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See detailAssessment of exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds in epidemiological studies on breast cancer : a literature review and perspectives for the CECILE study
Bachelet, D.; Verner, M.-A.; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, C. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2010), 65(1), 49-57

Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplastic disease in women representing 50,000 new cases each year in France. The well-established risk factors, as those related to the reproductive history, cannot ... [more ▼]

Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplastic disease in women representing 50,000 new cases each year in France. The well-established risk factors, as those related to the reproductive history, cannot account for all cases of breast cancer. Other environmental or lifestyle factors need to be explored in depth. Persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) have attracted attention because of their endocrine disrupting properties that make them possible risk factors for breast cancer, but most epidemiological studies did not report an association between OC concentrations in blood or adipose tissue and breast cancer risk. In these studies, OC levels were measured in biological samples obtained at the time of cancer diagnosis or only a few years before. In this paper, we review the studies on dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) exposures in relation to breast cancer. We discuss the relevance of OC biological measurements as lifelong exposure indicators, and we describe a new method for assessing exposure to OCs in epiderniological studies. Most studies were carried out recently and reported OC concentrations that were substantially lower than those reported during the 1960s and 1970s. We make the assumption that these OC levels were not reliable indicators, as they were not measured during etiologically relevant periods in a woman's lifetime, i.e. during the prenatal period, the puberty or the period before a first full-term pregnancy, which are regarded as key periods of vulnerability of mammary gland cells to carcinogens. This may have resulted in non differential exposure misclassification and hence in the absence of an observed association between OC levels and breast cancer in most epidemiological studies. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models allow estimating persistent organic pollutant lifetime toxicokinetics profiles retrospec- tively in women, by taking into account individual differences in metabolism and key events that affect OC kinetics such as lactation and weight variations. PBPK models will be applied to the participants of a large French population-based case-control study including 1080 cases and 1055 controls. Exposure misclassification could have prevented from observing an association between exposure to OCs and breast cancer risk. PBPK models could be used as a novel way of assessing exposure to OCs and to investigate the impact of internal exposure at different time windows on breast cancer incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence Lianol Solapro on sow colostrums production
Wavreille, José; Planchon, Viviane; Renaville, Robert ULg et al

in 21 Inter. Pig Vet Society Congress (2010)

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See detailL'assurance obligatoire des architectes et la jurisprudence de la Cour constitutionnelle. Vers une réforme de l'assurance en droit de la construction?
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Durant, I.; de Briey, R. (Eds.) L'exercice de la profession d'architecte (2010)

Le débat sur l’assurance dans le secteur de la construction s’est trouvé sérieusement relancé à la suite de l’arrêt prononcé par la Cour constitutionnelle le 12 juillet 2007 . Cette décision constitue la ... [more ▼]

Le débat sur l’assurance dans le secteur de la construction s’est trouvé sérieusement relancé à la suite de l’arrêt prononcé par la Cour constitutionnelle le 12 juillet 2007 . Cette décision constitue la toile de fond de toute réflexion, non seulement quant au caractère – obligatoire ou facultatif – de l’assurance dans ce secteur, mais également quant aux contours que ce régime devrait adopter. Certaines initiatives ont du reste été déjà entreprises pour donner corps à un réforme du régime actuel ; une proposition de loi « relative à l’assurance responsabilité professionnelle des entrepreneurs de travaux immobiliers » vient ainsi d’être déposée très récemment au Sénat . La présente contribution fait le point sur cette question sensible. Après une analyse de l’arrêt du 12 juillet 2007, l'étude dégage les enseignements de cette décision du point de vue du devenir de l’assurance dans le secteur de la construction en droit belge. Enfin, quelques propositions pour une réforme du régime actuel sont formulées, et sont illustrées par un bref examen comparatif de la situation existant dans d’autres Etats membres de l’Union Européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une révision de la norme de production d'azote de la vache laitière : justification et conséquences sur le taux de liaison
Lambert, Richard; De Toffoli, M.; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Marcoen, Jean Marie; Vandenberghe, Christophe (Eds.) Acte de l'atelier "Nitrate - Eau" (2010)

Towards a revison of the dairy cow’s standard for nitrogen production: justification and what are consequences for soil link rate of dairy farms. At present, the dairy cow’s standard of nitrogen ... [more ▼]

