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See detailTraces of early life in 3.2 Ga old mud: an analog for the search for life on Mars
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

Conference (2010, December 08)

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See detailOn the influence of indenter tip geometry on the identification of material parameters in indentation testing
Guo, Weichao ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

The rapid development of structural materials and their successful applications in various sectors of industry have led to increasing demands for assessing their mechanical properties in small volumes. If ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of structural materials and their successful applications in various sectors of industry have led to increasing demands for assessing their mechanical properties in small volumes. If the size dimensions are below micron, it is difficult to perform traditional tensile and compression tests at such small scales. Indentation testing as one of the advanced technologies to characterize the mechanical properties of material has already been widely employed since indentation technology has emerged as a cost-effective, convenient and non-destructive method to solve this problem at micro- and nanoscales. In spite of the advances in indentation testing, the theory and development on indentation testing are still not completely mature. Many factors affect the accuracy and reliability of identified material parameters. For instance, when the material properties are determined utilizing the inverse analysis relying on numerical modelling, the procedures often suffer from a strong material parameter correlation, which leads to a non-uniqueness of the solution or high errors in parameter identification. In order to overcome that problem, an approach is proposed to reduce the material parameter correlation by designing appropriate indenter tip shapes able to sense indentation piling-up or sinking-in occurring in non-linear materials. In the present thesis, the effect of indenter tip geometry on parameter correlation in material parameter identification is investigated. It may be helpful to design indenter tip shapes producing a minimal material parameter correlation, which may help to improve the reliability of material parameter identification procedures based on indentation testing combined with inverse methods. First, a method to assess the effect of indenter tip geometry on the identification of material parameters is proposed, which contains a gradient-based numerical optimization method with sensitivity analysis. The sensitivities of objective function computed by finite difference method and by direct differentiation method are compared. Subsequently, the direct differentiation method is selected to use because it is more reliable, accurate and versatile for computing the sensitivities of the objective function. Second, the residual imprint mappings produced by different indenters are investigated. In common indentation experiments, the imprint data are not available because the indenter tip itself shields that region from access by measurement devices during loading and unloading. However, they include information about sinking-in and piling-up, which may be valuable to reduce the correlation of material parameter. Therefore, the effect of the imprint data on identification of material parameters is investigated. Finally, some strategies for improvement of the identifiability of material parameter are proposed. Indenters with special tip shapes and different loading histories are investigated. The sensitivities of material parameters toward indenter tip geometries are evaluated on the materials with elasto-plastic and elasto-visoplastic constitutive laws. The results of this thesis have shown that first, the correlations of material parameters are related to the geometries of indenter tip shapes. The abilities of different indenters for determining material parameters are significantly different. Second, residual imprint mapping data are proved to be important for identification of material parameters, because they contain the additional information about plastic material behaviour. Third, different loading histories are helpful to evaluate the material parameters of time-dependent materials. Particularly, a holding cycle is necessary to determine the material properties of time-dependent materials. These results may be useful to enable a more reliable material parameter identification. [less ▲]

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See detailETUDE DE L’HÉRÉDITÉ DE LA RÉSISTANCE PAR MUTATION DE CIBLE AUX HERBICIDES INHIBITEURS DE L’ALS CHEZ LE VULPIN DES CHAMPS (ALOPECURUS MYOSUROIDES HUDS.)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Annales de la 21ème Conférence du COLUMA journées internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes (2010, December 08)

Target-site resistance heredity in black-grass was assessed by observing the percentage of resistant individuals engendered by crossings. After germination, plants were genotyped as homo- or heterozygote ... [more ▼]

Target-site resistance heredity in black-grass was assessed by observing the percentage of resistant individuals engendered by crossings. After germination, plants were genotyped as homo- or heterozygote for the W574 mutation on the ALS gene, which induces herbicide resistance. Individuals were then transplanted outdoor and crossed between one another and with other individuals issued from a population known as susceptible. To avoid an external pollen contamination, plants were enclosed within pollen-proof clothing during flowering time. Allogamy rate was also tested, by isolating heads one by one. Seeds issued from these crossings were collected and tested in glasshouses. Their DNA was also analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailRolul mediului academic in dezvoltarea internationala
Teclu, Codrat Alin ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

L'objectif de notre intervention est de montrer en quoi et comment le monde académique peut apporter une réelle plus-value dans la coopération au développement entre deux pays, dans le cas présent, la ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de notre intervention est de montrer en quoi et comment le monde académique peut apporter une réelle plus-value dans la coopération au développement entre deux pays, dans le cas présent, la Roumanie et la République de Moldavie. Notre argument principal est que la recherche universitaire permet aux acteurs de terrain d'avoir un regard critique sur les conséquences inattendues/moins visibles de tout projet de développement. [less ▲]

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See detailEU-LA relations: from interregionalism to bilateralism?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

E-print/Working paper (2010)

The main question this paper is dealing with is the following: are the EU relations with Latin America moving from an interregional approach to a bilateral one?

