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See detailAssessment of Mytilus galloprovincialis to monitor 19 trace elements in the Calvi Bay
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Vermeulen, Simon; Biondo, Renzo ULg et al

Poster (2011, December 08)

Mussel caging with Mytilus galloprovincialis has been successively used to monitor classic trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb) pollution of Mediterranean coastal waters at spatial scales ranging from ... [more ▼]

Mussel caging with Mytilus galloprovincialis has been successively used to monitor classic trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb) pollution of Mediterranean coastal waters at spatial scales ranging from 10 to 100km. However, its relevance as bioindicator at smaller scales (100 m - 1 km) is poorly known. Moreover, the levels of some little studied trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Sb, Sn, Ag, Mo, Se, As, Co, Be, Bi), recently identified as potential pollutants of coastal environments, have not yet been assessed in that species. In this work, M. galloprovincialis was used to monitor the 19 listed trace elements at the scale of the Calvi Bay (NW Corsica, France). Additionally, we investigated decontamination kinetics and trace element tissue speciation before and after spawning. Mytilus galloprovincialis trace element levels reflect the good water quality of the Calvi Bay, showing little spatial variations either at 100m or 1km scales. Filter feeders are only influenced by their relatively homogeneous pelagic environment (dissolved trace elements and suspended particulate matters), in contrast to organisms which inhabit typically heterogeneous benthic habitats. This bioindicator, a convincing candidate for the monitoring of the 12 little studied trace elements, effectively accumulates the 19 studied elements to 105 seawater concentrations. Mytilus galloprovincialis rapidly equilibrates (within days) with its environment, and is therefore a good indicator of chronic and stable chemical pollutions. Tissue speciation shows that the most relevant organ to monitor trace elements is the hepatopancreas. However, the important variability induced by the reproductive cycle of mussels requires using this bioindicator during its sexual dormancy. [less ▲]

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See detailLes méandres de la réception des travaux : exposé de synthèse
Kohl, Benoît ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

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See detailSpa au XVIIIe siècle: les chemins croisés de l'écriture
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

We follow those authors, artists, political and fashionable figures into their meetings, business, love affairs etc. in the "Café de l'Europe": Trenck, Anna-Amélia von Prussia, Marmontel, Marigny ... [more ▼]

We follow those authors, artists, political and fashionable figures into their meetings, business, love affairs etc. in the "Café de l'Europe": Trenck, Anna-Amélia von Prussia, Marmontel, Marigny, Bassompierre, Henry Ellis, Philippe Fermin, Alfieri, Needham; Clootz, Fragonard, Grimm, Henry von Prussia, Raynal, Grimm, Shelburne, the "beau" Lauzun, Sarah Lennox, the princess Czartoryska, Le Gendre, Ketterlin, Gallien de Salmorenc, Mercy-Argenteau, the couple Guéménée, the duchess Polignac, Georgiana Spencer,etc. [less ▲]

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See detailLes méthodes de datation appliquées à l’archéologie du bâti
Blain, Sophie ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

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See detailObservations of the White Light Corona from Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus
Howard, Russell; Thernisien, Arnaud; Vourlidas, Angelos et al

Conference (2011, December 08)

The SoloHI instrument on Solar Orbiter and the WISPR instrument on Solar Probe+ will make white light coronagraphic images of the corona as the two spacecraft orbit the Sun. The minimum perihelia for ... [more ▼]

The SoloHI instrument on Solar Orbiter and the WISPR instrument on Solar Probe+ will make white light coronagraphic images of the corona as the two spacecraft orbit the Sun. The minimum perihelia for Solar Orbiter is about 60 Rsun and for SP+ is 9.5 Rsun. The wide field of view of the WISPR instrument (about 105 degrees radially) corresponds to viewing the corona from 2.2 Rsun to 20 Rsun. Thus the entire Thomson hemisphere is contained within the telescope’s field and we need to think of the instrument as being a traditional remote sensing instrument and then transitioning to a local in-situ instrument. The local behavior derives from the fact that the maximum Thomson scattering will favor the electron plasma close to the spacecraft - exactly what the in-situ instruments will be sampling. SoloHI and WISPR will also observe scattered light from dust in the inner heliosphere, which will be an entirely new spatial regime for dust observations from a coronagraph, which we assume to arise from dust in the general neighborhood of about half way between the observer and the Sun. As the dust grains approach the Sun, they evaporate and do not contribute to the scattering. A dust free zone has been postulated to exist somewhere inside of 5 Rsun where all dust is evaporated, but this has never been observed. The radial position where the evaporation occurs will depend on the precise molecular composition of the individual grains. The orbital plane of Solar Orbiter will gradually increase up to about 35 degrees, enabling a very different view through the zodiacal dust cloud to test the models generated from in-ecliptic observations. In this paper we will explore some of the issues associated with the observation of the dust and will present a simple model to explore the sensitivity of the instrument to observe such evaporations. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation environnementale de la production d'électricité photovoltaïque par Analyse du Cycle de Vie
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Poster session: Quelles approches transversales pour intégrer le développement durable dans la recherche? Exemples en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (2011, December 08)

