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See detailLéonard de Vinci et l'art du début du XVIe siècle en France. Le recours au modèle légitime-t-il la nouvelle production artistique ?
Fagnart, Laure ULg

in Gaborit, Jean-René (Ed.) Tradition & Innovations en Histoire de l’art (2009)

Au début du XVIe siècle, plusieurs artistes actifs en France empruntent des motifs à l'art de Léonard de Vinci. L'analyse de ces réminiscences léonardesques montre que plusieurs d’entre elles paraissent ... [more ▼]

Au début du XVIe siècle, plusieurs artistes actifs en France empruntent des motifs à l'art de Léonard de Vinci. L'analyse de ces réminiscences léonardesques montre que plusieurs d’entre elles paraissent dans des ouvrages issus du milieu royal, réalisés principalement dans les années 1515-1530. La présence de ces échos s’explique par le fait qu’à cette époque les relations entre le maître italien et la royauté française sont fortement établies ; de plus, de nombreuses peintures de Léonard sont alors conservées en Touraine ; enfin, le souvenir du maître dans ces régions - l’Italien est mort au Clos Lucé en 1519 - est encore vif. Dès lors, dans la première moitié du xvie siècle, les rois de France ont-ils utilisé la personnalité et les peintures de Léonard pour garantir leur programme culturel ? Nous le pensons puisque François Ier fait venir l'Italien en France. De plus, après lui avoir offert un logement et une pension confortables, il rassemble un ensemble exceptionnel de ses tableaux. En outre, l’art de Léonard s’avère l'une des sources d'inspiration des artistes actifs en Touraine, comme si le maître avait alors constitué un lien entre l'art italien et la nouvelle création française. Ainsi, en protégeant Léonard, en acquérant ses peintures et en commandant des œuvres qui présentent des réminiscences à son art, François Ier devient un mécène exceptionnel, le digne « Père des arts et des lettres ». [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrated Assessment Frame as Science Policy Interface for Decisions on (Environment-Related) Risks - SCOPE - Report Phase 1
TORFS, RUDI; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg

Report (2009)

Classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Therefore, new approaches to prevent, control, communicate, and deal with the causes of these ... [more ▼]

Classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Therefore, new approaches to prevent, control, communicate, and deal with the causes of these risks and with public anxieties about risks are necessary. In phase 1 we analyzed the available concepts to integrate risk and economical assessment with social aspects in one framework, and discussed the relevant criteria that need to be considered in order to develop a final risk assessment framework. Furthermore, still in phase 1, empirical work was performed in the form of case studies to analyze and define a framework, or to select criteria. We are in the process of reviewing, selecting, and testing tools and instruments that can be used in this appraisal framework, to go from concepts to practice. To grasp the full complexity of controversial, uncertain and immature risks, to cope with different values and views, and to develop a good communication we consider the appraisal framework as a procedural decision making process. It requires a more participative approach as the legal rational approach does not deliver adequate public management tools for handling these issues. We propose a sequential model, going through a series of steps, that can be used both in cases of strategic planning and management, and in the management of local projects usually related to siting conflicts. In each phase of the model integrated assessment tools and methods can be applied up to the point where consensus or a clear representation of different values and views (ideal in very uncertain and ambiguous problems), or an optimal balance between different criteria (in more simple cases) is achieved. All together our Appraisal Framework [is shaped] as a process, structuring and supporting the decision-making process. • To promote and organize a mutual learning of all actors entering into the policy cycle spiralling up through the different phases. • In the context of local siting conflicts, local contamination issues and urban planning topics (all with very close relationships with individuals), including regional, global E&H issues (food, climate, air, transport…) It’s a policy cycle, focused around a certain problem, organised to formulate and evaluate policy options, with stakeholders involved at different phases and steps of the process. Here the AF is structured as a learning network composed of all the players entering into the decision-making process at different stages. The quality of the decision making process can be appreciated either on the basis of its outcomes or on the process itself. Our framing falls under the latter. It also rests on the procedural equity feeling and its impact on the acceptability of the effects of the decision (Joss S. and Brownlea A., 1999). Such an approach opens the way to a greater legitimacy of decisions whose substantive effects or outcomes are essentially dubious – a fortiori in the context of the precaution. It encourages a reflection on the manner of combining the opening of the decision-making process through participative methods with others meta-tools such as strategic management, integrated and comparative approach of the risk, or the evaluative method. These meta-tools structure the participative step, giving it objectives, precise questions and ad hoc means. It contributes to the technical quality of the decision and to its social acceptability, particularly when it is the product of a decision-making process which the actors consider precautionary and adapted to the context of great scientific uncertainty. [less ▲]

