References of "2009"
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See detailL’ACTIVATION AU SEIN DES CPAS BELGES En quête de parcours durables et de bonnes pratiques
Nisen, Laurent ULg; Chaoui, Dounia; Raeymaeckers, Peter

Report (2009)

L'étude vise d'abord à analyser le concept d'activation, celui d'activation durable, et leur opérationnalisation. Dans une seconde partie, quantitative, des trajectoires d'activation sont étudiées, sur ... [more ▼]

L'étude vise d'abord à analyser le concept d'activation, celui d'activation durable, et leur opérationnalisation. Dans une seconde partie, quantitative, des trajectoires d'activation sont étudiées, sur base des données de la Banque Carrefour de la Sécurité Sociale, selon la méthode de l'Optimal Matching Analysis. Une dernière partie, qualitative, vise à typologiser les différents CPAS belges selon leurs pratiques d'activation, et d'identifier les meilleures politiques menées par les CPAS. [less ▲]

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See detailEpigraphie latine
Dubuisson, Michel; Famerie, Etienne ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailLunettes et télescopes, l'Univers se dévoile
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Taton, Fabrice

Learning material (2009)

Plaquette de l'exposition "Lunettes et Télescopes : l'Univers se dévoile" + animations flash illustrant la réflexion par des miroirs sphériques et la réfraction par des lentilles divergentes et ... [more ▼]

Plaquette de l'exposition "Lunettes et Télescopes : l'Univers se dévoile" + animations flash illustrant la réflexion par des miroirs sphériques et la réfraction par des lentilles divergentes et convergentes. [less ▲]

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See detailFoy Notre-Dame : Art, Politique et Religion. Actes du colloque de Dinant (16 mai 2009)
Delfosse, Annick ULg; Dekoninck, Ralph, ; Pacco, Christian,

Book published by Société archéologique de Namur (2009)

Ouvrage collectif consacré à l'étude de la statue miraculeuse de Notre-Dame de Foy, de son sanctuaire et de son culte sous deux angles : artistique et historique. La première partie traite du sanctuaire ... [more ▼]

Ouvrage collectif consacré à l'étude de la statue miraculeuse de Notre-Dame de Foy, de son sanctuaire et de son culte sous deux angles : artistique et historique. La première partie traite du sanctuaire et des supports de dévotion. La deuxième partie dégage la signification du culte marial à Foy dans le contexte politique et religieux du XVIIe siècle et au-delà. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluations of cognitive, linguistic and mnemonic competencies of people with Down’s syndrome; An integrative conception of mental retardation
Frenkel, Stéphanie ULg

in Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology (2009), 8(2), 214-215

Thesis summary

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See detailShort-term post-dispersal fate of seeds defecated by two small primate species (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis) in the Amazonian forest of Peru
Culot, Laurence ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Gérard, Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Tropical Ecology (2009), 25

Post-dispersal fate of seeds dispersed by large primates is well studied but little is known about this process in small frugivores like tamarins. This study in the Amazonian forest of Peru aimed at ... [more ▼]

Post-dispersal fate of seeds dispersed by large primates is well studied but little is known about this process in small frugivores like tamarins. This study in the Amazonian forest of Peru aimed at investigating if characteristics related to the defecation patterns of tamarins (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis) affected short-term post-dispersal seed fate, through secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles and removal by seed predators. Data on dung beetle activity were based on direct observations of 49 defecations while seed fate was studied using semi-controlled experiments (N = 458 for secondary dispersal and N = 398 for predation). Tamarins produce small defecations with a low number of seeds. Thirty-five per cent of defecations were visited by an average of 1.5 dung beetles that usually transport the faeces as pellets. Twenty-four per cent of seeds were buried by beetles at a mean depth of 3.5 cm. With increasing quantities of faecal matter, the probability of secondary seed dispersal increased but not the depth of burial. Seed predation pressure was low (17.6%) after 4 d and higher in faeces of S. mystax than in faeces of S. fuscicollis. Despite their small size, tamarins could be considered as high-quality seed dispersers, with a potential role for forest regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiovascular Responses to Static Assessments of Trunk Muscles
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Grosdent, Stéphanie ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg et al

in Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain (2009), 17(4), 378-389

Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular responses to standard static assessments of strength and endurance of trunk extensor muscles. Methods: Trunk extensor performances of ten healthy men, 48.2±5 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular responses to standard static assessments of strength and endurance of trunk extensor muscles. Methods: Trunk extensor performances of ten healthy men, 48.2±5.6 years, and 10 healthy women, 49±5.7 years, were assessed by means of a maximum static strength test [consisting in maximal voluntary contractions [MVC] performed with a specific dynamometer], and two static endurance tests [the Sorensen test, and a 50 percent MVC test]. Heart rate [HR], auscultatory systolic [SBP], and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] were recorded throughout the tests. Results: The MVCs induced significant increases of HR and SBP [mean peak values averaging 90 [female] to 95 [male] beats per minute and 133 [female] to 141 [male] mmHg]. The HR, SBP, and DBP values increased significantly across time throughout both endurance static tests. At the end of these tests, mean HR, SBP, and DBP reached 114 to 122 beats per minute, 172 to 185 mmHg, and 112 to 120 mmHg. Genders differed significantly with regard to holding times [longer in females], but a gender effect was only found on SBP [higher in males]. Heart rate and SBP increases were significantly higher in males than in female subjects. Conclusions: The strength test seems less demanding than expected, though our results need to be confirmed. Standard static endurance tests yield sizeable functional stress on the cardiovascular system. Our study emphasizes the need to exclude subjects with cardiac trouble from such efforts and suggests the relevance of monitoring cardiovascular parameters if tests are performed until exhaustion. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes implicit memory during anaesthesia persist in children?
Lopez, Ursula; Habre, w; Laurencon, M. et al

in British Journal of Anaesthesia (2009), 102(3), 37984

Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to ... [more ▼]

Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to demonstrate implicit memory during general anaesthesia, possibly because of differences in methodological design. We therefore designed a prospective study with the aim of evaluating implicit memory in children undergoing general anaesthesia, using a perceptual memory test based on the mere exposure effect, previously tested in a control group. Methods. Twelve infrequent neutral words were played 12 times in a random sequence via headphones to 36 children aged 8–12 yr during elective or emergency surgery. The children were not premedicated, and general anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The word presentation started immediately after the surgical incision. Within 36 h after the stimulus presentation, the memory was assessed by using a forced-choice preference judgement task. Time constraint and word deterioration with a low-pass filter were used to prevent the subjects from utilizing intentional retrieval. The implicit memory score was obtained by calculating the proportion of target words preferred, which was compared with the chance level (0.5). Results. The percentage of correct responses given by the children was comparable with the chance level. The memory score was mean (SD) 0.48 (0.16) (95% CI 0.43–0.53). Conclusions. The use of a perceptual implicit memory test based on the mere exposure procedure in children failed to reveal any evidence of implicit memory under general anaesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Chemistry and Magnetic Properties of Nd18Li8Fe5-xMxO39 (M = Mn, Co),
Dutton, S. E.; Battle, Peter D.; Grandjean, Fernande ULg et al

in Inorganic Chemistry (2009), 48

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See detailRecherches menées à l'Université de Liège dans le domaine du béton en 2008-2009
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Somja, Hugues et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns ... [more ▼]

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns subkected to compression and bending. Improvement of the textural quality of concrete with hydraulic binders. Influence of the reutilisation of OSB panels shuttering on the colour and texture of concrete surfaces. Non destructive methods for the detection of delamination in the decks of concrete bridges [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois: Thrombus artériel pulmonaire proximal en échocardiographie
PHAN BA, Remy ULg; DEPRETER, M.; GENNIGENS, Christine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(1), 4-5

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See detailDysregulation of anti-angiogenic agents (sFlt-1, PLGF, and sEndoglin) in preeclampsia--a step forward but not the definitive answer
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ULg; Chantraine, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2009), 82(2), 106-11

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, which resolves on placental delivery. It is thought to be the consequence of impaired placentation ... [more ▼]

