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See detailGenetic variation in the familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) and risk for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Lemire, Mathieu; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(9), 7154

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) gene (MEFV) encodes pyrin, a major regulator of the inflammasome platform controlling caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing. Pyrin has ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) gene (MEFV) encodes pyrin, a major regulator of the inflammasome platform controlling caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing. Pyrin has been shown to interact with the gene product of NLRP3, NALP3/cryopyrin, also an important active member of the inflammasome. The NLRP3 region was recently reported to be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility. We therefore sought to evaluate MEFV as an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility gene. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: MEFV colonic mucosal gene expression was significantly increased in experimental colitis mice models (TNBS p<0.0003; DSS p<0.006), in biopsies from CD (p<0.02) and severe ulcerative colitis (UC) patients (p<0.008). Comprehensive genetic screening of the MEFV region in the Belgian exploratory sample set (440 CD trios, 137 UC trios, 239 CD cases, 96 UC cases, and 107 healthy controls) identified SNPs located in the MEFV 5' haplotype block that were significantly associated with UC (rs224217; p = 0.003; A allele frequency: 56% cases, 45% controls), while no CD associations were observed. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of variants located in this associated haplotype block identified three synonymous variants (D102D/rs224225, G138G/rs224224, A165A/rs224223) and one non-synonymous variant (R202Q/rs224222) located in MEFV exon 2 that were significantly associated with UC (rs224222: p = 0.0005; A allele frequency: 32% in cases, 23% in controls). No consistent associations were observed in additional Canadian (256 CD trios, 91 UC trios) and Scottish (495 UC, 370 controls) sample sets. We note that rs224222 showed marginal association (p = 0.012; G allele frequency: 82% in cases, 70% in controls) in the Canadian sample, but with a different risk allele. None of the NLRP3 common variants were associated with UC in the Belgian-Canadian UC samples and no significant interactions were observed between NLRP3 and MEFV that could explain the observed flip-flop of the rs224222 risk allele. CONCLUSION: The differences in association levels observed between the sample sets may be a consequence of distinct founder effects or of the relative small sample size of the cohorts evaluated in this study. However, the results suggest that common variants in the MEFV region do not contribute to CD and UC susceptibility. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly identification of inner pillar cells during rat cochlear development.
Thelen, Nicolas ULg; Breuskin, Ingrid ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2009), 337(1), 1-14

Although the structure of the auditory organ in mature mammals, the organ of Corti, is clearly established, its development is far from being elucidated. Here, we examine its spatio-temporal development ... [more ▼]

Although the structure of the auditory organ in mature mammals, the organ of Corti, is clearly established, its development is far from being elucidated. Here, we examine its spatio-temporal development in rats from embryonic day 16 (E16) to E19 by using cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods at the light- and electron-microscope levels. We demonstrate that the organ of Corti develops from a non-proliferating cell zone that is located in the junctional region between two edges of the dorsal epithelium of the cochlear duct. We also reveal that the first cells to develop in this zone are the inner pillar cells, a particular type of non-sensory supporting cell, which arise in the base of the cochlear duct at the boundary between the two ridges at E16. Cell differentiation in this prosensory region continues according to a base-to-apex gradient; the inner hair cells appear in the greater epithelial ridge at E17 and the outer hair cells in the lesser epithelial ridge at E18. At E19, the various cell types of the organ of Corti are in place. Finally, we show that unlike the development of all the supporting cell types of the organ of Corti, the development of inner pillar cells within the prosensory domain seems not to involve Notch1 activation. These results highlight the central role that the inner pillar cells probably play in the development of the organ of Corti. [less ▲]

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See detailPutative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes
Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Damblon, Christian ULg et al

in BMC Genomics (2009), 10

Background. Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can ... [more ▼]

Background. Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS) in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results. We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes). The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite’s major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q) to form stable Gquadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusions. This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet et la reconfiguration de l’espace public tunisien : le rôle de la diaspora
Lecomte, Romain ULg

in tic&société (2009), 3(1-2),

Using a sociological approach, we show how Tunisians of the diaspora take advantage of Internet to keep themselves involved and informed and to denounce what they consider as unjust in their native ... [more ▼]

Using a sociological approach, we show how Tunisians of the diaspora take advantage of Internet to keep themselves involved and informed and to denounce what they consider as unjust in their native country. We describe the style of critical speech preferred by these activist Internet users and the type of public sphere they claim. We study the activist paths of some of them and analyse their relationships with Internet users living in Tunisia. While they are initially less likely to openly denounce (use of indirect criticism) the authoritarian regime, we illustrate how these Internet users in Tunisia come to play an increasingly important role in this new space of contestation. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitologie africaine: quelle spécificité pour l'avenir?
Kabamba, Bob ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2009)

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See detailFormation littéraire et compétences. Notes pour un débat.
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

E-print/Working paper (2009)

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See detailLa traduction dans l'antiquité
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailEffects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Meunier, Pierre; Roux, C.; Ortolani, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2009), 20

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33 ... [more ▼]

