (IBIS), publié dans les "ÉPRO" entre 1972 et 1991, recense, avec un commentaire critique, les publications touchant aux cultes isiaques entre 2005 et 2008. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la pression partielle en hydrogène sur la production anaérobie de bioH2 par une bactérie chimiotrophe du genre Clostridium dans un nouveau réacteur à cylindre horizontal rotatif.
Beckers, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Hamilton, Christopher ULg et al

in Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés (2011, December), 101

Hydrogen is widely considered as the most promising energetic carrier. At an industrial scale, steam reforming of methane is currently the major hydrogen producing process. But it may also be produced ... [more ▼]

Hydrogen is widely considered as the most promising energetic carrier. At an industrial scale, steam reforming of methane is currently the major hydrogen producing process. But it may also be produced from renewable biomass. Indeed, the fermentative production of hydrogen from renewable biomass using anaerobic bacteria could at least partially reduce our dependence on fossil fuel, decrease the carbon dioxide emissions and produce “green” energy. It offers the potential production of usable hydrogen from a variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrates wastes from agriculture or agro-food industries. This technology is based on anaerobic fermentation, called dark fermentation, by chemotrophic bacteria. The investigations carried out at CWBI involve selection and characterization of bacteria strains able to produce biohydrogen efficiently and with a wide range of substrate. The selected strains at the laboratory has been characterised as Clostridium sp. In order to produce hydrogen at high yields and production rates, the biotechnological process needs to be further optimized and efficient bioreactors must be designed. At CWBI, a new reactor called “horizontal rotating cylinder bioreactor” allows the production of biohydrogen from glucose with our Clostridium sp. strain with a high yield and production rate. This reactor, working continuously, has an internal volume of 2.3l but a working volume (liquid phase) of 300ml. Firstly, it enhances the hydrogen production rate by partially fixing the bacteria on the porous cylinder and thus increasing the cell concentration in the bioreactor. Secondly, the rotative cylinder enables efficient gas transfer (mainly hydrogen) from the liquid phase where it is produced by the bacteria. This is an important way to enhance hydrogen production yield by allowing the bacteria metabolism to shift in a fermentation type that produces more hydrogen. This was confirmed by increasing or decreasing the total pressure in the bioreactor and observing the influence of hydrogen production. The liquid to gas hydrogen transfer is possibly an important factor to enhance the biogas production. Our investigation confirmed this by testing different liquid to gas transfer condition in BHP test (batch fermentation in 250ml serum bottles).This was made either by decreasing total and partial pressure or by increasing the mixing state of the media. Our work concludes the importance of providing good liquid to gas transfers in the biohydrogen producing reactors to enhance the hydrogen production and reach higher yields and production rates. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel amphiphilic mikto-arm star-shaped copolymers for the preparation of PLA-based nanocarriers
Cajot, Sébastien ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Billiet, Leen et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2011), 309/310(1), 111-122

Three-arm (A2B) and four-arm (A2B2) star-shaped copolymers based on biocompatible and biodegradable hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) (A arms) and biocompatible and bioeliminable hydrophilic poly ... [more ▼]

Three-arm (A2B) and four-arm (A2B2) star-shaped copolymers based on biocompatible and biodegradable hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) (A arms) and biocompatible and bioeliminable hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (B arms) were synthesized by the coupling of an ω-azide terminated PEO chains with PCL chain bearing one (A2B) or two (A2B2) alkyne functions at the middle of the chain by the copper mediated azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The amphiphilic behavior of these different stars was confirmed by micellization experiments in water followed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The efficiency to stabilize PLA nanoparticles was investigated in function of the stars structure. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

Conference (2011, December)

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See detailInfluence des traitements de steam explosion sur la dégradation thermique des fibres de cellulose
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Quievy; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

Poster (2011, December)

La présente étude a pour but d’identifier l’impact de différents traitements de steam explosion sur les propriétés de dégradation thermique des fibres de cellulose. Dans un premier temps, les intensités ... [more ▼]

La présente étude a pour but d’identifier l’impact de différents traitements de steam explosion sur les propriétés de dégradation thermique des fibres de cellulose. Dans un premier temps, les intensités des traitements appliqués ont été définies sur base d’un facteur de sévérité (SF), établi par une corrélation entre le temps de séjour et la température du process. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la dégradation thermique des fibres de cellulose reste limitée lorsque la valeur du facteur de sévérité est inférieure à 4.0. Aux intensités supérieures, le dosage des produits de dégradation montre une croissante importante des concentrations en hydroxyméthylfurfurals (5-HMF) dans les phases liquides issues des différents traitements. Lorsque la valeur du facteur de sévérité dépasse 5.2, les analyses TGA indiquent que l’augmentation des produits de dégradation est couplée à une croissance importante du taux de résidus carbonés, indiquant une forte dégradation thermique de la cellulose [less ▲]

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See detailPréface [à "Blancs et Noirs"]
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in Blancs et Noirs (2011)

Foreword of a portfolio devoted to the jazz by Argentinian artist José Muñoz

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See detailLa performance de l’Etat-providence européen. Quel enseignement pour la Belgique?
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in Regards Economiques (2011), 93

Dans ce numéro de Regards économiques, nous présentons une mesure multidimensionnelle de la performance des Etats- providence de l’Union européenne. Cette mesure permet de comparer la performance des pays ... [more ▼]

Dans ce numéro de Regards économiques, nous présentons une mesure multidimensionnelle de la performance des Etats- providence de l’Union européenne. Cette mesure permet de comparer la performance des pays de l’Europe des 15 avec celle des 12 nouveaux membres; elle donne aussi la possibilité de tester l’hypothèse d’un éventuel dumping social; enfin elle peut être utilisée pour mieux appréhender la performance de la protection sociale de la Belgique et de ses composantes régionales. [less ▲]

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See detailLayering of Size and Type Noun Constructions in English
Brems, Lieselotte ULg

Book published by Mouton de Gruyter - 1st (2011)

On the basis of synchronic and diachronic data analysis, the volume takes a close look at the synchronic layers of binominal size noun and type noun uses (a bunch/a load of X; a sort of X; a Y type of X ... [more ▼]

On the basis of synchronic and diachronic data analysis, the volume takes a close look at the synchronic layers of binominal size noun and type noun uses (a bunch/a load of X; a sort of X; a Y type of X) and reconsiders the framework of grammaticalization in view of issues raised by the phrases under discussion. As a result, a construction grammar-approach to grammaticalization is developed which does justice to the syntagmatic lexical, or collocational, reclustering observed in the data within an eclectic cognitive-functional approach. Prices subject to change. Shipping costs will be added. Current pricing is based [less ▲]

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See detailLa sémiotique, entre autres / Semiotics, among others
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Provenzano, François ULg; Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2011), 2

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See detailMath et Manips à l'école primaire. Favoriser l'apprentissage des grandeurs par des manipulations
Guissard, Marie-France; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Losanges (2011), 15

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