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See detailSafety of long-term treatment of HAM/TSP patients with valproic acid
Olindo, Stéphane; Belrose, Gildas; Gillet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Blood (2011), 118(24), 6306-6309

HTLV-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system induced by Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). As a potential ... [more ▼]

HTLV-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system induced by Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). As a potential therapeutic approach, we previously suggested reducing the proviral load (PVL) by modulating lysine deacetylase activity using valproic acid (VPA) and exposing virus-positive cells to the host immune response. We conducted a single-center, two-year open-label trial, with 19 HAM/TSP volunteers treated with oral VPA. PVL, CD38/HLA-DR expression and CD8+ lysis efficiency were not significantly affected by VPA. Mean scores of HAM/TSP disability did not differ between baseline and final visit. Walking Time Test (WTT) increased significantly (>20%) in 3 patients and was in keeping with minor VPA side effects (drowsiness and tremor). WTT improved rapidly after VPA discontinuation. We conclude that long term treatment with VPA is safe in HAM/TSP. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized Prediction of End-to-End Network Performance Classes
Liao, Yongjun ULg; Du, Wei; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in Proc. of the 7th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) (2011, December 08)

In large-scale networks, full-mesh active probing of end-to-end performance metrics is infeasible. Measuring a small set of pairs and predicting the others is more scalable. Under this framework, we ... [more ▼]

In large-scale networks, full-mesh active probing of end-to-end performance metrics is infeasible. Measuring a small set of pairs and predicting the others is more scalable. Under this framework, we formulate the prediction problem as matrix completion, whereby unknown entries of an incomplete matrix of pairwise measurements are to be predicted. This problem can be solved by matrix factorization because performance matrices have a low rank, thanks to the correlations among measurements. Moreover, its resolution can be fully decentralized without actually building matrices nor relying on special landmarks or central servers. In this paper we demonstrate that this approach is also applicable when the performance values are not measured exactly, but are only known to belong to one among some predefined performance classes, such as "good" and "bad". Such classification-based formulation not only fulfills the requirements of many Internet applications but also reduces the measurement cost and enables a unified treatment of various performance metrics. We propose a decentralized approach based on Stochastic Gradient Descent to solve this class-based matrix completion problem. Experiments on various datasets, relative to two kinds of metrics, show the accuracy of the approach, its robustness against erroneous measurements and its usability on peer selection. [less ▲]

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See detailAurores sur les planètes géantes
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

Depuis les premières détections d'émissions aurorales par les sondes Voyager à la fin des années 70, nos connaissances des aurores de Jupiter et de Saturne ont considérablement progressé. Je présenterai ... [more ▼]

Depuis les premières détections d'émissions aurorales par les sondes Voyager à la fin des années 70, nos connaissances des aurores de Jupiter et de Saturne ont considérablement progressé. Je présenterai ici quelques uns des derniers résultats obtenus à l'aide du télescope spatial Hubble et de la sonde Cassini en orbite autour de Saturne. Ces images acquises dans le domaine ultraviolet révèlent une complexité que l'on commence seulement à appréhender. Assemblées en séquences, elles dévoilent une dynamique surprenante. Flashs, pulsations, expansions, contractions, apparitions, disparitions, fusions, séparations et mouvements relatifs de structures étendues sur des dizaines de milliers de kilomètres ou localisés sur quelques centaines de kilomètres : la diversité des comportements que nous observons est le témoignage de la richesse des processus en œuvre dans les magnétosphères de Jupiter et Saturne. Lunes exotiques, volcans et geysers colossaux, champs magnétiques gigantesques et rotations planétaires rapides sont les ingrédients de ce surprenant laboratoire de physique des plasmas. [less ▲]

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See detailLe trasformazioni della "Peripèteia"
Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 07)

An analysis of the notion of "peripèteia" in Aristotle's Poetics: is it a narratologic, formal category or an interpretative one?

