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See detailEffects of feed supplementation with specific hen egg yolk antibody (immunoglobin Y) on Salmonella species cecal colonization and growth performances of challenged broiler chickens
Chalghoumi, Raja; Marcq, Christopher ULg; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2009), 88(10), 2081-2092

Anti-Salmonella spp. egg yolk antibodies (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were tested to determine if their inclusion in feed decreased Salmonella ... [more ▼]

Anti-Salmonella spp. egg yolk antibodies (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were tested to determine if their inclusion in feed decreased Salmonella spp. cecal colonization in experimentally infected broiler chickens. Egg yolk powder (EYP) was obtained by freeze-drying egg yolks containing anti-Salmonella spp. Immunoglobin Y was included in feed at 5 levels of concentration (0 to 5%). Feeds were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake from d 1 to 28. Three days after initiation of feed treatments (d 4), chickens were co-challenged with equal numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium (2x10(6) cfu/bird). Cecal samples were recovered weekly over the experimental period (d 7 to 28) to enumerate Salmonella spp. The effect of anti-Salmonella spp. IgY feed supplementation on growth performance of infected chickens was also evaluated during the same period. In comparison with the positive control treatment (PC), treatments involving EYP (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5), whether containing anti-Salmonella spp. IgY or not, significantly improved (P<0.05) the growth performance of challenged chickens, but without reaching the performance levels of nonchallenged chickens (NC1 and NC2). However, no link can be established between the enhancement in growth performance of challenged birds and their contamination levels by Salmonella because in-feed incorporation of EYP had no significant effect on cecal colonization by Salmonella. Furthermore, the comparison of the 5 anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration levels in feed did not reveal any anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration effect on growth performance and Salmonella cecal colonization. These results suggest that anti-Salmonella spp. IgY would undergo denaturation and degradation after their passage through the animal gastrointestinal tract and reveal that components of EYP other than specific antibodies have a beneficial effect on growth performance. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement durable des races bovines locales menacées
Bay, Elodie

Article for general public (2009)

Le projet EURECA a pour but d'assister la conservation, le développement et l'utilisation des races bovines locales, et ce en se basant sur l'étude de races locales dans 10 pays européens. Ce projet (d ... [more ▼]

Le projet EURECA a pour but d'assister la conservation, le développement et l'utilisation des races bovines locales, et ce en se basant sur l'étude de races locales dans 10 pays européens. Ce projet (d'une durée totale de 3 ans) est coordonné au niveau belge par le Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux. La première phase du projet, présentée dans cet article, a consisté à interroger des éleveurs et des parties prenantes à l'aide d'un formulaire standard, afin de comprendre comment s'intègre les races locales au niveau des différents intervenants. L'étude a porté sur la Pie Rouge Mixte (PRm) et la Blanc Bleu Mixte (BBm). [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between the roughness of the substrate surface and the debonding risk
Perez, Fabien; Morency, Maxim; Bissonnette, Benoît et al

in Alexander, M. G.; Beushausen, H.-D.; Dehn, F. (Eds.) et al Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II (2009)

This paper presents the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of repaired beams system. Bond between new and old concrete has been the subject of a number of investigations ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of repaired beams system. Bond between new and old concrete has been the subject of a number of investigations, but in most cases, only adhesion strength was addressed. This parameter was used to estimate the durability and/or the debonding risk for repaired structure and it’s a generally accepted auditing standards. Usually, surface preparation of the substrate concrete is considered essential to achieve a durable repair because of its influence on the bond strength. To better understand debonding mechanism, in particular these related to surface preparation, roughness parameters were calculated to quantify the influence of surface preparation on the structural behaviour. Using this approach, repair beams prepared by way of four (4) concrete surface preparations were characterized. Results obtained show that repaired beams presenting a substrate with a rough surface permit to achieve a monolithic behaviour of the repaired system. Opposite structural behaviour, with large debonding, was recorded for those having smooth surface. However, all surface preparations used have promoted the same bond strength regardless the roughness of the substrate. The resulting analysis highlights the relation between roughness parameter αrough and the debonding mechanism of repaired beams. Such results will be useful to better predict the performance of concrete repairs. [less ▲]

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See detailDémocratie 2.0. Une histoire politique d’Internet
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Book published by Espace de Libertés (2009)

Les technologies de l'information et de la communication interviennent de plus en plus souvent dans notre vie. Depuis sa conception, tant dans l'euphorie que dans les crises, les configurations socio ... [more ▼]