Towards a revison of the dairy cow’s standard for nitrogen production: justification and what are consequences for soil link rate of dairy farms. At present, the dairy cow’s standard of nitrogen production in Walloon region is 90 kg per year. This standard is used to calculate the “soil link rate” of farms, a balance between the organic nitrogen to be spread on land and the quantity legally authorized considering grassland and arable land area. This standard is appreciably lower than that fixed by other member states and was criticized by the European Commission during the negotiations having ended in the second program of sustainable nitrogen management. Further to new studies, it seems that the gaseous loss of nitrogen averages in buildings and during the storage is weaker than the 15% value which was used to justify this 90 kg standard. It also seems that there are big differences of average dairy production and average rate of urea according to the agricultural regions and consequently that regional production standards correspond better to the reality. On basis of these mean values, the dairy cow’s annual productions of nitrogen vary between 81 kg per year in grassy region of Fagne and 99 kg per year in Haute Ardenne and in grassy region from Liege. For the Walloon region in general, the average production is 94 kg per year. The adoption of different values of dairy cow’s nitrogen production by region would lead to an increase of 8% of the soil link rate of dairy farms in Haute Ardenne and of 7% in grassy region from Liege and a decrease of 7% in grassy region of Fagne. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic of the Pelagia noctiluca outbreaks in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica)
Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Goffart, Anne ULg; Collignon, Amandine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 39th CIESM Congress (2010)

The interannual variations of the Schyphozoan jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca is estimated by weekly measurements in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica) from 2003. The mean annual abundance reaches a dramatic maximum ... [more ▼]

The interannual variations of the Schyphozoan jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca is estimated by weekly measurements in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica) from 2003. The mean annual abundance reaches a dramatic maximum in 2006. The medusae appear by migration of active swarms on the shelf and at the external limit of the Bay. Degraded individuals drift as passive swarms, throughout inner side of the Bay and embayments. [less ▲]

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See detailPb3Fe3+2(PO4)4(H2O), a new octahedral-tetrahedral framework structure with double-strand chains
Mills, Stuart; Kolitsch, Uwe; Miyawaki, R. et al

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2010), 22

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See detailTechniques de transformation, transformation des techniques
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Moutat, Audrey

Book published by Presses universitaires de Limoges (PULIM) (2010)

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See detailA phosphorylation switch regulates the transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulator p21 by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Simboeck, E.; Sawicka, A.; Zupkovitz, G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010)

Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising anti-cancer drugs. The CDK inhibitor p21 is activated in HDAC inhibitor treated tumor cells ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising anti-cancer drugs. The CDK inhibitor p21 is activated in HDAC inhibitor treated tumor cells and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3 zeta, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a crosstalk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells. [less ▲]

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See detailHedge fund return specification with errors-in-variables
Coën, Alain; Hübner, Georges ULg; Desfleurs, Aurélie

in Journal of Derivatives and Hedge Funds (2010), 16(1), 22-52

In linear models for hedge fund returns, errors-in-variables may significantly alter the measurement of factor loadings and the estimation of abnormal performance. The higher moment estimator (HME ... [more ▼]

In linear models for hedge fund returns, errors-in-variables may significantly alter the measurement of factor loadings and the estimation of abnormal performance. The higher moment estimator (HME) introduced by Dagenais and Dagenais (1997) effectively deals with these issues. Results on individual funds show that the HME specification does not uncover systematic performance biases, but can modify estimated alphas in most cases and identifies relative persistence for directional funds in bearish market conditions. Overall, the risk premia calculated with HME remain relatively stable when compared to ordinary least squares specifications. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular requirements for ethanol differential allosteric modulation of glycine receptors based on selective Gbetagamma modulation.
Yevenes, Gonzalo E; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Avila, Ariel et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(39), 30203-13

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol ... [more ▼]

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol sensitivity of diverse GlyR isoforms and mutants was explained by the presence of specific residues in putative alcohol pockets. Here, we demonstrate that ethanol sensitivity in two ligand-gated ion receptor members, the GlyR adult alpha(1) and embryonic alpha(2) subunits, can be modified through selective mutations that rescued or impaired Gbetagamma modulation. Even though both isoforms were able to physically interact with Gbetagamma, only the alpha(1) GlyR was functionally modulated by Gbetagamma and pharmacological ethanol concentrations. Remarkably, the simultaneous switching of two transmembrane and a single extracellular residue in alpha(2) GlyRs was enough to generate GlyRs modulated by Gbetagamma and low ethanol concentrations. Interestingly, although we found that these TM residues were different to those in the alcohol binding site, the extracellular residue was recently implicated in conformational changes important to generate a pre-open-activated state that precedes ion channel gating. Thus, these results support the idea that the differential ethanol sensitivity of these two GlyR isoforms rests on conformational changes in transmembrane and extracellular residues within the ion channel structure rather than in differences in alcohol binding pockets. Our results describe the molecular basis for the differential ethanol sensitivity of two ligand-gated ion receptor members based on selective Gbetagamma modulation and provide a new mechanistic framework for allosteric modulations of abuse drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailLes donations d'entrprises en region flamande
Douny, Raphaël ULg

in Manuel de planification patrimoniale (2010)