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See detailProbability Density Estimation by Perturbing and Combining Tree Structured Markov Networks
Ammar, Sourour; Leray, Philippe; Defourny, Boris ULg et al

in Proc. of ECSQARU '09: 10th European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty (2009)

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See detailDysregulation of anti-angiogenic agents (sFlt-1, PLGF, and sEndoglin) in preeclampsia--a step forward but not the definitive answer
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ULg; Chantraine, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2009), 82(2), 106-11

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, which resolves on placental delivery. It is thought to be the consequence of impaired placentation ... [more ▼]

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, which resolves on placental delivery. It is thought to be the consequence of impaired placentation due to inadequate trophoblastic invasion of the maternal spiral arteries. In PE the maternal plasma concentration of free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) is decreased whereas the concentration of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and of soluble endoglin (sEng) is increased. These soluble receptors may bind VEGF, PLGF and TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction in many maternal tissues. Hence there is a view that the pathogenesis is more or less clarified. According to the vascular theory, poor placentation leads to poor uteroplacental perfusion and hypoxia, which stimulates sFlt-1 and sEng production causing the maternal syndrome. This assumption has been recently challenged. The role of hypoxia as the main stimulus for release of sFlt-1 has been questioned and the role of inflammatory mechanisms has been emphasized. According to this inflammatory theory, poor placentation may predispose more to placental oxidative stress than hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction may be part of a broader disorder of systemic inflammation. Finally, the recent demonstration of activating auto-antibodies to the angiotensin 1 receptor that experimentally play a major pathogenic role in PE further suggests a pleiotropism of aetiologies for this condition. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the recent hypotheses and their possible insights on early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailSozialkapital und der Neue Geist des Kapitalismus - Die Ideologie des vernetzten Menschen und neue Wege der Ausbeutung
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Neue Soziale Forschungsjournal Bewegungen (2009), 22/3

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See detailFirst record of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Boumans, Louis; Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Phegea (2009), 37(4), 153-160

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of ... [more ▼]

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Meunier, Pierre; Roux, C.; Ortolani, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2009), 20

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33 ... [more ▼]

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33% over 4 years, confirming the role of strontium ranelate as an effective long-term treatment in osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality-of-life (QoL). Strontium ranelate (2 g/day) was shown to prevent bone loss, increase bone strength, and reduce vertebral and peripheral fractures. The preplanned aim of this study was to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate. METHODS: A total of 1,649 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were randomized to strontium ranelate or placebo for 4 years, followed by a 1-year treatment-switch period for half of the patients. Primary efficacy criterion was incidence of patients with new vertebral fractures over 4 years. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and QoL were also evaluated. RESULTS: Over 4 years, risk of vertebral fracture was reduced by 33% with strontium ranelate (risk reduction = 0.67, p < 0.001). Among patients with two or more prevalent vertebral fractures, risk reduction was 36% (p < 0.001). QoL, assessed by the QUALIOST(R), was significantly better (p = 0.025), and patients without back pain were greater (p = 0.005) with strontium ranelate than placebo over 4 years. Lumbar BMD increased over 5 years in patients who continued with strontium ranelate, while it decreased in patients who switched to placebo. Emergent adverse events were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In this 4- and 5-year study, strontium ranelate is an effective and safe treatment for long-term treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailSveconorwegian (Grenvillian) Massif type anorthosites and related granitoids result from postcollisional remelting of a continental arc root
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Bolle, Olivier ULg; Bingen, Bernard et al

in EOS : Transactions, American Geophysical Union (2009), 90(52), 11-02

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See detailMagnetic and transport properties of HoMnO3 monocrystals
Radulov, Iliya; Lovchinov, Vassil; Dimitrov, Dimitar et al

in Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials [= JOAM] (2009), 11

This paper presents results from measurements of the magnetization, specific heat and dielectric constant, and their temperature and magnetic field dependence, for HoMnO3 single crystals. The results are ... [more ▼]