Les technologies de l'information et de la communication interviennent de plus en plus souvent dans notre vie. Depuis sa conception, tant dans l'euphorie que dans les crises, les configurations socio-techniques successives du réseau Internet ont encouragé la participation et l'autonomie de ses usagers. Depuis 20 ans (déjà), la toile accompagne également la maturation de « communautés virtuelles » ainsi que de mobilisations sociales, comme le mouvement dit « du logiciel libre » qui, se confrontant aux monopoles en tous genres, interpelle nos démocraties sur leurs liens avec la technologie. Cet ouvrage propose une réflexion nuancée sur les influences réciproques du socio-politique et de la technique. Plus qu'à un réquisitoire ou à une mise en garde, il invite à un recours actif, réfléchi et responsable à la technique dans les différentes facettes du vivre ensemble en démocratie. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining thermal failure in saturated clays
Hueckel, Tomasz; François, Bertrand ULg; Lyesse, Laloui

in Geotechnique (2009), 59(3), 197-212

Failure conditions in soils at elevated temperatures appear to be strongly dependent on the history of the application of stress and temperature. Four cases of such history leading to various modes of ... [more ▼]

Failure conditions in soils at elevated temperatures appear to be strongly dependent on the history of the application of stress and temperature. Four cases of such history leading to various modes of failure are identified and interpreted in terms of thermal Cam-clay models. Particular attention is given to the influence of thermal variability on the coefficient of the critical state, M, or the angle of internal friction. A detailed analysis of the material history offers an explanation of an apparent confusion about whether the soil strength is decreased or increased by temperature. In a companion paper, numerical analysis of the development of axisymmetric thermal and stress fields around a cylindrical heat source suggests that thermal failure may arise in conditions that are far from any mechanically critical situation. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-study and in-study validation of an ultra-high pressure LC method coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for off-line determination of oxytetracycline in nasal secretions of healthy pigs.
Bimazubute, Marcel Aimé ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences (2009), 877(23), 2349-57

In order to quantify oxytetracycline (OTC) in nasal secretions of healthy pigs after intramuscular injection of OTC at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight, an original method based on ultra-high ... [more ▼]

In order to quantify oxytetracycline (OTC) in nasal secretions of healthy pigs after intramuscular injection of OTC at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight, an original method based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated. Sample preparation consisted in protein precipitation preceded by the addition of a releasing protein reagent. Metacycline (MTC) was used as internal standard. Separation was carried out at 65 degrees C in the gradient elution mode on a short analytical column filled with Acquity BEH C(18) stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted in a mixture of water and acetonitrile containing 1 mM of oxalic acid and 0.1% (v/v) of formic acid. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode; OTC and MTC were detected using multiple reaction monitoring. The pre-study and in-study validation of this bioanalytical method was performed by applying a novel strategy based on total measurement error and accuracy profiles. The maximum risk of observing future measurements falling outside the acceptance limits during routine as well as the measurements uncertainty were also estimated. [less ▲]

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See detailFeline immunodeficiency. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Hosie, M. J.; Addie, D.; Belak, B. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2009), 11

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See detailFeline rabies. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Frymus, T.; Addie, D.; Belak, B. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2009), 11

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See detailFeline infectious peritonitis. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Addie, D.; Belak, B.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2009), 11

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See detailChlamydophila felis infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Gruffydd-Jones, T.; Addie, D.; Belak, B. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2009), 11

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See detailLes cas cliniques, une vision panachee de la medecine: de la simple anecdote a l'enseignement pratique.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(7-8), 357

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See detailValidation of methods for the detection of new emerging pathogenic Escherichia coli
Verstraete, K; De Reu, K; Robyn, J et al

Book published by Brussels : Belgian Science Policy (2009)

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) that can cause serious disease to humans. These food-borne pathogens belong to the fifth most common zoonoses in Belgium ... [more ▼]