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33% over 4 years, confirming the role of strontium ranelate as an effective long-term treatment in osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality-of-life (QoL). Strontium ranelate (2 g/day) was shown to prevent bone loss, increase bone strength, and reduce vertebral and peripheral fractures. The preplanned aim of this study was to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate. METHODS: A total of 1,649 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were randomized to strontium ranelate or placebo for 4 years, followed by a 1-year treatment-switch period for half of the patients. Primary efficacy criterion was incidence of patients with new vertebral fractures over 4 years. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and QoL were also evaluated. RESULTS: Over 4 years, risk of vertebral fracture was reduced by 33% with strontium ranelate (risk reduction = 0.67, p < 0.001). Among patients with two or more prevalent vertebral fractures, risk reduction was 36% (p < 0.001). QoL, assessed by the QUALIOST(R), was significantly better (p = 0.025), and patients without back pain were greater (p = 0.005) with strontium ranelate than placebo over 4 years. Lumbar BMD increased over 5 years in patients who continued with strontium ranelate, while it decreased in patients who switched to placebo. Emergent adverse events were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In this 4- and 5-year study, strontium ranelate is an effective and safe treatment for long-term treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient digestibility of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) bean in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, L): Effects of heat treatment and levels of incorporation in diets.
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Youssao, A. K. I. et al

in British Poultry Science (2009), 50(5), 564-72

1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on ... [more ▼]

1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on guinea fowl to assess the effects of two types of heat processing (cooking and toasting) on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of Mucuna seeds offered alone or incorporated at three concentrations (40, 120 or 200 g/kg) in complete diets. 3. Diets containing 200 g/kg seeds had more crude fibre and less ether extract. L-Dopa content increased with the amount of Mucuna inclusion. Cooking reduced markedly L-Dopa content while toasting had no effect. When fed alone, Mucuna seeds dramatically decreased feed intake. 4. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were not influenced by the complete diets. Cooking significantly increased crude fibre digestibility. 5. It is suggested that cracked and cooked Mucuna bean can be incorporated at a safe level of 120 g/kg in complete diets for guinea fowl production. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance, entretien et réparation des constructions en béton
Courard, Luc ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailAspidothelium hirsutum (Thelenellaceae) and Carepttia goderei (Monoblastiaceae), two new species of foliicolous lichens from Ethiopia and Kenya
Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Fischer, Eberhard; Killmann, Dorothee et al

in Bryologist (2009), 112

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See detailMédiatiser ou médi-attiser le crime?
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2009), 2

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See detailTesting and modeling a scroll expander integrated into an Organic Rankine Cycle
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Cuevas, Cristian et al

in Applied Thermal Engineering (2009), 29

Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC’s) are particularly suitable for recovering energy from low-grade heat sources. This paper first presents the results of an experimental study carried out on a prototype of an ... [more ▼]

Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC’s) are particularly suitable for recovering energy from low-grade heat sources. This paper first presents the results of an experimental study carried out on a prototype of an open-drive oil-free scroll expander integrated into an ORC working with refrigerant HCFC-123. By exploiting the overall expander performance measurements, the eight parameters of a scroll expander semi-empirical model are then identified. The model is able to compute variables of first importance such as the mass flow rate, the delivered shaft power and the discharge temperature, and secondary variables such as the supply heating-up, the exhaust cooling-down, the ambient losses, the internal leakage and the mechanical losses. The maximum deviation between the predictions by the model and the measurements is 2% for the mass flow rate, 5% for the shaft power and 3 K for the discharge temperature. The validated model of the expander is finally used to quantify the different losses and to indicate how the design of the expander might be altered to achieve better performances. This analysis pointed out that the internal leakages and, to a lesser extent, the supply pressure drop and the mechanical losses are the main losses affecting the performance of the expander. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Dévonien: des mousses à l'arbre.
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailPre-study and in-study validation of an ultra-high pressure LC method coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for off-line determination of oxytetracycline in nasal secretions of healthy pigs.
Bimazubute, Marcel Aimé ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences (2009), 877(23), 2349-57

In order to quantify oxytetracycline (OTC) in nasal secretions of healthy pigs after intramuscular injection of OTC at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight, an original method based on ultra-high ... [more ▼]

In order to quantify oxytetracycline (OTC) in nasal secretions of healthy pigs after intramuscular injection of OTC at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight, an original method based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated. Sample preparation consisted in protein precipitation preceded by the addition of a releasing protein reagent. Metacycline (MTC) was used as internal standard. Separation was carried out at 65 degrees C in the gradient elution mode on a short analytical column filled with Acquity BEH C(18) stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted in a mixture of water and acetonitrile containing 1 mM of oxalic acid and 0.1% (v/v) of formic acid. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode; OTC and MTC were detected using multiple reaction monitoring. The pre-study and in-study validation of this bioanalytical method was performed by applying a novel strategy based on total measurement error and accuracy profiles. The maximum risk of observing future measurements falling outside the acceptance limits during routine as well as the measurements uncertainty were also estimated. [less ▲]

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See detailLes objets intentionnels – à la frontière entre les actes et le monde
Gyemant, Maria ULg

in PhaenEx (2009), 4(1/2009), 84-111

En 1894 Twardowski et Husserl exposent leurs positions divergentes concernant les objets intentionnels tels qu’ils sont introduits par la psychologie brentanienne. Alors que, selon Twardowski, ces objets ... [more ▼]