This paper presents results from measurements of the magnetization, specific heat and dielectric constant, and their temperature and magnetic field dependence, for HoMnO3 single crystals. The results are discussed in the framework of existing data on magnetic symmetries and the interactions between the Mn-spins, the rare earth moments, and the lattice. From the resulting data, the magnetic phase diagram of HoMnO3 was built. [less ▲]

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See detailDemixing processes in AgPd superlattices
Dumont, Jacques; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Wiame, Francis et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2009), 21

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See detailSubchronic Alpha-Linolenic Acid Treatment Enhances Brain Plasticity and Exerts an Antidepressant Effect: A Versatile Potential Therapy for Stroke.
Blondeau, Nicolas; Nguemeni, C.; Debruyne, D. N. et al

in Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2009)

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have therapeutic potential in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of action underlying these effects are not ... [more ▼]

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have therapeutic potential in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of action underlying these effects are not well elucidated. We previously showed that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduced ischemic brain damage after a single treatment. To follow-up this finding, we investigated whether subchronic ALA treatment promoted neuronal plasticity. Three sequential injections with a neuroprotective dose of ALA increased neurogenesis and expression of key proteins involved in synaptic functions, namely, synaptophysin-1, VAMP-2, and SNAP-25, as well as proteins supporting glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely, V-GLUT1 and V-GLUT2. These effects were correlated with an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels, both in vitro using neural stem cells and hippocampal cultures and in vivo, after subchronic ALA treatment. Given that BDNF has antidepressant activity, this led us to test whether subchronic ALA treatment could produce antidepressant-like behavior. ALA-treated mice had significantly reduced measures of depressive-like behavior compared with vehicle-treated animals, suggesting another aspect of ALA treatment that could stimulate functional stroke recovery by potentially combining acute neuroprotection with long-term repair/compensatory plasticity. Indeed, three sequential injections of ALA enhanced protection, either as a pretreatment, wherein it reduced post-ischemic infarct volume 24 h after a 1-hour occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or as post-treatment therapy, wherein it augmented animal survival rates by threefold 10 days after ischemia.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 29 July 2009; doi:10.1038/npp.2009.84. [less ▲]

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See detailMultivariate analysis of cognitive profiles in Alzheimer's disease
Bastin, Christine ULg; Leclercq, Yves ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 8th bi-annual Meeting of the Belgian Society for Neuroscience (2009)

The neuropsychological profiles of patients with early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) appear to be heterogeneous. In this study, we examined whether this heterogeneity corresponds to the existence of ... [more ▼]

The neuropsychological profiles of patients with early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) appear to be heterogeneous. In this study, we examined whether this heterogeneity corresponds to the existence of cognitively distinct subtypes of AD or rather to impairments along a continuum of performances in different cognitive domains. A large group of 187 AD patients recruited in the European project NEST-DD performed a neuropsychological battery. A factor analysis of cognitive performance identified three factors, which respectively reflected attentional/instrumental function, declarative memory and executive function. Three clustering methods were applied on the factor scores in order to explore the existence of separate groups. The clustering methods indicated that cognitive profiles among the patients were sufficiently variable to identify clusters, but there was continuity between clusters rather than clear-cut subtypes. Moreover, clusters corresponded to various combinations of relatively impaired and preserved functions, suggesting multidimensional distribution within a large population of patients. Finally, clusters of cognitive profiles were characterized by different levels of metabolism in brain regions commonly (but variably) involved or relatively preserved in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailHistopathological diagnosis of a type vii mucopolysaccharidosis after pregnancy termination.
Delbecque, Katty ULg; Gaillez, Stephanie ULg; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Fetal & Pediatric Pathology (2009), 28(1), 1-8