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) that can cause serious disease to humans. These food-borne pathogens belong to the fifth most common zoonoses in Belgium, but due to their severe clinical symptoms in humans they are highly dreaded. They can cause a range of disease symptoms ranging from asymptomatically carriage over various diarrhoea symptoms to the life-threatening HUS (haemolytic uremic syndrome). Cattle are the main reservoir and infection of humans occurs through contact with faecal excretion material and consumption of contaminated food or water. A broad variety of serotypes is able to cause human infections, but the principal serotypes are O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. These strains are denoted as new emerging pathogens by the WHO. The group of sorbitol non-fermenting (s-) O157:H7 strains are examined the most, because an ISO-method is available. For sorbitol fermenting (s+) O157 strains as well as for non-O157 STEC strains recently a new isolation method was developed in the Belspo project SD/AF/06A (Possé et al. 2008a). The aim of the project was the optimization and the validation of the above-mentioned detection and isolation method for STEC in different matrices. In the first place immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was evaluated for the optimization of the STEC isolation method for cattle faeces (Ghent University, UGent). Second, molecular characterization of STEC strains was performed using a newly designed 33-mPCR as an alternative tool (University of Antwerp, VIB) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, ILVO). Also a smaller derived multiplex PCR (9-mPCR) was designed (VIB) and optimized for the screening of samples (ILVO). The third goal was the evaluation of different approaches for STEC isolation from human faecal samples (Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, UZ). Finally the STEC detection and isolation method was validated by an in-house and an interlaboratory study which was based on the ISO 16140 guideline for the validation of alternative methods (University of Liège; UGent; ILVO). For the optimization of the STEC isolation protocol for cattle faeces and the evaluation of the effect of IMS, cattle faecal samples were artificially inoculated with various numbers of STEC (10-100 and 100-1000 cfu/25g faeces) and isolated using the isolation protocol with 6h or 24h of enrichment followed by IMS and plating or direct plating on selective agars. Two types of IMS beads (Dynabeads and Captivate beads) were tested. Results showed that IMS (any of the two types of beads) had a highly positive effect on the isolation of serotype O157 (s- and s+), whereas only a small or even a negative effect for non-O157 serotypes was found. This was largely clarified by results on pure broth suspensions of STEC, showing that high percentages were recovered from the IMS beads used in suspensions with the serotypes O157 (s- and s+), O26 and O103, but lower percentages were recovered for O111 and O145. Non-O157 STEC were often already efficiently isolated from faeces using only direct plating, whereas O157 (s- and s+) STEC were not. For the enrichment time, 24h generally gave higher isolation efficiencies than 6h. Finally for serotypes O157 (s- and s+), O26 and O103, a level of 10-100 cfu/25g was reliably detected, whereas for serotypes O111 and O145 only 100-1000 cfu/25g was reliably detected. To accomplish the second task of the project, the Applied Molecular Genomics Group of the VIB Department of Molecular Genetics (UA-VIB) designed a proprietary 33-amplicon multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis. This mPCR assay contains the detection of 5 STEC serotypes (O26, O103, O111, O145, O157), the main virulence genes VT1 with variants (VT1ab, VT1c and VT1d), VT2 with six variants (VT2b,c,d,e,f,g) and consensus, eae with five variants (eaeα1, eaeβ1, eaeγ1; eaeγ2; eaeε and eaeζ), ehx, tir, katP, saa, espP and FliC H2, H7, H8, H11 and H28. The assay was optimized and validated on a set of test strains representative for the priority amplicons. Next, this molecular technology was validated on a collection of 334 human clinical and animal strains from the Belgian STEC Reference Center (UZ). This collection of human and animal strains was also characterized by performing the PulseNet Europe protocol for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This technique creates a fingerprint of a strain by means of rare cutter restriction enzyme cutting of DNA and gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the band patterns lead to clustering of strains according to similarity or relatedness. Then results of 33-mPCR and PFGE genotyping were combined to show eventual correlations between PFGE genotypes and virulence profiles. Also background information about the strains (date of isolation, human or animal source, clinical manifestation, outbreak information) was included to the analysis. Combining mPCR and PFGE genotyping results, correlations were shown. In the first place STEC strains were clustered according to their serotype. Secondly a correlation occurred between virulence profile and PFGE clustering, concerning VT genes and other genes. Particularly for STEC O157, strains had very diverse VT-profiles, and strains with the same VT-profile clustered together. Concerning the clinical manifestation, ‘asymptomatic’ cases occurred more frequently for non-O157 than for O157 STEC, but besides this no correlation was shown between the PFGE clustering and the clinical manifestation or between the VT-profile and the clinical manifestation. Finally several case studies could be appointed based on the PFGE dendrograms. In general the cases contained clones that persisted during several years, had similar virulence profiles and infected humans as well as animals. As a part of the second task, the UA-VIB also designed a derived 9-amplicon multiplex PCR (9-mPCR) for fast sample screening. Using this 9-mPCR, a combination of serotypes (O26, O103, O111, O145, O157) and