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See detailImportance of steroid receptor coregulators for neuronal phenotype determination: Modulation of steroid action
Charlier, Thierry ULg

in Trabajos del Instituto Cajal (2009), LXXXII

Steroid receptors such as estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptors are transcription factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of a large number of target genes. Steroid-dependent ... [more ▼]

Steroid receptors such as estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptors are transcription factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of a large number of target genes. Steroid-dependent expression in the brain controls a large array of biological processes including spatial cognition, copulatory behavior and neuroprotection. The discovery of a competition, or squelching, between two different nuclear receptors introduced the notion that common cofactors might be involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. These cofactors, which are now known as coactivators, are involved in chromatin remodeling and stabilization of the general transcription machinery. Since the characterization of the steroid receptor coactivator 1 or SRC-1, more than 100 different cofactors have been identified. Although an increasingly large amount of information has been collected about the in vitro function of these coregulatory proteins, relatively little is known regarding their physiological role in vivo, particularly in the brain. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated the importance of SRC-1 in the differentiation and activation of steroid-dependent sexual behaviors and the related neural genes. In Japanese quail, the inhibition of SRC-1 expression by intracerebroventricular antisense injections blocked the activating effects of exogenous testosterone on male sexual behaviors and the steroid-dependent vasotocine expression and increase of the median preoptic area volume defined by Nissl staining as well as by aromatase immunoreactivity. These data therefore strongly suggested that SRC-1 is required to modulate estrogen receptor dependent gene-expression. It is however interesting to note that steroid receptors and SRC-1 are not always colocalized. For example, both glial cells and neurons in the hippocampus express estrogen receptor alpha but SRC-1 is rarely observed in glia. It is therefore possible that estrogen receptor alpha in glial cell require another coactivator or set of coactivators to induce estrogen-dependent gene transcription. It has been suggested very recently that SRC-1 is associated with neuronal differentiation of neural stem cell derived from the ganglionic eminence of mouse embryos. These stem cells differentiating into glial cell (GFAP-positive) did not express SRC-1. The presence of a specific coactivator could therefore determine a specific cell phenotype (neuronal vs glial). Another coactivator, the coactivator-associated arginine methyl transferase 1 or CARM-1 seems to be important to keep progenitor cells in a dividing state. The inhibition of CARM-1 expression leads to neuronal differentiation. Neurogenesis can therefore offers an excellent model to define the spatio-temporal role of different coactivators. It is indeed possible to study a subset of coactivators associated to various stages phenotype determination (proliferation vs. differentiation). The study of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female adult rats shows that around 40 % of proliferative cells express SRC-1 or CARM-1. Interestingly, 70% of proliferative cells express SRC-1 but only a very few cells (<5%) express CARM-1. We are currently investigating the temporal pattern of expression of these two coactivators during the neurogenesis in the hilus and dentate gyrus. The expression of the coactivators CARM-1 and SRC-1 is analyzed in proliferating and differentiating cells. We expect that proliferating and differentiating cells will differentially express the two coactivators. It seems that the presence of a precise subset of coactivators could help defining the phenotype of the cell by modulating a specific downstream pathway after steroid receptor activation. The very large number of coactivators and their association into preformed complexes potentially allows the determination of hundreds of different phenotypes. The study of the expression of the coactivator and their function in vivo is required to fully understand steroid action and specificity in the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailLe régionalisme congolais
Kabamba, Bob ULg

in Pamphile Mabiala (Ed.) Le processus de décentralisation en République Démocratique du Congo (2009)

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See detailNa10(Na,Mn)7Mn43(PO4)36, a new synthetic fillowite-type phosphate.
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Keller, Paul; Lissner, Falk et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section C-Crystal Structure Communications (2009), C65

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See detailACMEG-T: Soil Thermoplasticity Model
Laloui, Lyesse; François, Bertrand ULg

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2009), 135(9), 932-944

This paper addresses an advanced and unified thermomechanical constitutive model for soils. Based on experimental evidence showing the nonlinear and irreversible thermomechanical responses of saturated ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses an advanced and unified thermomechanical constitutive model for soils. Based on experimental evidence showing the nonlinear and irreversible thermomechanical responses of saturated soils, the constitutive equations of the developed model, Advanced Constitutive Model for Environmental Geomechanics-Thermal effect (ACMEG-T), are presented. In the context of elastoplasticity and critical state theory, the model uses the multimechanism plasticity and bounding surface theory. Nonlinear thermoelasticity is joined with two coupled thermoplastic dissipative processes. The yield functions, the dissipative potentials and the plastic multipliers are introduced. Attention is particularly focused on the coupling between both plastic mechanisms, an isotropic and a deviatoric one, which are in agreement with the consistency condition for multiple dissipation. As far as isotropic mechanism is concerned, a unique thermomechanical yield surface reproduces the thermoplasticity observed at low and intermediate overconsolidation ratios, as well as the plasticity under mechanical loading in an framework unifying mechanical and thermal hardenings. Finally, the efficiency of ACMEG-T is proven by validation tests on drained and undrained thermomechanical paths. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum Chemistry Lab at Home: A Microsoft Windows Alternative
Olive, Gilles ULg; Riffont, David