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, which resolves on placental delivery. It is thought to be the consequence of impaired placentation due to inadequate trophoblastic invasion of the maternal spiral arteries. In PE the maternal plasma concentration of free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) is decreased whereas the concentration of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and of soluble endoglin (sEng) is increased. These soluble receptors may bind VEGF, PLGF and TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction in many maternal tissues. Hence there is a view that the pathogenesis is more or less clarified. According to the vascular theory, poor placentation leads to poor uteroplacental perfusion and hypoxia, which stimulates sFlt-1 and sEng production causing the maternal syndrome. This assumption has been recently challenged. The role of hypoxia as the main stimulus for release of sFlt-1 has been questioned and the role of inflammatory mechanisms has been emphasized. According to this inflammatory theory, poor placentation may predispose more to placental oxidative stress than hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction may be part of a broader disorder of systemic inflammation. Finally, the recent demonstration of activating auto-antibodies to the angiotensin 1 receptor that experimentally play a major pathogenic role in PE further suggests a pleiotropism of aetiologies for this condition. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the recent hypotheses and their possible insights on early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of methods for the detection of new emerging pathogenic Escherichia coli
Verstraete, K; De Reu, K; Robyn, J et al

Book published by Brussels : Belgian Science Policy (2009)

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) that can cause serious disease to humans. These food-borne pathogens belong to the fifth most common zoonoses in Belgium ... [more ▼]

