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See detailAgronomical and molecular factors influencing bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA, cv ‘Grande-Naine’) susceptibility to crown rot disease
Lassois, Ludivine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Crown rot affects export bananas in all producing countries and is considered to be one of the main export banana post-harvest disease. Variations are observed in the expression of crown rot symptoms. An ... [more ▼]

Crown rot affects export bananas in all producing countries and is considered to be one of the main export banana post-harvest disease. Variations are observed in the expression of crown rot symptoms. An original approach of the disease is proposed and consists on presenting the fruit quality potential at harvest as a key factor in crown rot development. This potential develops during growth of bananas in the field and depends on a physiological and a parasitical component. The physiological component refers here to the level of fruit susceptibility to crown rot and reflects the physiological state of the fruit. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the fruit physiological component at harvest in the post-harvest crown rot development. It appears that the fruit physiological component at harvest greatly influence the postharvest disease development and thus the fruit susceptibility. Seasonal variations in disease severity were shown in two production area and are related to a variation of the fruit physiological component. In Guadeloupian conditions, the internal necrotic surface of the crown was nearly multiplied by 4 during 11 successive weeks. Two pre-harvest factors that could influence the fruit physiological component by modifying their susceptibility to crown rot, were identified: (i) hand position on the bunch and (ii) source-sink ratio of the banana plant (hand considered as sink and leaves as source). It was shown that within a bunch, there is a gradient of susceptibility to crown rot (r= -0.95), the hands initiated first (the upper ones) being more susceptible than those initiated last (the lower ones). These results also confirmed that source-sink ratio changes have a significant effect on fruit morphology and demonstrated that there is also an effect on fruit susceptibility to crown rot disease. When the sink is decreased by artificial removal of many hands, the level of fruit susceptibility to crown rot decreases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships were still unknown. A study was designed to compare gene expression, by cDNA-AFLP, between crowns of bananas showing a high susceptibility (S+) and crowns of bananas showing a low susceptibility (S-) to Colletotrichum musae responsible for crown rot disease. This comparison was performed at two situation time: (i) between crowns (S+ and S-) collected one hour before infection and (ii) between crowns (S+ and S-) collected 13 days after infection. Genes implied in signaling pathway and proteolytic machinery were identified. It also appears that a cellulose synthase, a CAF1 gene, 2 glycolipid transfer protein and a dopamine-β-monooxygenase were differently expressed between bananas showing different levels of susceptibility. This is the first study of the characterization of the banana physiological component at harvest which influences the crown rot post-harvest disease development. In addition, to our knowledge, this work is the first to address both pre- and post-infection gene expression with the same host-pathogen combination and different susceptibility levels. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-term economical consequences of roadside tree topping
Campanella, Bruno ULg; Toussaint, André ULg; Paul, Roger ULg

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2009), 8

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See detailImpaired semantic knowledge underlies the reduced verbal short-term storage capacity in Alzheimer's disease.
Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve ULg; De Baerdemaeker, Julie et al

in Neuropsychologia (2009), 47(14), 3067-73

A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during ... [more ▼]

A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor STM performance. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of semantic knowledge on verbal short-term memory storage capacity in normal aging and in AD by exploring the impact of word imageability on STM performance. Sixteen patients suffering from mild AD, 16 healthy elderly subjects and 16 young subjects performed an immediate serial recall task using word lists containing high or low imageability words. All participant groups recalled more high imageability words than low imageability words, but the effect of word imageability on verbal STM was greater in AD patients than in both the young and the elderly control groups. More precisely, AD patients showed a marked decrease in STM performance when presented with lists of low imageability words, whereas recall of high imageability words was relatively well preserved. Furthermore, AD patients displayed an abnormal proportion of phonological errors in the low imageability condition. Overall, these results indicate that the support of semantic knowledge on STM performance was impaired for lists of low imageability words in AD patients. More generally, these findings suggest that the deterioration of semantic knowledge is partly responsible for the poor verbal short-term storage capacity observed in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailReading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments
Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Developmental Neuropsychology (2009), 34

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See detailGestion interdisciplinaire du problème d'ensablement des cuvettes en milieu sahélien nigérien
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ambouta, K, J-M

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

Niger faces the brunt of desertification in the Sahelian belt. Many national and international programs attempt to help the country fight against this serious environmental degradation. This article ... [more ▼]

Niger faces the brunt of desertification in the Sahelian belt. Many national and international programs attempt to help the country fight against this serious environmental degradation. This article relies on an inter-university targeted program (ITP) funded by the Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) called "Invasion of circular lowlands (cuvettes) of south-eastern Niger by aeolian deposits: processes, impacts and means of struggle" to demonstrate the interest of an inter / multidisciplinary approach in the research of a better solution to an environmental problem as comprehensive as that of desertification. The study is focused on a specific form of desertification, which is that of silting “cuvettes”, areas of lowlands in the south-eastern Niger. Two examples illustrate the practical contribution of this type of approach. The article also shows the link between all the teams who have contributed to the results of the ITP and the development of this special issue. [less ▲]