Type VII mucopolysaccharidosis is a very rare recessive lysosomal storage disease. We diagnosed a type VII MPS in a case of severe fetal hydrops after pregnancy termination at 23 weeks of gestation. The ... [more ▼]

Type VII mucopolysaccharidosis is a very rare recessive lysosomal storage disease. We diagnosed a type VII MPS in a case of severe fetal hydrops after pregnancy termination at 23 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was suspected on histopathological examination by the presence of foam cells in many viscera and foamy placental Hofbauer cells. Enzyme assay on cultured amniotic cells showed a markedly deficient beta-glucuronidase activity, thus confirming the diagnosis. This report shows the importance of a precise necropsy diagnosis in nonimmune hydrops because of putative implications for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies. [less ▲]

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See detailQuoi de neuf dans le Syndrome Douleur Régional Complexe (SDRC) encore appelé algoneurodystrophie
Fontaine, Robert ULg; Teuwis, Sandrine ULg; Faymonville, Marie ULg

in Douleur et Analgésie (2009), 22

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains difficult to understand and to treat. The definition criteria of the IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain) in 1994 showed an overestimation ... [more ▼]

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains difficult to understand and to treat. The definition criteria of the IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain) in 1994 showed an overestimation of diagnosis. A revision of these criteria conducted in Budapest in 2003 permits to ameliorate the specificity of these criteria in clinical and research settings. Pathophysiology is poorly understood, only one mechanism can’t explain the observed manifestations in the CRPS: facilitated neurogenic inflammation, peripheral and central abnormalities of the central nervous system … Finally, the different laboratory tests are reviewed. Unfortunately, no laboratory test is the signature of CRPS. The diagnosis relies on history and rigorous clinical examination. Imagery method, neurophysiologic test and evaluation of inflammatory parameters help to the differential diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleation of superconductivity and vortex matter in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids
Aladyshkin, A Yu; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Gillijns, W. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2009), 22(5),

The theoretical and experimental results concerning the thermodynamical and low-frequency transport properties of hybrid structures, consisting of spatially separated conventional low-temperature ... [more ▼]

The theoretical and experimental results concerning the thermodynamical and low-frequency transport properties of hybrid structures, consisting of spatially separated conventional low-temperature superconductors (S) and ferromagnets (F), are reviewed. Since the superconducting and ferromagnetic parts are assumed to be electrically insulated, no proximity effect is present and thus the interaction between both subsystems is through their respective magnetic stray fields. Depending on the temperature range and the value of the external field H(ext), different behavior of such S/F hybrids is anticipated. Rather close to the superconducting phase transition line, when the superconducting state is only weakly developed, the magnetization of the ferromagnet is solely determined by the magnetic history of the system and it is not influenced by the field generated by the supercurrents. In contrast to that, the nonuniform magnetic field pattern, induced by the ferromagnet, strongly affects the nucleation of superconductivity, leading to an exotic dependence of the critical temperature T(c) on H(ext). Deeper in the superconducting state the effect of the screening currents cannot be neglected anymore. In this region of the phase diagram T-H(ext) various aspects of the interaction between vortices and magnetic inhomogeneities are discussed. In the last section we briefly summarize the physics of S/F hybrids when the magnetization of the ferromagnet is no longer fixed but can change under the influence of the superconducting currents. As a consequence, the superconductor and ferromagnet become truly coupled and the equilibrium configuration of this 'soft' S/F hybrid requires rearrangements of both superconducting and ferromagnetic characteristics, as compared with 'hard' S/F structures. [less ▲]

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See detailEANA European Astrobiology workhop, Program and abstracts
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Dehant, Véronique; Muller, Christian

Book (2009)

EANA Euroepan Astrobiology workhop, Program and abstracts, Brussels 12-14 oct 2009

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See detailLe droit administratif: droit dans le mur ?
Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULg

in Les murs (2009)

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See detailUn modo attutito d’esistere: Note su Sbarbaro traduttore dal francese
Benzoni, Pietro ULg

in Ferreri, Davide (Ed.) Camillo Sbarbaro in versi e in prosa (2009)

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