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See detailDesign of reversibly disulfide core cross-linked polymer micelles
Cajot, Sébastien ULg; Schol, Daureen ULg; Danhier, F. et al

Poster (2011, December 07)

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See detailSaving our soil information, making our soil map more understandable, usable and useful in the digital era: contribution of the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia Project
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Michel, Brieuc ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, December 07)

Due to greater awareness of the necessity to preserve soil functions from human pressure on the environment, the need for soil information is increasing. Supported by the evolution of technologies these ... [more ▼]

Due to greater awareness of the necessity to preserve soil functions from human pressure on the environment, the need for soil information is increasing. Supported by the evolution of technologies these last decades, great efforts were achieved to provide up-to-date, high resolution, continuous data on soil properties. These efforts are valuable and necessary, but they are often restricted to limited surfaces. Morevover, each of these data reveals partial picture of the soil and doesn’t give an insight into their genesis, organisation and functionality. Therefore the Soil Map of Belgium remains an essential resource. On the other hand, foreign (soil) scientists frequently claim that we (the Belgium country) have a prodigious soil map and implicitly conclude we don’t need any more soil information. More questionable, many users of the now available digital soil maps think they obtained the « Holy Grail » allowing them to extract all the information they need about soil. This is clearly not the case, many currently « wanted » soil parameters being either missing, or displaying insufficient precision. But the wealthy potential of the Soil Map of Belgium in itself is not enough nor always advisedly used. Here are some of the multiple reasons to underline: (i) the map and its legend are complex and few people take/have time to (properly) learn it before use ; (ii) the great number of legend units is confusing for users, lacking tools for organising and stratifying their data ; (iii) the easygoing use (from a GIS point of view) of the legend units, due to their concatenated structure and facilitated by the split structure of the digital map’s attribute table, leads incidiously to a clearcut « symbol by symbol » use of the map, coupled with strict definition of the symbols. Hence a sharp loss of information and comprehension emerging from the whole legend unit or linked to the interpretation of the symbols ; (iv) without the undeniable expert knowledge of the generation who made the map, the current users don’t have in mind the regional nuance, the numerous implicit information lying into the legend, the concepts used during the survey and reflecting state of knowledge on soil formation and their relative importance for agricultural land-use in the 1950s ; (v) the new generation is desperatly short of practice of soil observation in the field ; (vi) a wealth of information is also being lost when the field notes, unpublished reports, minutes of meetings and draft maps are being disregarded, as well as other legacy data associated with the map (booklets, monographs, …). This presentation will show through selected examples how the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia Project contribute to overcome this situation in order to reach this ambitious but feasible objective : a better understanding and use of the Soil Map of Belgium by the maximum of people. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse, mise en forme et frittage de céramiques thermoélectriques de formulation In2-xGexO3
Combe, Emmanuel ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Ce travail de thèse porte sur l’étude des relations procédé, micro/nanostructures et propriétés thermoélectriques de composés oxydes de formulation In2-xGexO3. Dans ce contexte, des techniques de synthèse ... [more ▼]

Ce travail de thèse porte sur l’étude des relations procédé, micro/nanostructures et propriétés thermoélectriques de composés oxydes de formulation In2-xGexO3. Dans ce contexte, des techniques de synthèse des poudres par chimie douce (procédé citrate), de mise en forme en milieu liquide (coulage en moule poreux) et de frittage non conventionnel des céramiques (frittage micro-ondes) ont été développées. Par comparaison à des procédés d’élaboration classiques, le développement du procédé citrate a permis la préparation de microstructures homogènes permettant d’optimiser les propriétés de transport. La figure de mérite ZT des composés In2-xGexO3 atteint ainsi des valeurs supérieures à 0,3 à 1000 K. Afin de mieux contrôler la densification pendant le frittage, l’utilisation d’une technique de mise en forme par coulage en moule poreux a été expérimentée et des densités après frittage proches de la densité théorique ont pu être obtenues grâce à une mise en ordre optimisée des particules dans les composés crus. Le développement du frittage micro-ondes à ce type de matériau a par ailleurs permis d’obtenir des microstructures très fines (taille de grains inferieure à 500 nm). Un dispositif thermoélectrique (surface de 35 × 40 mm², 56 jambes) de formulations Ca3Co4O9 et In1.994Sn0.006O3 a été également réalisé. Celui-ci délivre une puissance de 480 mW pour un gradient de température de 550 K. Ces différentes études ouvrent des perspectives intéressantes dans l’élaboration de composés et de dispositifs thermoélectriques à base d’éléments oxydes présentant des performances accrues. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiently Approximating Markov Tree Bagging for High-Dimensional Density Estimation
Schnitzler, François ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 07)