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) that can cause serious disease to humans. These food-borne pathogens belong to the fifth most common zoonoses in Belgium, but due to their severe clinical symptoms in humans they are highly dreaded. They can cause a range of disease symptoms ranging from asymptomatically carriage over various diarrhoea symptoms to the life-threatening HUS (haemolytic uremic syndrome). Cattle are the main reservoir and infection of humans occurs through contact with faecal excretion material and consumption of contaminated food or water. A broad variety of serotypes is able to cause human infections, but the principal serotypes are O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. These strains are denoted as new emerging pathogens by the WHO. The group of sorbitol non-fermenting (s-) O157:H7 strains are examined the most, because an ISO-method is available. For sorbitol fermenting (s+) O157 strains as well as for non-O157 STEC strains recently a new isolation method was developed in the Belspo project SD/AF/06A (Possé et al. 2008a). The aim of the project was the optimization and the validation of the above-mentioned detection and isolation method for STEC in different matrices. In the first place immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was evaluated for the optimization of the STEC isolation method for cattle faeces (Ghent University, UGent). Second, molecular characterization of STEC strains was performed using a newly designed 33-mPCR as an alternative tool (University of Antwerp, VIB) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, ILVO). Also a smaller derived multiplex PCR (9-mPCR) was designed (VIB) and optimized for the screening of samples (ILVO). The third goal was the evaluation of different approaches for STEC isolation from human faecal samples (Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, UZ). Finally the STEC detection and isolation method was validated by an in-house and an interlaboratory study which was based on the ISO 16140 guideline for the validation of alternative methods (University of Liège; UGent; ILVO). For the optimization of the STEC isolation protocol for cattle faeces and the evaluation of the effect of IMS, cattle faecal samples were artificially inoculated with various numbers of STEC (10-100 and 100-1000 cfu/25g faeces) and isolated using the isolation protocol with 6h or 24h of enrichment followed by IMS and plating or direct plating on selective agars. Two types of IMS beads (Dynabeads and Captivate beads) were tested. Results showed that IMS (any of the two types of beads) had a highly positive effect on the isolation of serotype O157 (s- and s+), whereas only a small or even a negative effect for non-O157 serotypes was found. This was largely clarified by results on pure broth suspensions of STEC, showing that high percentages were recovered from the IMS beads used in suspensions with the serotypes O157 (s- and s+), O26 and O103, but lower percentages were recovered for O111 and O145. Non-O157 STEC were often already efficiently isolated from faeces using only direct plating, whereas O157 (s- and s+) STEC were not. For the enrichment time, 24h generally gave higher isolation efficiencies than 6h. Finally for serotypes O157 (s- and s+), O26 and O103, a level of 10-100 cfu/25g was reliably detected, whereas for serotypes O111 and O145 only 100-1000 cfu/25g was reliably detected. To accomplish the second task of the project, the Applied Molecular Genomics Group of the VIB Department of Molecular Genetics (UA-VIB) designed a proprietary 33-amplicon multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis. This mPCR assay contains the detection of 5 STEC serotypes (O26, O103, O111, O145, O157), the main virulence genes VT1 with variants (VT1ab, VT1c and VT1d), VT2 with six variants (VT2b,c,d,e,f,g) and consensus, eae with five variants (eaeα1, eaeβ1, eaeγ1; eaeγ2; eaeε and eaeζ), ehx, tir, katP, saa, espP and FliC H2, H7, H8, H11 and H28. The assay was optimized and validated on a set of test strains representative for the priority amplicons. Next, this molecular technology was validated on a collection of 334 human clinical and animal strains from the Belgian STEC Reference Center (UZ). This collection of human and animal strains was also characterized by performing the PulseNet Europe protocol for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This technique creates a fingerprint of a strain by means of rare cutter restriction enzyme cutting of DNA and gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the band patterns lead to clustering of strains according to similarity or relatedness. Then results of 33-mPCR and PFGE genotyping were combined to show eventual correlations between PFGE genotypes and virulence profiles. Also background information about the strains (date of isolation, human or animal source, clinical manifestation, outbreak information) was included to the analysis. Combining mPCR and PFGE genotyping results, correlations were shown. In the first place STEC strains were clustered according to their serotype. Secondly a correlation occurred between virulence profile and PFGE clustering, concerning VT genes and other genes. Particularly for STEC O157, strains had very diverse VT-profiles, and strains with the same VT-profile clustered together. Concerning the clinical manifestation, ‘asymptomatic’ cases occurred more frequently for non-O157 than for O157 STEC, but besides this no correlation was shown between the PFGE clustering and the clinical manifestation or between the VT-profile and the clinical manifestation. Finally several case studies could be appointed based on the PFGE dendrograms. In general the cases contained clones that persisted during several years, had similar virulence profiles and infected humans as well as animals. As a part of the second task, the UA-VIB also designed a derived 9-amplicon multiplex PCR (9-mPCR) for fast sample screening. Using this 9-mPCR, a combination of serotypes (O26, O103, O111, O145, O157) and virulence genes (VT1, VT2, eae and ehx) is detected in one run and can be visualized using conventional gel electrophoresis. Once the 9-mPCR was developed and tested on pure strains, an evaluation on samples was performed. Hereto ILVO (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research) tested several methods to extract DNA from artificially inoculated samples. Methods were compared based on the ability to remove PCR inhibiting molecules and on the ability to isolate and purify DNA from STEC cells. Out of four methods only two methods, in which no removal of sample debris was done, were suitable for sample preparation. The method using bead beating cell lysis described by Yu and Morrison (2004), was at least 10 times more sensitive than the method using the Qiagen Stool Mini Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and was therefore recommended. However, the method using bead beating cell lysis is much more time consuming than the Qiagen method and the use of a ribolyser is necessary. As ILVO used the method employing the ribolyser in all following experiments, this method was used on artificially inoculated samples to determine its detection limit. All virulence marker genes and the serotype gene of strain MB3901 (serotype O157) could be detected in enriched minced beef and cheese from raw milk artificially inoculated with 2 cfu/25g sample. For cattle fecal samples the screening test was 10 times less sensitive; 21 cfu/25g feces could be detected. Finally the influence of the volume of lysate used in the mPCR reaction mix was examined. An mPCR reaction containing 1 and 2µl of lysate DNA was performed, but no difference in detection was seen. Testing of different clinical isolates of non-O157 STEC on the newly designed selective agars, showed that growth characteristics were generally as expected. However, more standardization of the preparation of the medium is needed to obtain more reproducible results. Some O103 isolates did not grow on the media prepared at UZ and the color of the colonies of O111 was often difficult to distinguish from O26. Using artificially contaminated stool samples, the sensitivity of the STEC isolation protocol developed in a previous Belspo SPSD II project was similar to the protocol used routinely at UZ (103 and 104 cfu/5g). The sensitivity was about 10 times higher when using IMS. The method performed well on frozen STEC positive samples, but this could only be tested on 14 samples, of which 11 with O157, 2 with O111 and one O26. In-house validation of the STEC isolation protocol was performed to evaluate if the protocol is applicable for different types of food matrices. All samples used for this validation were artificially contaminated. Ten samples of minced beef, raw milk cheese and sprouted seeds were artificially inoculated with varying numbers (10-2000 cfu/25g) of non-stressed and stressed strains belonging to the serotypes O157 (s-) and (s+), O26, O103, O111 and O145. Cultured STEC strains were cold and freeze stressed by storing them for at least 5 days at respectively 2 and -18°C. Inoculated samples were pre-enriched in a weak selective medium for 6 hours followed by enrichment in a stronger selective medium for 18 hours. Direct plating on a selective medium was performed after each enrichment step. In a third pathway, an IMS (Dynabeads or Captivate beads) step was performed after 24h enrichment and prior to plating. Suspected colonies on the selective medium were purified and tentatively confirmed on a purification medium followed by a confirmation by a serotype PCR. Parallel to the classical isolation method, the 9-mPCR screening test was performed on the enrichment medium (after 24 hours enrichment). Results indicate that the isolation protocol as well as mPCR screening provide good detection of non-stressed and cold-stressed O26, O103, O157 (s+) and O145 in raw milk cheese and minced beef. Detection of the other non-stressed and cold-stressed serotypes (O111 and O157 (s+)) in raw milk cheese and minced beef and of all serotypes under freeze stressed conditions in minced beef was low or almost zero. Probably due to the high level of background flora, detection of any serotype in sprouted seeds was almost impossible even though inoculation numbers were as high as 2000 cfu/25g. Finally the optimized STEC detection and isolation methods were validated by an interlaboratory study performed by national and international laboratories (twelve laboratories in total). First, a pre-trial experiment was organized to give the collaborative laboratories the possibility to become familiar with the isolation method. Secondly, the actual interlaboratory study was performed. Products necessary to prepare all culture media (in-house-prepared: IHP) and ready-to-use selective agar culture media (ready-to-use: RTU) were sent to the participating laboratories, as well as a questionnaire and a document to report the results. For each participating laboratory, 20 samples of 25g of minced beef were prepared: one sample for the temperature measurement upon arrival, one for the enumeration of the total count, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, two blank samples and sixteen samples inoculated with single strains belonging to 4 serotypes at 2 levels of contamination in duplicate (30 cfu/g and 300 cfu/g). All strains were cold stressed. Samples were prepared the day of the shipment and had to be analyzed on a prefixed day. The University of Liège evaluated all results based on the recommendations of ISO 16140. Results showed no difference between RTU and IHP media. The arabinose test seemed difficult to be read, so the dulcitol test is now preferred for the confirmation of serotypes O103 and O111. Some mistakes were made during sample inoculation, like a wrong inoculation of four samples and no inoculation of one sample. If we do not take into account these mistakes, all four serotypes were detected with high sensitivity. In general it can be concluded that the laboratory performance is highly satisfactory. [less ▲]