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See detailL'imaginaire du complot. Discours d'extrême droite en France et aux Etats-Unis
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

Book published by Amsterdam University Press (2009)

Le nationalisme, la xénophobie, le racisme et l’antisémitisme, l’opposition aux élites, la stigmatisation des étrangers, les discours anti-immigrés, mais aussi l’autoritarisme, l’idéologie ‘loi et ordre’ ... [more ▼]

Le nationalisme, la xénophobie, le racisme et l’antisémitisme, l’opposition aux élites, la stigmatisation des étrangers, les discours anti-immigrés, mais aussi l’autoritarisme, l’idéologie ‘loi et ordre’ (Law and order), l’antiparlementarisme et l’anticommunisme, entre autres traits caractéristiques, représentent quelques-uns des qualificatifs les plus souvent cités dans la littérature consacrée au populisme et à l’extrême droite. En fonction des partis politiques concernés, des contextes institutionnels et des particularités nationales et géographiques, ces qualificatifs prendront une dimension centrale ou secondaire selon qu’il s’agira de caractériser un courant populiste ou un parti d’extrême droite. A l’appui d’une comparaison entre la France et les Etats-Unis, l’ouvrage vise à démontrer que l’ensemble de ces qualificatifs entretiennent tous à des degrés divers un rapport fondamental avec un ‘imaginaire du complot’, c’est-à-dire avec un monde de significations structuré et cohérent (normes, significations, images, symboles, valeurs et croyances) qui privilégie la théorie du complot pour expliquer la politique et l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Remacle, J.-F.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in Proceedings of the 11th International Society of Grid Generation Conference (ISSG 2009) (2009)

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See detailDC Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of Temperature, Pressure and Deposition Time on the Deposited Layer Morphology, the Wetting and Optical Surface Properties
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Cecchet, Francesca; Lucas, Stéphane

in Plasma Processes and Polymers (2009), 6

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared on glass substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. As highlighted by the atomic force microscopy characterization, we were able to control the ... [more ▼]

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared on glass substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. As highlighted by the atomic force microscopy characterization, we were able to control the nanoparticles' surface coverage and diameter by varying the deposition time and the total pressure, respectively. The titanium dioxide energy band gap, determined by using ultraviolet-visible, spectroscopy, depends on the total pressure but is quite independent of the deposition temperature. On the contrary, it is blue shifted when the pressure increases. Finally, the contact angles slightly decrease after ultraviolet illumination irrespective of the different deposition parameters, indicating an improvement of the hydrophilic properties of the adsorbed layer. After 21 h in dark, the contact angles are nearly identical to the ones before exposure to UV light: the samples do not keep their hydrophilic behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailDe meisje heeft de boek niet gelezen, maar wel het krant. Genus in het Nederlands van anderstaligen
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2009)

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See detailContrastieve onderzoeksmodellen onder de loep
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2009)

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See detailQuelle est la nouvelle donne pour soigner les patients diabétiques de type 2 ?
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques (2009), 3(2), 141-146

Le traitement du diabète de type 2 est une tâche plus difficile qu’il n’y paraît en raison de la complexité de la maladie du point de vue physiopathologique, de l’adhésion imparfaite du patient aux ... [more ▼]

Le traitement du diabète de type 2 est une tâche plus difficile qu’il n’y paraît en raison de la complexité de la maladie du point de vue physiopathologique, de l’adhésion imparfaite du patient aux mesures hygiéno-diététiques, de la multiplicité croissante des médicaments disponibles, des imprécisions persistantes quant aux objectifs glycémiques et de la nécessité de proposer une stratégie de prévention cardio-vasculaire multirisques. Même si des directives générales peuvent être proposées, il convient d’individualiser le traitement en essayant d’obtenir le meilleur rapport bénéfices/risques, à un coût raisonnable. Cet article résume la nouvelle donne dans la prise en charge du diabète de type 2 au vu des résultats des dernières grandes études et du dernier document de consensus publié par l’American diabetes association (ADA) et l’European association for the study of diabetes (EASD). Il insiste sur l’importance d’une prise en charge globale individualisée et sur l’éducation thérapeutique à la fois des soignants et des soignés. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Nécropole de Bavay, « Les Faches les Prés Aulnoys »
Deru, Xavier ULg

Book (2009)

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See detailPS : baisse tendancielle ou conjoncturelle ?
Verjans, Pierre ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2009), (mai-juin), 10-12

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of a Markov Microsimulation Model for the Economic Evaluation of Treatments in Osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Value in Health (2009), 12(5), 687-696

