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See detailGenital re-excretion of Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 following intranasal infection
François, Sylvie ULg; Vidick, Sarah ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2011, December 09)

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model, related animal gammaherpesviruses are an important source of information. We are studying Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) in inbred laboratory mouse strains which are commonly accepted as a good model for studying gammaherpesviruses in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral reexcretion and virus transmission in this species. In order to identify potential re-excretion sites, intranasally infected mice were followed through global luciferase imaging for up to six months after infection. Surprisingly, we detected transient viral replication in mice genital tract at various times after latency establishment. Ex vivo imaging, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that virus genomes were present in high quantity in the vaginal tissue and that viral replication occurred mainly at the vaginal external border. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of free infectious viruses in the vaginal cavity at the moment of the observation of viral replication. As this ephemeral viral reexcretion could reveal a link with reproductive cycle, we compared reexcretion in normal and ovariectomized mice. Interestingly, no viral reactivation was observed in absence of hormonal cycle. In conclusion, we experimentally indentified for the first time a reexcretion site for MuHV-4 in mice that had been intranasaly infected. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses but should also allow us to develop strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloid HIF-1alpha prevents airway allergy in mice by promoting macrophage-mediated immunosuppression
Toussaint, Marie ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2011, December 09)

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See detailCaractérisation des viandes bovines à très longue durée de conservation sous vide
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Nezer, Carine ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2011, December 09)

Le but de cette étude a été d’évaluer la conservabilité de viandes bovines de différentes origines (Royaume-Uni et Irlande, Australie et Brésil) et l’influence sur celle-ci de la température de ... [more ▼]

Le but de cette étude a été d’évaluer la conservabilité de viandes bovines de différentes origines (Royaume-Uni et Irlande, Australie et Brésil) et l’influence sur celle-ci de la température de conservation (1 °C vs. +4 °C). Des paramètres physico-chimiques (pH, couleur, proportion des différentes formes redox de la myoglobine (FRMb), indice TBARS et acides organiques) et microbiologiques (flore aérobie totale, flore lactique, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. et Brochothrix thermosphacta) ont été mesurés sur sept lots de contre-filet conditionnés sous vide : aux ⅔ de la DLC et à la fin de la DLC. La diversité bactérienne a été évaluée par galeries API50 CHL et par métagénomique. Le pH a diminué au cours de la conservation dans deux lots. La couleur et la proportion des FRMb sont restées stables. Une augmentation de l’indice TBARS, plus prononcée à +4 °C, a été observée. Les viandes australiennes et brésilienne ont présenté des taux en acides acétique et citrique plus élevés. Tous les lots conservés à 1 °C ont présenté une qualité microbiologique satisfaisante à la fin de leur DLC (viandes britanniques et irlandaises = 35 ~ 45 jours; australiennes = 140 jours et brésilienne = 120 jours). La conservation à +4 °C a favorisé la croissance d’entérobactéries, facteur limitant de la conservation de plusieurs lots. L’identification bactérienne a révélé la présence de bactéries connues pour leur effet bioprotecteur. La phase ultérieure de ce travail consistera à étudier la dynamique de la flore microbienne endogène en fonction des conditions environnementales appliquées (température, atmosphère). [less ▲]

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See detailEtude sur les pratiques de formation des "nouveaux entrants" au sein du secteur Agoria
Remy, Céline ULg

Conference (2011, December 08)

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See detailAurores sur les planètes géantes
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

Depuis les premières détections d'émissions aurorales par les sondes Voyager à la fin des années 70, nos connaissances des aurores de Jupiter et de Saturne ont considérablement progressé. Je présenterai ... [more ▼]

Depuis les premières détections d'émissions aurorales par les sondes Voyager à la fin des années 70, nos connaissances des aurores de Jupiter et de Saturne ont considérablement progressé. Je présenterai ici quelques uns des derniers résultats obtenus à l'aide du télescope spatial Hubble et de la sonde Cassini en orbite autour de Saturne. Ces images acquises dans le domaine ultraviolet révèlent une complexité que l'on commence seulement à appréhender. Assemblées en séquences, elles dévoilent une dynamique surprenante. Flashs, pulsations, expansions, contractions, apparitions, disparitions, fusions, séparations et mouvements relatifs de structures étendues sur des dizaines de milliers de kilomètres ou localisés sur quelques centaines de kilomètres : la diversité des comportements que nous observons est le témoignage de la richesse des processus en œuvre dans les magnétosphères de Jupiter et Saturne. Lunes exotiques, volcans et geysers colossaux, champs magnétiques gigantesques et rotations planétaires rapides sont les ingrédients de ce surprenant laboratoire de physique des plasmas. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term biogeochemical impacts of liming the ocean
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULg et al

Conference (2011, December 08)

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate impacts of CO2 emissions and resulting ocean acidification that are based on this property. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) in the upper ocean and is termed as liming the oceans. The net effect of this approach is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases only alter alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturb both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in the amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the longterm effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivariant quantization in supergeometry
Radoux, Fabian ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

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See detailTable ronde autour de "La matrice de la race" (E. Dorlin)
Pieret, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 08)

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See detailChitosan-based biomimetic scaffolds and methods for preparing the same
Filée, Patrice; Freichels, Astrid ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

Patent (2011)

