References of "2010"
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See detailPétitions et rapports médicaux
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2010)

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See detailAssessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile
Rojas, Rodrigo; Batelaan, Okke; Feyen, Luk et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2010), 14

In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multimodel approach aimed at explicitly ... [more ▼]

In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multimodel approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a) reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b) increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of lead-210 measurement in peat using polonium extraction. A procedural comparison
De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarek; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Geochronometria (2010)

Two chemical treatments for lead-210 measurement were compared on the sub-surface samples of a core from an ombrotrophic bog from East Belgium. The classical procedure involves a concentrated acid ... [more ▼]

Two chemical treatments for lead-210 measurement were compared on the sub-surface samples of a core from an ombrotrophic bog from East Belgium. The classical procedure involves a concentrated acid extraction of polonium. However, this treatment represents substantial health risks together with unknowns regarding both the degree of cleanliness and the Po extraction rate, and most importantly, is rather time consuming. We developed here an improved procedure involving an ashing step prior to acid extraction. This allows substantial improvements such as: 1/ the use of a relatively small amount of acid compared to the classical procedure and 2/ the substantial reduction of a total sample digestion time. Measurements of 210Pb concentrations were conducted by alpha spectrometry. Results show a good agreement of unsupported 210Pb activity obtained for both procedures, although some unknowns remain concerning the adsorption of 210Po on the plastic test tube, the volatilization of a small amount of ash, or the absorption of alpha particle at the alpha source surface. This however should not affect the 210Pb measurement as all the samples are spiked prior to ashing (i.e. the recoveries are fully monitored). Through this study, we are suggesting researchers to follow this new procedure in order to increase safety, cleanliness, better recovery and substantial time gain. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Recognizability of Self-Generating Sets
Kärki, Tomi; Lacroix, Anne ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Journal of Integer Sequences (2010), 13

Let I be a finite set of integers and F be a finite set of maps of the form n->k_i n + l_i with integer coefficients. For an integer base k>=2, we study the k-recognizability of the minimal set X of ... [more ▼]

Let I be a finite set of integers and F be a finite set of maps of the form n->k_i n + l_i with integer coefficients. For an integer base k>=2, we study the k-recognizability of the minimal set X of integers containing I and satisfying f(X)\subseteq X for all f in F. In particular, solving a conjecture of Allouche, Shallit and Skordev, we show under some technical conditions that if two of the constants k_i are multiplicatively independent, then X is not k-recognizable for any k>=2. [less ▲]

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See detailFluoride PET-CT.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Beckers, Catherine ULg

in Fanti, Stefano; Farsad, Mohsen; Mansi, Luigi (Eds.) PET-CT Beyond FDG. (2010)

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See detailHearing Preservation in Cochlear Implantation and Drug Treatment.
Barriat, Sébastien ULg; Poirrier, Anne-Lise ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg et al

in Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (2010), 67

Insertion of an electrode array into the cochlea produces immediate damage to the inner ear, which is responsible for a hearing loss. In addition, a delayed hearing loss can be observed. In order to ... [more ▼]

Insertion of an electrode array into the cochlea produces immediate damage to the inner ear, which is responsible for a hearing loss. In addition, a delayed hearing loss can be observed. In order to maximize hearing preservation after insertion of an electrode and to enhance the performance of the cochlear implant, it has been proposed to deliver pharmacological agents to the inner ear. Molecules can be administered locally to the inner ear through a direct perilymphatic perfusion or through the round window membrane. These modalities of treatment have already been successfully applied to some patients with inner ear diseases. In this paper, we will review some basic aspects of drug delivery to the inner ear to prevent the degeneration of the neurosensory hair cells and auditory neurons, and the actual applicability to humans in order to maintain hearing function after the insertion of electrodes of a cochlear implant. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-inflammatory effects of formoterol and ipratropium bromide against acute cadmium-induced pulmonary inflammation in rats.
Zhang, W.; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Cheu, Esteban ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2010), 628(1-3), 171-178

In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of formoterol and ipratropium bromide, alone or in combination, were investigated in a rat model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by cadmium ... [more ▼]