ABSTRACT Objective: Markov models are increasingly used in economic evaluations of treatments for osteoporosis. Most of the existing evaluations are cohort-based Markov models missing comprehensive memory ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: Markov models are increasingly used in economic evaluations of treatments for osteoporosis. Most of the existing evaluations are cohort-based Markov models missing comprehensive memory management and versatility. In this article, we describe and validate an original Markov microsimulation model to accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Methods: We developed a Markov microsimulation model with a lifetime horizon and a direct health-care cost perspective. The patient history was recorded and was used in calculations of transition probabilities, utilities, and costs. To test the internal consistency of the model, we carried out an example calculation for alendronate therapy. Then, external consistency was investigated by comparing absolute lifetime risk of fracture estimates with epidemiologic data. Results: For women at age 70 years, with a twofold increase in the fracture risk of the average population, the costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained for alendronate therapy versus no treatment were estimated at Euro 9105 and Euro 15,325, respectively, under full and realistic adherence assumptions. All the sensitivity analyses in terms of model parameters and modeling assumptions were coherent with expected conclusions and absolute lifetime risk of fracture estimates were within the range of previous estimates, which confirmed both internal and external consistency of the model. Conclusion: Microsimulation models present some major advantages over cohort-based models, increasing the reliability of the results and being largely compatible with the existing state of the art, evidence-based literature. The developed model appears to be a valid model for use in economic evaluations in osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLa problématique des méduses sur le plateau continental Ouest Corse, série de données et modélisation
Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Goffart, Anne ULg; Collignon, Amandine ULg et al

Conference (2009)

Depuis une dizaine d’années, les eaux côtières corses sont envahies les méduses et en particulier par les Pelagia noctiluca qui présentent une nuisance pour les eaux de baignade, les installations ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d’années, les eaux côtières corses sont envahies les méduses et en particulier par les Pelagia noctiluca qui présentent une nuisance pour les eaux de baignade, les installations aquacoles et hydrauliques côtières, interfèrent avec la pêche, colmatent les filets et entrent en compétition avec les poissons pour la nourriture. Leurs apparitions dans les eaux côtières sont généralement fortuites, discontinues dans les temps et dans l’espace et souvent sous forme d’essaims. Dans le cadre du programme MEDUSES, subsidié par l’Agence de l’Eau RMC, des observations visuelles directes et des comptages de Pelagia effectués depuis 2003 à partir du quai du port de STARESO montrent une augmentation graduelle de leur abondance de 2004 à 2005 suivie par une augmentation dramatique en 2006 puis une diminution significative les étés 2007 et 2008. La prolifération de Pelagia en 2006 succède à des biomasses particulièrement élevées de mésozooplancton en 2005. On peut émettre l’hypothèse que l’abondance exceptionnelle des proies planctoniques est une des causes de la prolifération. Les Pelagia vivent en essaims dont deux types sont observés en Baie de Calvi: des essaims passifs et des essaims actifs. Les essaims passifs observés dans le port de STARESO contiennent des individus généralement dégradés (perte des tentacules, du manubrium,..), voire moribonds mais qui restent urticants. Parfois réduits à la seule ombrelle, ils se déplacent peu et s’accumulent en grand nombre (parfois plus de 200 par m2), bord à bord, en essaims passifs limités aux trois premiers mètres de la surface. Ces essaims subissent une prédation active par de nombreux poissons sparidés (bogues, sars,...). Ils disparaissent en quelques heures du fait de cette prédation ou par sédimentation massive des animaux morts. Par contre, dans les eaux plus au large, nos mesures in situ de la distribution spatiale de Pelagia noctiluca montrent que durant les pics de 2006, de nombreux organismes sont présents à distance de la côte où ils forment des essaims actifs de 200 m de long et 50 m de large situés entre 10 à 60 m. Dans ces essaims actifs, on observe de 5 à 10 individus par m3. Ceux-ci sont équidistants et nagent activement avec les tentacules étendus, capturant la nourriture. Dans certains cas, des individus moribonds partiellement détruits ou à la fin de leur cycle biologique échappent des essaims actifs et dérivent passivement à la surface, sous l’action du vent et des mouvements de l’eau, vers les zones côtières. Entre ces deux types extrêmes d’essaims, divers cas intermédiaires existent. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional analysis of an FLC-LIKE gene in root chicory
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Pieltain, Alexandra ULg; D'Aloia, Maria ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Physiology (2009), 153A(2/Suppl.), 198-199

Vernalization is known to promote flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting the expression of a strong repressor: FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). The recent cloning of an FLC-LIKE gene in sugar beet (Beta ... [more ▼]

Vernalization is known to promote flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting the expression of a strong repressor: FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). The recent cloning of an FLC-LIKE gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris; BvFL1) and – here – in root chicory (Cichorium intybus; CiFL1) suggests the conservation of FLC biological function during evolution of eudicots. Hence physiological questions that remain difficult to address in Arabidopsis can be studied in other species. We investigated the correlation between CiFL1 expression and plant-age dependent responsiveness to vernalization. We also studied the effect of post-vernalization growing temperature, which can stabilize or erase the vernalized state. [less ▲]

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