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See detailChanges in histone H4 acetylation during in vivo versus in vitro maturation of equine oocytes
Franciosi, Federica; Lodde, Valentina; Goudet, Ghylène et al

in Molecular Human Reproduction (2011)

Epigenetic modifications are established during gametogenesis and preimplantation embryonic development. Any disturbance of the normal natural environment during these critical phases could cause ... [more ▼]

Epigenetic modifications are established during gametogenesis and preimplantation embryonic development. Any disturbance of the normal natural environment during these critical phases could cause alterations of the epigenetic signature. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of chromatin organization and gene expression. The present study was aimed to determine whether the proper establishment of post-translational histone H4 acetylation at lysine 8 (AcH4K8), 12 (AcH4K12), and 16 (AcH4K16) of equine oocytes is adversely affected during in vitro maturation when compared to in vivo matured oocytes collected from naturally cycling mares not undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation. The acetylation patterns were investigated by means of indirect immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies directed against the acetylated lysine residues. Our results indicate that the acetylation state of H4 is dependent on the chromatin configuration in immature GV stage oocytes and it changes in a residue-specific manner along with the increase of chromatin condensation. In particular, the levels of AcH4K8 and AcH4K12 increased significantly, while AcH4K16 decreased significantly from the fibrillar to the condensed state of chromatin configuration within the GV. Moreover, during meiosis K8 and K12 were substantially deacetylated without any differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions, while K16 displayed a strong acetylation in oocytes matured in vivo, and in contrast, it was markedly deacetylated following in vitro maturation. Although the functional meaning of residue-specific acetylation during oocyte differentiation and meiotic resumption needs further investigation, our results support the hypothesis that in vitro maturation conditions can adversely affect oocyte ability to regulate the epigenetic reprogramming, critical for successful meiosis and subsequent embryonic development. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective conservation of an endangered newt species (Triturus cristatus): determinants from local to landscape scales
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Perez, Amélie; Ficetola, Francesco

Conference (2011, December 07)

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See detailComment programmer un système neuronal avec un langage et une conscience ?
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Acta Europeana Systemica (2011, December 07), 1

This communication deals with the question to know if this is possible to program a neural system with a language and a consciousness. There are several levels and categories of language, by example ... [more ▼]

This communication deals with the question to know if this is possible to program a neural system with a language and a consciousness. There are several levels and categories of language, by example, verbal and non-verbal languages, signs language, etc. There are also several levels and categories of consciousness, by example, verbal consciousness, non-verbal selfconsciousness, and absence of consciousness with the a-consciousness. By a systemic approach, we extend the role of the brain to the whole neural ectoderm, including the nervous systems, the brainstem, the brain, and the skin that is the actual envelope of the brain to the environment. This paper will demonstrate that such a neural system can be programmed, on the basis of scientific research in experimental neurosciences and in artificial intelligence, extending de facto all the possibilities of learning of classical neural networks. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Acta Europeana Systemica (2011, December 07), 1

This article presents a systemic approach to the concept of natural intelligence with the aim of creating an artificial intelligence. Thus, the natural intelligence, human and nonhuman animals, is a ... [more ▼]

This article presents a systemic approach to the concept of natural intelligence with the aim of creating an artificial intelligence. Thus, the natural intelligence, human and nonhuman animals, is a function composed of faculties to know and understand. In addition, natural intelligence is inseparable from the structure, namely the organs of the brain and body. The temptation is to equip computer systems with artificial intelligence that should have a function composed of the same faculties as those encompassed in human intelligence. The artificial intelligence must also remain inseparable from the structure, namely the organs of an artificial brain and an artificial body. As a result, the artificial robot is the ideal structure to see the emergence of a strong artificial intelligence. Note that a weak artificial intelligence is developed on computer systems by a simulation program of intelligence. In this paper, neural programmable memories will be presented and simulated [less ▲]

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