In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of formoterol and ipratropium bromide, alone or in combination, were investigated in a rat model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by cadmium inhalation. Airway resistance and inflammatory responses, including matrix metalloproteinease-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinease-9 (MMP-9) activities, were evaluated. Compared to values obtained in rats exposed to cadmium, pretreatment by bronchodilators administered alone significantly prevented the cadmium-induced increase of airway resistance. Formoterol elicited a significant decrease in total cell number, neutrophil and macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas ipratropium bromide reduced neutrophil numbers. The two compounds administered alone significantly attenuated the lung lesions associated with parenchyma inflammatory cell influx and congestion observed in the cadmium group. The increased MMP-9 activity was significantly attenuated. Although only formoterol induced a decrease protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, both compounds inhibited the pulmonary edema by reducing wet-to-dry weight ratio which returned to values similar to those recorded in the sham group. All the effects of formoterol on the cadmium-induced inflammatory responses were reversed by propranolol. Similar anti-inflammatory effects were obtained in rats pretreated with ilomastat which showed a significant reduction on inflammatory cell infiltration and MMP-9 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Neither synergistic nor additive effects were obtained when the two bronchodilators were administered in combination. In conclusion, formoterol and ipratropium bromide partially protect the lungs against the inflammation by reducing neutrophilic infiltration. This protective effect is associated with reduced MMP-9 activity known to play an important pro-inflammatory role in acute inflammatory process. [less ▲]

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See detailDigestibility and Metabolic Utilization and Nutritional Value of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves Meal Incorporated in the Diets of Indigenous Senegal Chickens
Ayssiwede, Simplice Bosco; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Chrysostome, Christophe et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2010), 9(8), 767-776

In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and ... [more ▼]

In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and nutritional value when incorporated at various levels in the diets. Twenty adult indigenous chickens with an average body weight of 1.22 kg were conducted in metabolic cages and allocated in four groups of five birds each. The groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments (LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21) containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal. During the trial, birds were weighed at the beginning and at the end. Feed offered and refused, collected fresh excreta were weighed daily and the droppings were oven-dried at 60oC and ground per bird for six days. The ingredients and experimental diets used and collected excreta were subjected to chemical analyses. Results showed that the Leuceana leaves were relatively rich in protein (24.9% DM), ether extract (6.4% DM), crude fiber (14.2% DM) and Neutral detergent fiber (22.4% DM). It contained respectively 43.1% and 11.4% DM of nitrogen free extract and ash, particularly calcium (1.8%) and potassium (1.1% DM) and 2573.8 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy. The results of the trial showed that the inclusion of L. leucocephala leaves meal in the diet at 21% level, has no significant adverse effect on feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrients utilization (except ether extract) of adult indigenous Senegal chickens. It has significantly (p<0.05) improved the crude protein and metabolizable energy utilization in birds fed the 7% level inclusion diet (LL7). [less ▲]

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See detailLes petites chambres de l'école Ste Odile
Guillaume, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2010)

L'organisation du travail scolaire, tant du côté des élèves que des enseigannts, tend à distinguer deux lieux essentiels : la classe et le domicile. Or dans un contete de remodelage de la place et des ... [more ▼]

L'organisation du travail scolaire, tant du côté des élèves que des enseigannts, tend à distinguer deux lieux essentiels : la classe et le domicile. Or dans un contete de remodelage de la place et des missions des institutions éducatives, il convient de s'interroger sur les pratiques les plus habituelles. La segmentation des espaces et leur affectation sont de celles-là. [less ▲]

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See detailLa connaissance partielle chez le patient : pourquoi et comment la mesurer
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

in Education Thérapeutique du Patient [=ETP] = Therapeutic Patient Education [=TPE] (2010), 1(2), 201-212

Introduction: The certainty or the doubt, justified or not, a patient has in his knowledge about his illness influences largely his decision to act or, on the contrary, to verify, to ask for help ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The certainty or the doubt, justified or not, a patient has in his knowledge about his illness influences largely his decision to act or, on the contrary, to verify, to ask for help. Nevertheless, in the process of knowledge assessment, in patient education as well as in classical training systems, respondants are too rarely asked to provide, in addition to each answer to each question, a degree of certainty. Objectives: This paper explains how to collect these degrees of certainty, namely with the help of a spectral test applied in oral mode, and how to interpret and use these data in a formative perspective. Description:Metacognitive concepts and indices are developed and illustrated as well as graphical representations. Examples are provided in the domain of diabetic patients education. Conclusions: Spectral analysis of the responses’ qualities is useful to measure individual patients’ degree of mastery as well as to evaluate the efficacy of a training applied to a group of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of pH–responsive nanocarriers using trimethylchitosans and methacrylic acid copolymer for siRNA delivery
Dehousse, Vincent ULg; Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Colige, Alain ULg et al

in Biomaterials (2010), 31

RNA interference-based therapies are dependent on intracellular delivery of siRNA. The release of siRNA from the endosomal compartment may be a rate limiting step in the transfection process. The purpose ... [more ▼]