in Journal of Chemical Education (2009), 86(5), 567

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See detailRenier de Huy
George, Philippe ULg

in Dictionnaire d’Histoire de l’art du Moyen Age occidental (2009)

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See detailIdéologies et hégémonie : la classe dirigeante au prisme des think tanks
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2009), 70 ("Think tanks, experts et pouvoirs")(automne), 69-77

This article seeks to rethink the world of think tanks as a sub-space constituting the field of power; growing links of this sub-space with media industry, economy and politics being expressed and ... [more ▼]

This article seeks to rethink the world of think tanks as a sub-space constituting the field of power; growing links of this sub-space with media industry, economy and politics being expressed and consolidated through the seamless movement of certain social agents. These representatives of the financial bourgeoisie have in fact a purely instrumental relation with liberalism, their pragmatism being well accommodated with a social discourse of public regulation. In this perspective, the denunciation of think tanks as a preferred vehicle for liberal ideology ignores the role of think tanks in the construction, reproduction and dissemination of a hegemonic discourse – that of capitalism – which uses both market idolatry and State fetishism. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical feeding of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)
Guillon, Leslie; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Mussa, P. P.; Nery, J.; Schiavone, A. (Eds.) et al Congress Proceedings 13t h Congress of the ESVCN (2009)

Communication relatant un essai d'alimentation pratique de sugar glider en captivité

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See detailThiaminylated adenine nucleotides — chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence
Frederich, Michel ULg; Delvaux, David ULg; Gigliobianco, Tiziana ULg et al

in FEBS Journal (2009), 276(12), 32563268

Thiamine and its three phosphorylated derivatives (mono-, di- and triphosphate) occur naturally in most cells. Recently, we reported the presence of a fourth thiamine derivative, adenosine thiamine ... [more ▼]

Thiamine and its three phosphorylated derivatives (mono-, di- and triphosphate) occur naturally in most cells. Recently, we reported the presence of a fourth thiamine derivative, adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), produced in E. coli in response to carbon starvation. Here, we show that the chemical synthesis of AThTP leads to another new compound, adenosine thiamine diphosphate (thiaminylated ADP, AThDP), as a side product. The structure of both compounds was confirmed by mass spectrometry and 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR and some of their chemical properties were determined. Our results show an upfield shifting of the C-2 proton of the thiazolium ring in adenosine thiamine derivatives compared to the conventional thiamine phosphate derivatives. This modification of the electronic environment of the C-2 proton might be explained by a through-space interaction with the adenosine moiety, suggesting an U-shaped folding of adenosine thiamine derivatives. Such a structure where the C-2 proton is embedded in a closed conformation can be located using molecular modeling as an energy minimum. In E. coli, AThTP may account for 15% of total thiamine under energy stress. It is less abundant in eukaryotic organisms, but is consistently found in mammalian tissues and in some cell lines. Using a HPLC method, we show for the first time that AThDP may also occur in small amounts in E. coli and in vertebrate liver. The discovery of two natural thiamine adenine compounds further highlights the complexity and diversity of thiamine biochemistry, which is not restricted to the cofactor role of thiamine diphosphate. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrastructural detection of nucleic acids within heat shock-induced perichromatin granules of HeLa cells by cytochemical and immunocytological methods.
Charlier, Christine; Lamaye, Françoise ULg; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Structural Biology (2009), 166(3), 329-36

The perichromatin granules (PGs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus. The major drawbacks for a biological study are their rare occurrence and their small size in normal conditions. As heat shock ... [more ▼]