virulence genes (VT1, VT2, eae and ehx) is detected in one run and can be visualized using conventional gel electrophoresis. Once the 9-mPCR was developed and tested on pure strains, an evaluation on samples was performed. Hereto ILVO (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research) tested several methods to extract DNA from artificially inoculated samples. Methods were compared based on the ability to remove PCR inhibiting molecules and on the ability to isolate and purify DNA from STEC cells. Out of four methods only two methods, in which no removal of sample debris was done, were suitable for sample preparation. The method using bead beating cell lysis described by Yu and Morrison (2004), was at least 10 times more sensitive than the method using the Qiagen Stool Mini Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and was therefore recommended. However, the method using bead beating cell lysis is much more time consuming than the Qiagen method and the use of a ribolyser is necessary. As ILVO used the method employing the ribolyser in all following experiments, this method was used on artificially inoculated samples to determine its detection limit. All virulence marker genes and the serotype gene of strain MB3901 (serotype O157) could be detected in enriched minced beef and cheese from raw milk artificially inoculated with 2 cfu/25g sample. For cattle fecal samples the screening test was 10 times less sensitive; 21 cfu/25g feces could be detected. Finally the influence of the volume of lysate used in the mPCR reaction mix was examined. An mPCR reaction containing 1 and 2µl of lysate DNA was performed, but no difference in detection was seen. Testing of different clinical isolates of non-O157 STEC on the newly designed selective agars, showed that growth characteristics were generally as expected. However, more standardization of the preparation of the medium is needed to obtain more reproducible results. Some O103 isolates did not grow on the media prepared at UZ and the color of the colonies of O111 was often difficult to distinguish from O26. Using artificially contaminated stool samples, the sensitivity of the STEC isolation protocol developed in a previous Belspo SPSD II project was similar to the protocol used routinely at UZ (103 and 104 cfu/5g). The sensitivity was about 10 times higher when using IMS. The method performed well on frozen STEC positive samples, but this could only be tested on 14 samples, of which 11 with O157, 2 with O111 and one O26. In-house validation of the STEC isolation protocol was performed to evaluate if the protocol is applicable for different types of food matrices. All samples used for this validation were artificially contaminated. Ten samples of minced beef, raw milk cheese and sprouted seeds were artificially inoculated with varying numbers (10-2000 cfu/25g) of non-stressed and stressed strains belonging to the serotypes O157 (s-) and (s+), O26, O103, O111 and O145. Cultured STEC strains were cold and freeze stressed by storing them for at least 5 days at respectively 2 and -18°C. Inoculated samples were pre-enriched in a weak selective medium for 6 hours followed by enrichment in a stronger selective medium for 18 hours. Direct plating on a selective medium was performed after each enrichment step. In a third pathway, an IMS (Dynabeads or Captivate beads) step was performed after 24h enrichment and prior to plating. Suspected colonies on the selective medium were purified and tentatively confirmed on a purification medium followed by a confirmation by a serotype PCR. Parallel to the classical isolation method, the 9-mPCR screening test was performed on the enrichment medium (after 24 hours enrichment). Results indicate that the isolation protocol as well as mPCR screening provide good detection of non-stressed and cold-stressed O26, O103, O157 (s+) and O145 in raw milk cheese and minced beef. Detection of the other non-stressed and cold-stressed serotypes (O111 and O157 (s+)) in raw milk cheese and minced beef and of all serotypes under freeze stressed conditions in minced beef was low or almost zero. Probably due to the high level of background flora, detection of any serotype in sprouted seeds was almost impossible even though inoculation numbers were as high as 2000 cfu/25g. Finally the optimized STEC detection and isolation methods were validated by an interlaboratory study performed by national and international laboratories (twelve laboratories in total). First, a pre-trial experiment was organized to give the collaborative laboratories the possibility to become familiar with the isolation method. Secondly, the actual interlaboratory study was performed. Products necessary to prepare all culture media (in-house-prepared: IHP) and ready-to-use selective agar culture media (ready-to-use: RTU) were sent to the participating laboratories, as well as a questionnaire and a document to report the results. For each participating laboratory, 20 samples of 25g of minced beef were prepared: one sample for the temperature measurement upon arrival, one for the enumeration of the total count, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, two blank samples and sixteen samples inoculated with single strains belonging to 4 serotypes at 2 levels of contamination in duplicate (30 cfu/g and 300 cfu/g). All strains were cold stressed. Samples were prepared the day of the shipment and had to be analyzed on a prefixed day. The University of Liège evaluated all results based on the recommendations of ISO 16140. Results showed no difference between RTU and IHP media. The arabinose test seemed difficult to be read, so the dulcitol test is now preferred for the confirmation of serotypes O103 and O111. Some mistakes were made during sample inoculation, like a wrong inoculation of four samples and no inoculation of one sample. If we do not take into account these mistakes, all four serotypes were detected with high sensitivity. In general it can be concluded that the laboratory performance is highly satisfactory. [less ▲]