RNA interference-based therapies are dependent on intracellular delivery of siRNA. The release of siRNA from the endosomal compartment may be a rate limiting step in the transfection process. The purpose of this study was to produce pH–responsive nanocarriers made of trimethylchitosan (TMC). To this end, pHsensitive methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer was added to TMC–siRNA formulations. Four different TMCs associated or not with MAA were evaluated as siRNA carriers. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, surface charge, morphology and interaction with siRNA. A swelling behaviour due to a decrease in pH was observed and was found to be dependent on MAA content in the complexes. In vitro experiments aimed at evaluating how the capacity of the nanocarriers to transfect siRNA in L929 cells was affected by MAA content. Confocal microscopy experiments showed that fluorescent MAA-containing particles exhibit a different distribution pattern inside the cells comparing to their counterpart without this pH-sensitive polymer. Transfection efficiency was investigated by RhoA mRNA expression inhibition. MAA–TMC–siRNA complexes were able to transfect L929 cells with greater efficiency than corresponding TMC–siRNA complexes. This study gives an insight into the opportunity of pH-sensitive nanocarriers for siRNA delivery. Such formulations may represent an attractive strategy to improve endosomal escape of siRNA. [less ▲]

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See detailRelations internationales en Afrique
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Learning material (2010)

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See detailFish lateral system is required for accurate control of shoaling behaviour
Faucher, Karine ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Becco, Christophe ULg et al

in Animal Behaviour (2010), 79

In teleost fishes, the lateral system is assumed to contribute, among other roles, to maintaining schooling behaviour. Sight is also assumed to play a role in schooling, as fish with a cut lateral line do ... [more ▼]

In teleost fishes, the lateral system is assumed to contribute, among other roles, to maintaining schooling behaviour. Sight is also assumed to play a role in schooling, as fish with a cut lateral line do not stop schooling unless they are also blinded. This conclusion, however, is based on experiments where only the trunk lateral line was inactivated, leaving the head lateral system intact. We investigated how inactivation of the whole lateral system affects fish shoaling behaviour. Groups of firehead tetras, Hemigrammus bleheri, were videorecorded before and after inactivation of their whole lateral system with aminoglycoside antibiotics (and also in sham-treated specimens). Shoaling behaviour was characterized by nearest distance to the first, second and third neighbours, shoal radius, shoal order parameter and the number of collisions between individuals. Scanning electron microscope observations showed damage to most superficial neuromasts as a result of antibiotic treatment. Importantly, the antibiotic-treated fish proved unable to maintain a shoal. After the end of the treatment, however, they recovered both a normal tissue morphology and normal shoaling behaviour within about a month. The lateral system is thus more crucial to shoaling behaviour than previously believed. [less ▲]

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See detailEuro-Thymaide - Final publishable report
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Report (2010)

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See detailWater table mapping using Bayesian data fusion with auxiliary data
Fasbender, Dominique; Bogaert, Patrick; Peeters, Luk et al

in Water 2010 symposium, International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics (2010)

Water table elevations are usually sampled in space using piezometric measurements, that are unfortunately both expensive to drill and monitor and consequently are thus scarce over space. Most of the time ... [more ▼]