The perichromatin granules (PGs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus. The major drawbacks for a biological study are their rare occurrence and their small size in normal conditions. As heat shock has been shown to increase their number, we applied a hyperthermal shock on HeLa cells to investigate the nucleic acid content of PGs by means of cytochemical and immunocytological approaches. These heat shock-induced PGs (hsiPGs) appeared as clusters organized in the form of honeycomb structures and were always associated with some blocks of condensed chromatin, such as the perinucleolar chromatin shell. A stalk connecting the hsiPG to the chromatin could be observed. For the detection of RNA, we applied an immunocytological method involving two anti-RNA antibodies and quantified the gold labelling obtained. The results clearly revealed that hsiPGs contained RNA. Regarding to the detection of DNA, we used three different methods followed by quantitative analyses. The results seemed to indicate that a small amount of DNA was present in hsiPGs. Together, these findings suggest that hsiPGs might be RNP structures associated with particular regions of DNA. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of elbow biomechanical models using data fusion: Application to elbow flexion
Leboucher, Julien; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Brochard, Sylvain et al

in Gait & Posture (2009), 30(2009), 60-61

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See detailTraitement automatique des langues et langues anciennes
Denooz, Joseph ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Traitement automatique des langues (2009), 50

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See detailSéminaire d'histoire de l'art de l'Epoque contemporaine. Le XXe siècle
Bawin, Julie ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailDemixing processes in AgPd superlattices
Dumont, Jacques; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Wiame, Francis et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2009), 21

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See detailResolution improvement and noise reduction in human pinhole SPECT using a multi-ray approach and the SHINE method
Seret, Alain ULg; Vanhove, Christian; Defrise, Michel

in Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine (2009), 48(4), 159-165

Purpose. This work aimed at quantifying the gains in spatial resolution and noise that could be achieved when using resolution modelling based on a multi-ray approach and additionally the Statistical and ... [more ▼]

Purpose. This work aimed at quantifying the gains in spatial resolution and noise that could be achieved when using resolution modelling based on a multi-ray approach and additionally the Statistical and Heuristic Noise Extraction (SHINE) method in human pinhole single photon emission tomography (PH-SPECT). Methods. PH-SPECT of two line phantoms and one homogeneous cylinder were recorded using parameters suited for studies of the human neck area. They were reconstructed using pinhole dedicated ordered subsets expectation maximisation algorithm including a resolution recovery technique based on 7 or 21 rays. Optionally, the SPECT data were SHINE pre-processed. Transverse and axial full widths at half-maximum (FWHM) were obtained from the line phantoms. The noise was quantified using the coefficient of variation (COV) derived from the uniform phantom. Two human PH-SPECT studies of the thyroid (a hot nodule and a very low uptake) were processed with the same algorithms. Results. Depending on the number of iterations, FWHM decreased by 30 to 50 % when using the multi-ray approach in the reconstruction process. The SHINE method did not affect the resolution but decreased the COV by at least 20 % and by 45 % when combined with the multi-ray method. The two human studies illustrated the gain in spatial resolution and the decrease in noise afforded both by the multi-ray reconstruction and the SHINE method. Conclusion. Iterative reconstruction with resolution modelling allows to obtain high resolution human PH-SPECT studies with reduced noise content. The SHINE method affords an additional noise reduction without compromising the resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation numérique 2D unifiée des écoulements dans une retenue, sur l’évacuateur de crue et en aval
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Actes du Colloque Dimensionnement et Fonctionnement des Evacuateurs de crues (2009)

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See detailFederal public administration reform in Belgium: new public management under deconstruction
Joris, Geoffrey ULg; de Visscher, Christian; Montuelle, Caroline

in actes du colloques de l'AFSP (2009)

Since the 1980s we assist at a co-evolutionary redefinition of social structures that its permanence contributes to legitimate it. In this perspective, the particularities of each modernities are put in ... [more ▼]

Since the 1980s we assist at a co-evolutionary redefinition of social structures that its permanence contributes to legitimate it. In this perspective, the particularities of each modernities are put in an explicit perspective and raise question because they have lost their own evidence.4 While industrial modernity is characterized by a discourse on stability, radical modernity is characterized by an information overload, an hyper-complexity, the emergence of a multidimensional uncertainty reinforced by the mergence of a multidimensional value configuration and social mobility.5 In the field of public administration, all these elements converge towards the need to construct some form of post-bureaucratic or reflexive public civil service structured through flexible and open management instruments [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette therapeutique de l'etudiant. Quand l'asthme se revele.
Louis, Renaud ULg; Schleich, FLorence ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(9), 474-8

Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease which is often mistaken for simple bronchitis. The diagnosis is based on the association of symptoms and excessive airway calibre variability. When ... [more ▼]

Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease which is often mistaken for simple bronchitis. The diagnosis is based on the association of symptoms and excessive airway calibre variability. When symptoms are present more than once a week, it is recommended to give low dose inhaled corticoids as a maintenance treatment together with, as needed, rapid acting beta2 agonist. In addition it is crucial to provide the patient with an education on the disease to reinforce adherence to the treatment. [less ▲]

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