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See detailSpiders capture attention especially when you are afraid of them
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2009), 38 Suppl.

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up fashion when they are irrelevant for the search task. To investigate this issue we used the additional singleton paradigm (Theeuwes, 1992 Perception & Psychophysics 51(6) 599 - 606), in which participants had to search for a shape singleton (a circle among diamonds) while either a fear-related stimulus (a spider) or a fear-unrelated stimulus (a butterfly) was also present in the display. To determine whether the capture was modulated by the degree of actual fear evoked by the stimuli we compared performance of participants that scored high or low on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (Szymanski and O'Donohue, 1995 Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 26 31 - 34). Results indicate that both task-irrelevant spiders and butterflies capture attention. More importantly, however, for high-fear participants the interference caused by spiders was larger than that caused by butterflies, signifying the role of fear as a factor in the capture of attention by fear-related objects. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends in productivity of crops, fallow and rangelands in Southwest Niger: Impact of land use, management and variable rainfall
Hiernaux, Pierre; Ayantunde, Augustine; Kalilou, Adamou et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2009), 375 (1-2)

To document trends in land use and herbaceous production, 71 field sites sampled among cropped fields, fallow fields and rangelands in the Fakara region (Niger) were monitored from 1994 to 2006. The ... [more ▼]

To document trends in land use and herbaceous production, 71 field sites sampled among cropped fields, fallow fields and rangelands in the Fakara region (Niger) were monitored from 1994 to 2006. The overall trend in land use confirmed the historical increase of the cropped areas since mid 20th century, at an annual rate of 2% from 1994 to 2006. This trend is the result of changes in the relative extent of fields permanently cropped and fields under shifting cultivation, and for the latter, the relative proportion of short (3 years) and long (10 years) duration fallows. Type of land use together with topography and soil type determine the herbaceous production and the resulting yield measured towards the end of the wet season. The variation in site yields between years is of the same order of magnitude as the variation in yields between sites within a year. There is an overall decreasing trend in site yields by 5% annually from 1994 to 2006 that is not explained by variations in rainfall. The decreasing trend is observed on fields under shifting cultivation, fallowed fields and rangelands, although not all sites are equally affected. Causes are likely to be multiple which might include changes in land use, decline of soil fertility and increased grazing pressure. Indeed, the remaining rangelands on marginal land and the fallows still accessible to livestock are subject to such a heavy grazing during the rainy season that the herbaceous standing mass measured at the end of the season reflects poorly the actual production. After the two first years of cropping, the herbaceous yield in fields under shifting cultivation with no fertilisation is negatively affected by the number of successive years of cropping. Moreover, clearing fallow after a decreasing number of years affects the mean herbaceous yield of fallowed fields by reducing the contribution of more productive old fallows. Changes in land use, grazing pressure and soil fertility also triggered changes in species composition with a strong reduction in diversity from rangelands to fallows, and again from fallows to cropland weeds. No correlations was found however between productivity and species composition. Cumulative rainfall does not explain between site or between year deviations in herbaceous yield even when sites are sorted by land use type or by soil type in the case of fallow and rangelands. Simulated production calculated with the STEP model does not explain herbaceous yields much better even when sites are grouped by land use and soil type. However, relative changes of herbaceous yields are reasonably predicted on sites that remained fallowed and were not heavily grazed for at least four consecutive years. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse et propriétés tensioactives de nouveaux surfactants provenant de matières premières renouvelables.
Laurent, Pascal ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2009)

A l'heure actuelle, le bioraffinage se présente de plus en plus comme une alternative prometteuse aux filières pétrochimiques puisqu'il vise à la fois le remplacement d'une partie du pétrole comme source ... [more ▼]

A l'heure actuelle, le bioraffinage se présente de plus en plus comme une alternative prometteuse aux filières pétrochimiques puisqu'il vise à la fois le remplacement d'une partie du pétrole comme source d'énergie et le développement de produits chimiques issus de la biomasse (végétale principalement) tels que détergents, produits phytopharmaceutiques, dissolvants, matières plastiques, etc. La valorisation de carbohydrates provenant de matières premières renouvelables fait ainsi actuellement l'objet de nombreuses recherches. Dans ce cadre, la synthèse de nouveaux tensioactifs non ioniques dérivés des acides Dglucuronique et D-galacturonique a été effectuée. [less ▲]

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See detailLes noms de la langue en latin
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Histoire Epistémologie Langage (2009), 31(2), 29-48

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