The invention concerns chitosan biomimetic scaffolds and methods for modulating their intrinsic properties such as rigidity, elasticity, resistance to mechanical stress, porosity, biodegradation and ... [more ▼]

The invention concerns chitosan biomimetic scaffolds and methods for modulating their intrinsic properties such as rigidity, elasticity, resistance to mechanical stress, porosity, biodegradation and absorbance of exudates. Therefore, the present invention relates to a layered chitosan scaffold wherein said layered scaffold comprises at least two fused layers, wherein at least one of the fused layers comprises a chitosan nanofiber membrane and the other fused layer comprises a porous chitosan support layer. Moreover, the present invention provides a layered chitosan scaffold characterized by (i) a good adhesion between the porous and nanofiber layers, (ii) a tuneable porosity of the nanofiber layer by tuning the distance between the nanofibers, (iii) a stable nanofibers and porous morphology even when immersed in water or other solvents and a process for the preparation of such layered chitosan scaffold. Finally, the present invention provides the use of the layered electrospun chitosan scaffold of the invention or the layered electrospun chitosan scaffold produced by the process of the invention as a wound dressing, in tissue engineering or for biomedical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation à la microtomographie
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg

Learning material (2011)

This course is a two-day presentation of the basic workings of X-ray tomography, current local applications of microtomography in the applied chemistry department, typical image analysis tools for ... [more ▼]

This course is a two-day presentation of the basic workings of X-ray tomography, current local applications of microtomography in the applied chemistry department, typical image analysis tools for extracting measurements, and a practical look at a particular piece of equipment, the Skyscan 1172 desktop microtomograph, and its software. The target audience is users of such equipment, with little to no background in X-ray physics, computer science or image analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Mytilus galloprovincialis to monitor 19 trace elements in the Calvi Bay
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Vermeulen, Simon; Biondo, Renzo ULg et al

Poster (2011, December 08)

Mussel caging with Mytilus galloprovincialis has been successively used to monitor classic trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb) pollution of Mediterranean coastal waters at spatial scales ranging from ... [more ▼]

Mussel caging with Mytilus galloprovincialis has been successively used to monitor classic trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb) pollution of Mediterranean coastal waters at spatial scales ranging from 10 to 100km. However, its relevance as bioindicator at smaller scales (100 m - 1 km) is poorly known. Moreover, the levels of some little studied trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Sb, Sn, Ag, Mo, Se, As, Co, Be, Bi), recently identified as potential pollutants of coastal environments, have not yet been assessed in that species. In this work, M. galloprovincialis was used to monitor the 19 listed trace elements at the scale of the Calvi Bay (NW Corsica, France). Additionally, we investigated decontamination kinetics and trace element tissue speciation before and after spawning. Mytilus galloprovincialis trace element levels reflect the good water quality of the Calvi Bay, showing little spatial variations either at 100m or 1km scales. Filter feeders are only influenced by their relatively homogeneous pelagic environment (dissolved trace elements and suspended particulate matters), in contrast to organisms which inhabit typically heterogeneous benthic habitats. This bioindicator, a convincing candidate for the monitoring of the 12 little studied trace elements, effectively accumulates the 19 studied elements to 105 seawater concentrations. Mytilus galloprovincialis rapidly equilibrates (within days) with its environment, and is therefore a good indicator of chronic and stable chemical pollutions. Tissue speciation shows that the most relevant organ to monitor trace elements is the hepatopancreas. However, the important variability induced by the reproductive cycle of mussels requires using this bioindicator during its sexual dormancy. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations of the White Light Corona from Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus
Howard, Russell; Thernisien, Arnaud; Vourlidas, Angelos et al

Conference (2011, December 08)

The SoloHI instrument on Solar Orbiter and the WISPR instrument on Solar Probe+ will make white light coronagraphic images of the corona as the two spacecraft orbit the Sun. The minimum perihelia for ... [more ▼]

The SoloHI instrument on Solar Orbiter and the WISPR instrument on Solar Probe+ will make white light coronagraphic images of the corona as the two spacecraft orbit the Sun. The minimum perihelia for Solar Orbiter is about 60 Rsun and for SP+ is 9.5 Rsun. The wide field of view of the WISPR instrument (about 105 degrees radially) corresponds to viewing the corona from 2.2 Rsun to 20 Rsun. Thus the entire Thomson hemisphere is contained within the telescope’s field and we need to think of the instrument as being a traditional remote sensing instrument and then transitioning to a local in-situ instrument. The local behavior derives from the fact that the maximum Thomson scattering will favor the electron plasma close to the spacecraft - exactly what the in-situ instruments will be sampling. SoloHI and WISPR will also observe scattered light from dust in the inner heliosphere, which will be an entirely new spatial regime for dust observations from a coronagraph, which we assume to arise from dust in the general neighborhood of about half way between the observer and the Sun. As the dust grains approach the Sun, they evaporate and do not contribute to the scattering. A dust free zone has been postulated to exist somewhere inside of 5 Rsun where all dust is evaporated, but this has never been observed. The radial position where the evaporation occurs will depend on the precise molecular composition of the individual grains. The orbital plane of Solar Orbiter will gradually increase up to about 35 degrees, enabling a very different view through the zodiacal dust cloud to test the models generated from in-ecliptic observations. In this paper we will explore some of the issues associated with the observation of the dust and will present a simple model to explore the sensitivity of the instrument to observe such evaporations. [less ▲]

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