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See detailErythromycin time-kill activity on activated sludge
Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Heliun, Yannick; Potier, Olivier et al

Conference (2009)

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See detailL'environnement, nouveau facteur de migrations ?
Gemenne, François ULg

in Jaffrelot, Christophe; Lequesne, Christian (Eds.) L'Enjeu Mondial: Les Migrations (2009)

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See detailSaturn's equinoctial auroras
Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2009), 36

We present the first images of Saturn's conjugate equinoctial auroras, obtained in early 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the radius of the northern auroral oval is similar to 1.5 ... [more ▼]

We present the first images of Saturn's conjugate equinoctial auroras, obtained in early 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the radius of the northern auroral oval is similar to 1.5 degrees smaller than the southern, indicating that Saturn's polar ionospheric magnetic field, measured for the first time in the ionosphere, is similar to 17% larger in the north than the south. Despite this, the total emitted UV power is on average similar to 17% larger in the north than the south, suggesting that field-aligned currents (FACs) are responsible for the emission. Finally, we show that individual auroral features can exhibit distinct hemispheric asymmetries. These observations will provide important context for Cassini observations as Saturn moves from southern to northern summer. Citation: Nichols, J. D., et al. (2009), Saturn's equinoctial auroras, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24102, doi: 10.1029/2009GL041491. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic and transport properties of HoMnO3 monocrystals
Radulov, Iliya; Lovchinov, Vassil; Dimitrov, Dimitar et al

in Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials [= JOAM] (2009), 11

This paper presents results from measurements of the magnetization, specific heat and dielectric constant, and their temperature and magnetic field dependence, for HoMnO3 single crystals. The results are ... [more ▼]

This paper presents results from measurements of the magnetization, specific heat and dielectric constant, and their temperature and magnetic field dependence, for HoMnO3 single crystals. The results are discussed in the framework of existing data on magnetic symmetries and the interactions between the Mn-spins, the rare earth moments, and the lattice. From the resulting data, the magnetic phase diagram of HoMnO3 was built. [less ▲]

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See detailDislocation et thématisation en français et en néerlandais - L1 et L2
Rasier, Laurent ULg

Scientific conference (2009)

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