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See detailPlate Forme Multi Acteurs (PMA) : quel degré d’appropriation de l’approche par les acteurs dans les bas-fonds de « Sissiotan (Houéyogbé ) et de Kossou-Togba (Dogbo) »
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULg; Kinha, Christophe

Conference (2010, December 07)

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs ... [more ▼]

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs, structures d’appui, Partenaires Techniques et financiers, etc. Les intérêts de ces acteurs sont très souvent divergents. Mais, ces acteurs sont appelés à apprendre, agir, et innover ensemble dans une approche systémique pour une utilisation optimale et une gestion durable des ressources naturelles de ces bas-fonds. Après deux années de mise en œuvre de cette approche, nous évaluions le niveau d’appropriation par les acteurs. Les conditions de mobilisation des ressources humaines et financières pour la concrétisation de cette innovation ont été évaluées de même que les actions qui ont été mises en œuvre dans le processus d’ancrage de ce partenariat. Les acquis, les faiblesses et les contraintes à l’appropriation ont fait l’objet d’une analyse critique. En somme, les PMA sont en construction et il existe de réelles motivations autour de cette approche. [less ▲]

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See detailAzoxystrobin and epoximazole sensitivity profiles of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations from the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg in 2007 and 2008
Vrancken, Carine; Dubos, Tiphaine; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

Poster (2010, December 07)

Mycosphaerella graminicola strains were isolated from symptomatic winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spelt (Triticum spelta) leaves sampled across the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. In total, 484 strains ... [more ▼]

Mycosphaerella graminicola strains were isolated from symptomatic winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spelt (Triticum spelta) leaves sampled across the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. In total, 484 strains were isolated from winter wheat, and 31 from spelt leaves. The sensitivity profiles of these strains towards azoxystrobin (Amistar®, Syngenta Agro GmbH, Germany) and against epoxiconazole (Opus®, BASF Belgium NV/S A, Brussels, Belgium) were assessed in microplates, allowing to test 10 different concentrations for each active substance (0, 0.00316, 0.01, 0.0316, 0.1, 0.316, 1, 3.16, 10 and 31.6μg/mL). 100μ g/mL of salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) was also added to the medium, in order to prevent the strains from using alternative respiration. Results of the sensitivity tests for azoxystrobin showed a dose-dependent decrease of in vitro growth for all the strains. During both years, strains could be divided into two distinct sub-populations in relation to their azoxystrobin sensitivity, thus forming a bimodal distribution commonly reported to be associated with a single gene-mediated resistance. For wheat, the dominant sub-population was the one showing full resistance to azoxystrobin. The results of the sensitivity tests to epoxiconazole in liquid media showed a dose-dependent decrease of fungal growth for all the strains tested. The EC50 values followed an unimodal distribution. When the sensitivity distribution of the strains collected in 2008 (n=379) was compared to that observed in 2007, although the populations have remained unimodal, a minor shift towards less sensitive populations was observed. Compared to strains originating from wheat, the spelt strains were more sensitive towards both fungicides (p ≤ 0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailLe minerai de fer en Wallonie, Géologie et Histoire
Denayer, Julien ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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See detailCorrelation between superhydrophobicity and the power spectral density of randomly rough surfaces
Awada, Houssein; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Langmuir (2010), 26(23), 17798-17803

We show experimentally and analytically that for single-valued, isotropic, homogeneous, randomly rough surfaces consisting of bumps randomly protruding over a continuous background, superhydrophobicity is ... [more ▼]

We show experimentally and analytically that for single-valued, isotropic, homogeneous, randomly rough surfaces consisting of bumps randomly protruding over a continuous background, superhydrophobicity is related to the power spectral density of the surface height, which can be derived from microscopy measurements. More precisely, superhydrophobicity correlates with the third moment of the power spectral density, which is directly related to the notion of Wenzel roughness (i.e., the ratio between the real area of the surface and its projected area). In addition, we explain why randomly rough surfaces with identical root-mean-square roughness values may behave differently with respect to water repellence and why roughness components with wavelength larger than 10 μm are not likely to be of importance or, stated otherwise, why superhydrophobicity often requires a contribution from submicrometer-scale components such as nanoparticles. The analysis developed here also shows that the simple thermodynamic arguments relating superhydrophobicity to an increase in the sample area are valid for this type of surface, and we hope that it will help researchers to fabricate efficient superhydrophobic surfaces based on the rational design of their power spectral density. [less ▲]

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See detailPlate Forme Multi Acteurs (PMA) : quel degré d’appropriation de l’approche par les acteurs dans les bas-fonds de « Sissiotan (Houéyogbé ) et de Kossou-Togba (Dogbo) »
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULg; Kinha, Christophe

Conference (2010, December 07)

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs ... [more ▼]