Water table elevations are usually sampled in space using piezometric measurements, that are unfortunately both expensive to drill and monitor and consequently are thus scarce over space. Most of the time, piezometric data are sparsely distributed over large areas, thus providing limited direct information about the level of the corresponding water table. As a consequence, there is a real need for approaches that are able at the same time to (i) provide spatial predictions at unsampled locations and (ii) enable the user to account in a meaningful way for all potentially available secondary information sources that are in some way related to water table elevations. Advantages of these auxiliary information sources are their cheapest prices and their better spatial coverage, thus allowing the user to improve the quality of subsequent mapping provide that a meaningful way of merging these data is made available. In this paper, a recently developed Bayesian Data Fusion technique (BDF) is applied to the problem of water table spatial mapping. After a brief presentation of the underlying theory, specific assumptions are made and discussed in order to account for a digital elevation model as well as for the geometry of a corresponding river network. Based on a data set for the Dyle basin in the north part of Belgium, the suggested model is then implemented by accounting for two secondary information sources, i.e., a spatially exhaustive high resolution digital elevation model and a metric allowing us to account for the whole geometry of the river network as auxiliary information. Results are compared to those of standard spatial mapping techniques like ordinary kriging and cokriging. Respective accuracies and precisions of these estimators are finally evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. They show one one side the obvious benefit of incorporating additional information sources, but more interesting they also emphasize the limitations of traditional multivariate methods (like, e.g., cokriging methods) that fail to efficiently take benefit of these addditional information due to restrictive modeling hypotheses, whereas BDF has no difficulty on that side. Though the BDF methodology was illustrated here for the integration of only two secondary information sources, the method can also be applied for incorporating an arbitrary number of auxiliary variables. It has also been successfully applied in other fields like remote-sensing and air pollution, thus opening new avenues for the important and general topic of data integration in a spatial mapping context. Extension towards a space-time context for dynamic mapping is also possible. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced inflammation by IL-4-responsive CD4+CD25−CD103+Foxp3− cells is IL-10-dependent
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Hoving, Jennifer C.; Horsnell, William G.C. et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2010), 40

Host protection to helminth infection requires IL-4Rα signalling and the establishment of finely regulated Th2 responses. In the present study, the role of IL-4Rα-responsive T cells in Schistosoma mansoni ... [more ▼]

Host protection to helminth infection requires IL-4Rα signalling and the establishment of finely regulated Th2 responses. In the present study, the role of IL-4Rα-responsive T cells in Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced inflammation was investigated. Egg-induced inflammation in IL-4Rα-responsive BALB/c mice was accompanied with Th2-biased responses, whereas T cell-specific IL-4R-deficient BALB/c mice (iLckcreIl4ra−/lox) developed Th1-biased responses with heightened inflammation. The proportion of Foxp3+ Tregs in the draining lymph node of control mice did not correlate with the control of inflammation and was reduced in comparison to T cell-specific IL-4R-deficient mice. This was due to IL-4-mediated inhibition of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs conversion, demonstrated in adoptively transferred Rag2−/− mice. Interestingly, reduced footpad swelling in Il4ra−/lox mice was associated with the induction of IL-4 and IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25−CD103+Foxp3− cells, confirmed in S. mansoni infection studies. Transfer of IL-4Rα-responsive CD4+CD25−CD103+ cells, but not CD4+CD25high or CD4+CD25−CD103− cells, controlled inflammation in iLckcreIl4ra−/lox mice. It finally turned out that the control of inflammation depended on IL-10, as transferred CD4+CD25−CD103+ cells from IL-10-deficient mice were not able to effectively downregulate inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate that IL-4 signalling in T cells inhibits Foxp3+ Tregs in vivo and promotes CD4+CD25−CD103+Foxp3− cells that control S. mansoni egg-induced inflammation via IL-10. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine gammaherpesviruses : pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnosis
Fortier, Guillaume; Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULg; Pronost, Stéphane et al

in Veterinary Journal (2010), 186

Equine gammaherpesviruses (cEHV) have been widely studied over the past 45 years and many isolates have been characterised. Despite this, the diagnosis of cEHV infection remains difficult to establish as ... [more ▼]

Equine gammaherpesviruses (cEHV) have been widely studied over the past 45 years and many isolates have been characterised. Despite this, the diagnosis of cEHV infection remains difficult to establish as its clinical manifestations lack specificity, ranging from mild respiratory signs in a small number of animals to outbreaks in large groups of young horses. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-2 and -5 infections, as well as on the genetic variation of these viruses. Study of these variations has resulted in hypotheses relating to viral re-infection and re-activation. Interestingly, the viruses were found to contain genetic sequences identical to those of eukaryotic cells which are considered central to the development of viral latency through interfering with host immune and inflammatory responses. Future molecular biological studies will further elucidate the virulence mechanisms of these equine pathogens [less ▲]

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See detailL'architecture, producteur de "lien social' ou acteur dans les "luttes sociales"?
Brausch, Géraldine ULg

in Dassonville, Chantal; Cohen, Maurizio (Eds.) Architecture, Wallonie-Bruxelles. Inventaire #0 Inventories 2005-2010 (2010)

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