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See detailEffets des routes et des villes sur la forêt dense dans la province orientale de la République Démocratique du Congo
Bamba, I; Yedmel, M S; Bogaert, Jan ULg

in European Journal of Scientific Research (2010), 43(3), 417-429

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See detailBrain plasticity related to the consolidation of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation
Debas, K.; Carrier, J.; Orban, Patricia ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2010), 107(41), 17839-44

This study aimed to investigate, through functional MRI (fMRI), the neuronal substrates associated with the consolidation process of two motor skills: motor sequence learning (MSL) and motor adaptation ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate, through functional MRI (fMRI), the neuronal substrates associated with the consolidation process of two motor skills: motor sequence learning (MSL) and motor adaptation (MA). Four groups of young healthy individuals were assigned to either (i) a night/sleep condition, in which they were scanned while practicing a finger sequence learning task or an eight-target adaptation pointing task in the evening (test) and were scanned again 12 h later in the morning (retest) or (ii) a day/awake condition, in which they were scanned on the MSL or the MA tasks in the morning and were rescanned 12 h later in the evening. As expected and consistent with the behavioral results, the functional data revealed increased test-retest changes of activity in the striatum for the night/sleep group compared with the day/awake group in the MSL task. By contrast, the results of the MA task did not show any difference in test-retest activity between the night/sleep and day/awake groups. When the two MA task groups were combined, however, increased test-retest activity was found in lobule VI of the cerebellar cortex. Together, these findings highlight the presence of both functional and structural dissociations reflecting the off-line consolidation processes of MSL and MA. They suggest that MSL consolidation is sleep dependent and reflected by a differential increase of neural activity within the corticostriatal system, whereas MA consolidation necessitates either a period of daytime or sleep and is associated with increased neuronal activity within the corticocerebellar system. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques histoires du japonisme
Bawin, Julie ULg

in La Lettre des Académies (2010), 20

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See detailMetalub – A Slab Method software for the numerical simulation of mixed lubrication regime. Application to cold rolling
Carretta, Yves ULg; Stephany, Antoine; Legrand, Nicolas et al

in ICTMP 2010 - International Conference on Tribology in Manufacturing processes (2010)

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See detailLe role des objets-frontière dans le découpage temporel et social d'une innovation de service : Etude de cas d'un transfert de technologie depuis un laboratoire universitaire de sciences sociales
Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Faulx, Daniel ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Revue d'anthropologie des connaissances (2010), 4(1), 65-86

Aujourd’hui, les objets se voient attribuer un rôle important dans l’analyse des dynamiques sociales, notamment au travers des mécanismes de coordination entre les acteurs humains. Le concept d’objet ... [more ▼]

Aujourd’hui, les objets se voient attribuer un rôle important dans l’analyse des dynamiques sociales, notamment au travers des mécanismes de coordination entre les acteurs humains. Le concept d’objet-frontière a, pour sa part, permis d’enrichir l’approche de l’innovation. Cet article vise à illustrer le rôle des objets-frontière dans le découpage temporel et social d’une innovation de service. Une enquête de type ethnographique a été menée dans un laboratoire de recherche afin d’analyser le processus de partage et de diffusion d’un outil de diagnostic du stress et de l’expertise qui lui est associée. Ce cas permet de montrer le rôle des objets-frontière d’une part dans la réduction de l’incertitude inhérente à tout processus innovant (découpage temporel) et, d’autre part, dans la définition d’un service innovant (découpage social). [less ▲]

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See detailKnock-down of the COX3 and COX17 gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Remacle, Claire ULg; Coosemans, Nadine ULg; Jans, Frédéric ULg et al

in Plant Molecular Biology (2010), 74(3), 223-2363

The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated ... [more ▼]

The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex IV were detected. The cox17-RNAi mutant presented a reduced level of COX17 mRNA, a reduced activity of the cytochrome c oxidase but no modification of its amount. The cox3-RNAi mutant had only 40% of the wild-type rate of dark respiration which was cyanide-insensitive. The mutant presented a 60% decrease of H(2)O(2) production in the dark compared to wild type, which probably accounts for a reduced electron leakage by respiratory complexes III and IV. In contrast, the cox17-RNAi mutant showed no modification of respiration and of H(2)O(2) production in the dark but a two to threefold increase of H(2)O(2) in the light compared to wild type and the cox3-RNAi mutant. The cox17-RNAi mutant was more sensitive to cadmium than the wild-type and cox3-RNAi strains. This suggested that besides its role in complex IV assembly, Cox17 could have additional functions in the cell such as metal detoxification or Reactive Oxygen Species protection or signaling. Concerning Cox3, its role in Chlamydomonas complex IV is similar to that of other eukaryotes although this subunit is encoded in the nuclear genome in the alga contrary to the situation found in all other organisms. [less ▲]

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