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs, structures d’appui, Partenaires Techniques et financiers, etc. Les intérêts de ces acteurs sont très souvent divergents. Mais, ces acteurs sont appelés à apprendre, agir, et innover ensemble dans une approche systémique pour une utilisation optimale et une gestion durable des ressources naturelles de ces bas-fonds. Après deux années de mise en œuvre de cette approche, nous évaluions le niveau d’appropriation par les acteurs. Les conditions de mobilisation des ressources humaines et financières pour la concrétisation de cette innovation ont été évaluées de même que les actions qui ont été mises en œuvre dans le processus d’ancrage de ce partenariat. Les acquis, les faiblesses et les contraintes à l’appropriation ont fait l’objet d’une analyse critique. En somme, les PMA sont en construction et il existe de réelles motivations autour de cette approche. [less ▲]

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See detailLambert Lombard, pictor et inventor
Allart, Dominique ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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See detailLa réponse photosynthétique d'une algue verte à la carence en soufre
de Marchin, Thomas ULg; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Franck, Fabrice ULg

Book published by Editions universitaires europeennes (2010)

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possède la capacité de produire de l'hydrogène à la lumière en absence d'oxygène. Cette condition peut être obtenue en cultivant les algues dans un milieu carencé en soufre. La ... [more ▼]

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possède la capacité de produire de l'hydrogène à la lumière en absence d'oxygène. Cette condition peut être obtenue en cultivant les algues dans un milieu carencé en soufre. La carence en soufre entraîne une forte diminution de l'activité du photosystème II tout en maintenant une respiration élevée, ce qui provoque un passage de cultures fermées en anoxie et induit la production d'hydrogène. Dans cette étude, nous avons caractérisé la réponse photosynthétique à la carence en soufre chez la souche sauvage et la souche déficiente en oxydase alternative mictochondriale (AOX) dans des milieux contenant de l'ammonium ou du nitrate comme source d'azote. L'AOX, inductible par le nitrate, fait partie de la chaîne de transport d'électrons mitochondriale et catalyse l'oxydation de l'ubiquinol en transférant directement ses électrons à l'oxygène. Ainsi l'AOX entre en compétition avec le complexe III et est impliquée dans une voie de dissipation du pouvoir réducteur en excès. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular weight characterisation of polymers
Grandfils, Christian ULg

Conference (2010, December 07)

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See detailInfluences des différences sexuées en matière de temporalités et de normes démographiques sur les accrières professionnelles
Gavray, Claire ULg

Scientific conference (2010, December 07)

au bout du compte, l'offre d'emploi faite aux femmes et les débuts de trajectoires professionnelle auxquelles elles ont accès jouent plus sur leurs carrières que les facteurs familiaux. Si les femmes peu ... [more ▼]

au bout du compte, l'offre d'emploi faite aux femmes et les débuts de trajectoires professionnelle auxquelles elles ont accès jouent plus sur leurs carrières que les facteurs familiaux. Si les femmes peu diplômées restent aujourd'hui particulièrement exposées au non emploi (sans comparaison avec ce qui se passe pour les hommes dans ce cas), l'ensemble des femmes connait un risque élevé de commencer leur trajectoire professionnelle dans des emplois atypiques et de s'y enliser (significativement beaucoup plus que les hommes).... [less ▲]

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See detailUn nouveau dispositif d'accompagnement pédagogique individualisé pour les formateurs TIC en Région wallonne de Belgique
Jérôme, Françoise ULg; Brundseaux, Marie-France ULg; Georges, François ULg

in TICE 2010 - tools 4 tice & tice 4 tous Nancy - Metz, 6-8 décembre 2010 (2010, December 06)

The Telematic Teaching and Learning Laboratory (LabSET) of the University of Liège coordinates the Plan to Mobilize Information and Communication Technologies (PMICT) in the Walloon Region of Belgium. In ... [more ▼]

The Telematic Teaching and Learning Laboratory (LabSET) of the University of Liège coordinates the Plan to Mobilize Information and Communication Technologies (PMICT) in the Walloon Region of Belgium. In its capacity as coordinator, the LabSET initiated individualized mentoring to help the instructors in charge of the PMICT training sessions develop self-reflection for the benefit of quality training practice. In this article, we present the theoretical foundations of the mentoring process. We also describe the process, the appended resources and the indicators that should enable us to evaluate the level of reflexivity reached by the instructors at the end of it. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic findings in horses with foot pain but without radiographically detectable osseous abnormalities
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Rabba, Silvia ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg et al

Conference (2010, December 06)

US diagnosis of soft tissue damage in the foot was possible in cases where radiographic diagnosis was unsuccessful. US offers an easily available diagnostic tool for an evaluation of the digital soft ... [more ▼]

US diagnosis of soft tissue damage in the foot was possible in cases where radiographic diagnosis was unsuccessful. US offers an easily available diagnostic tool for an evaluation of the digital soft tissues and may decrease the need for MRI when this modality is difficult to apply. [less ▲]

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See detailCatholicisme et protestantismes au XVIIe siècle
Delfosse, Annick ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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