En 1894 Twardowski et Husserl exposent leurs positions divergentes concernant les objets intentionnels tels qu’ils sont introduits par la psychologie brentanienne. Alors que, selon Twardowski, ces objets sont en un certain sens immanents à l’acte de la conscience, Husserl insiste sur le fait que ce n’est rien d’autre que l’objet réel lui-même qui devient intentionnel en tant que visé par un tel acte. Derrière cette controverse se cache, d’ailleurs, la question cruciale de savoir comment penser l’entre-deux de la conscience et le mode, dont la réponse se trouve dans le concept d’intentionnalité. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette thérapeutique de l'étudiant. La maladie de Parkinson debutante
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; MOONEN, Gustave ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(4), 228-32

We present a discussion on the treatment options in the case of a patient seen at the outpatient abnormal movement clinic for a resting tremor of both hands. Signs and symptoms of the parkinsonian ... [more ▼]

We present a discussion on the treatment options in the case of a patient seen at the outpatient abnormal movement clinic for a resting tremor of both hands. Signs and symptoms of the parkinsonian syndrome are summarized as well as the current treatment options of early Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrated Assessment Frame as Science Policy Interface for Decisions on (Environment-Related) Risks - SCOPE - Report Phase 1
TORFS, RUDI; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg

Report (2009)

Classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Therefore, new approaches to prevent, control, communicate, and deal with the causes of these ... [more ▼]

Classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Therefore, new approaches to prevent, control, communicate, and deal with the causes of these risks and with public anxieties about risks are necessary. In phase 1 we analyzed the available concepts to integrate risk and economical assessment with social aspects in one framework, and discussed the relevant criteria that need to be considered in order to develop a final risk assessment framework. Furthermore, still in phase 1, empirical work was performed in the form of case studies to analyze and define a framework, or to select criteria. We are in the process of reviewing, selecting, and testing tools and instruments that can be used in this appraisal framework, to go from concepts to practice. To grasp the full complexity of controversial, uncertain and immature risks, to cope with different values and views, and to develop a good communication we consider the appraisal framework as a procedural decision making process. It requires a more participative approach as the legal rational approach does not deliver adequate public management tools for handling these issues. We propose a sequential model, going through a series of steps, that can be used both in cases of strategic planning and management, and in the management of local projects usually related to siting conflicts. In each phase of the model integrated assessment tools and methods can be applied up to the point where consensus or a clear representation of different values and views (ideal in very uncertain and ambiguous problems), or an optimal balance between different criteria (in more simple cases) is achieved. All together our Appraisal Framework [is shaped] as a process, structuring and supporting the decision-making process. • To promote and organize a mutual learning of all actors entering into the policy cycle spiralling up through the different phases. • In the context of local siting conflicts, local contamination issues and urban planning topics (all with very close relationships with individuals), including regional, global E&H issues (food, climate, air, transport…) It’s a policy cycle, focused around a certain problem, organised to formulate and evaluate policy options, with stakeholders involved at different phases and steps of the process. Here the AF is structured as a learning network composed of all the players entering into the decision-making process at different stages. The quality of the decision making process can be appreciated either on the basis of its outcomes or on the process itself. Our framing falls under the latter. It also rests on the procedural equity feeling and its impact on the acceptability of the effects of the decision (Joss S. and Brownlea A., 1999). Such an approach opens the way to a greater legitimacy of decisions whose substantive effects or outcomes are essentially dubious – a fortiori in the context of the precaution. It encourages a reflection on the manner of combining the opening of the decision-making process through participative methods with others meta-tools such as strategic management, integrated and comparative approach of the risk, or the evaluative method. These meta-tools structure the participative step, giving it objectives, precise questions and ad hoc means. It contributes to the technical quality of the decision and to its social acceptability, particularly when it is the product of a decision-making process which the actors consider precautionary and adapted to the context of great scientific uncertainty. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergising an exchange network between trainers in health promotion in the long term
Giot, Catherine ULg; Gosselain, Yves; Vanesse, Catherine et al

in Archives of Public Health (2009), 67(Supplement 2), 27-28

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See detailIdéologies et hégémonie : la classe dirigeante au prisme des think tanks
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2009), 70 ("Think tanks, experts et pouvoirs")(automne), 69-77

This article seeks to rethink the world of think tanks as a sub-space constituting the field of power; growing links of this sub-space with media industry, economy and politics being expressed and ... [more ▼]

This article seeks to rethink the world of think tanks as a sub-space constituting the field of power; growing links of this sub-space with media industry, economy and politics being expressed and consolidated through the seamless movement of certain social agents. These representatives of the financial bourgeoisie have in fact a purely instrumental relation with liberalism, their pragmatism being well accommodated with a social discourse of public regulation. In this perspective, the denunciation of think tanks as a preferred vehicle for liberal ideology ignores the role of think tanks in the construction, reproduction and dissemination of a hegemonic discourse – that of capitalism – which uses both market idolatry and State fetishism. [less ▲]

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