References of "2009"
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See detailQuel avenir pour les essais de prevention cardiovasculaire?
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2009), 5(214), 1635-6

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See detailThymus dysfunction in the development of type 1 diabetes and endocrine autoimmune diseases
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Dardenne Olivier

in European Endocrinology (2009), 5

The discovery that thymic epithelium from many species expresses a large repertoire of genes encoding neuroendocrine and other tissue-restricted antigens has radically changed our knowledge of the ... [more ▼]

The discovery that thymic epithelium from many species expresses a large repertoire of genes encoding neuroendocrine and other tissue-restricted antigens has radically changed our knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rather than a breakdown of immunological selftolerance in periphery, there is mounting evidence that the diabetogenic autoimmune response may first arise from a thymus dysfunction in the central programming of β-cell self-tolerance. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is the dominant member of the insulin gene/protein family expressed in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) from different species, and Igf2-/- mice fail to programme complete tolerance to insulin. Based on the homology between insulin, the primary and immunogenic auto-antigen of type 1 diabetes, and IGF-2, the tolerogenic self-antigen of the insulin family, the design of a regulatory/negative self-vaccination for prevention against type 1 diabetes has been proposed and is under development. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Falstaff de Shakespeare
D'Anna, Vinciane; Delville, Michel ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailPrevalence of chronic kidney disease in Kinshasa: results of a pilot study from the Democratic Republic of Congo
Sumaili, Ernest K.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Zinga, Chantal V. et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2009), 24(1), 117-122

Abstract Background. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with CKD in ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with CKD in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 503 adult residents in 10 of the 35 health zones of Kinshasa were studied in a randomly selected sample. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation (eGFR) and compared with the Cockcroft–Gault equation for creatinine clearance. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria) and kidney function (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were examined. Results. The prevalence of all stages of CKD according to K/DOQI guidelines was 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.0–15.1%]. By stage, 2% had stage 1 (proteinuria with normal eGFR), 2.4% had stage 2 (proteinuria with an eGFR of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2), 7.8% had stage 3 (eGFR, 30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 0.2% had stage 5 (eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2). Hypertension and age were independently associated with CKD stage 3. The prevalences of major non-communicable diseases considered in this study were 27.6% (95% CI, 25.7–31.3%) for hypertension, 11.7% (95% CI, 10.3–14.4%) for diabetes mellitus and 14.9% (95% CI, 13.3–17.9%) for obesity. Hypertension was also independently associated with proteinuria. Conclusion. More than 10% of the Kinshasa population exhibits signs of CKD, which is affecting adults in their productive years. Risk factors for CKD, including hypertension, diabetes and obesity, are increasing. These alarming data must guide current and future healthcare policies to meet the challenge raised by CKD in this city and hopefully in the whole country. [less ▲]

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See detailMonofluoride Bridged, Binuclear Metallacycles of First Row Transition Metals Supported by Third Generation Bis(1-pyrazolyl)methane Ligands: Unusual Magnetic Properties
Reger, Daniel; Watson, R. P.; Foley, E. A. et al

in Inorganic Chemistry (2009), 48

The reaction of M(BF4)2•xH2O, where M is Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, and the bitopic, bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligand m-[CH(pz)2]2C6H4, Lm, where pz is a pyrazolyl ring, yields the monofluoride bridged, binuclear ... [more ▼]

The reaction of M(BF4)2•xH2O, where M is Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, and the bitopic, bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligand m-[CH(pz)2]2C6H4, Lm, where pz is a pyrazolyl ring, yields the monofluoride bridged, binuclear [M2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 complexes. In contrast, a similar reaction of Lm with Ni(BF4)2•6H2O yields dibridged [Ni2(μ-F)2(μ-Lm)2](BF4)2. The solid state structures of seven [M2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 complexes, with M = Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, indicate that the divalent metal ion is in a five-coordinate, trigonal bipyramidal, coordination environment with either a linear M–F–M bridging arrangement in five of the complexes, or with a slightly bent Cu–F–Cu bridge in two of the complexes. NMR results indicate that [Zn2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 retains its dimeric structure in solution. The [Ni2(μ-F)2(μ-Lm)2](BF4)2 complex has a dibridging fluoride structure that has a six-coordination environment about each nickel(II) ion. In the solid state, the [Fe2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 and [Co2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 complexes show weak intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two metal(II) ions with J values of –10.4 and –0.67 cm–1, respectively; there is no observed long-range magnetic order. Three different solvates of [Cu2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 are diamagnetic between 5 and 400 K, thus showing strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions of –600 cm–1 or more negative. Mössbauer spectra indicate that [Fe2(μ-F)(μ-Lm)2](BF4)3 exhibits no long-range magnetic order between 4.2 and 295 K and isomer shifts that are consistent with the presence of five-coordinate, high-spin iron(II). [less ▲]

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See detaile-Demos, We'll Show You What We've Got !"
Lecomte, Béatrice ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailThe structure of the di-zinc subclass B2 metallo-beta-lactamase CphA reveals that the second inhibitory zinc ion binds in the "histidine" site.
Bebrone, Carine ULg; Delbrück, Heinrich; Kupper, Michaël et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2009)

Bacteria can defend themselves against beta-lactam antibiotics through the expression of class B beta-lactamases, which cleave the beta-lactam amide bond and render the molecule harmless. There are three ... [more ▼]

Bacteria can defend themselves against beta-lactam antibiotics through the expression of class B beta-lactamases, which cleave the beta-lactam amide bond and render the molecule harmless. There are three subclasses of class B beta-lactamases (B1, B2 and B3), all of which require Zn(2+) for activity and can bind either one or two zinc ions. Whereas the B1 and B3 metallo-beta-lactamases are most active as di-zinc enzymes, subclass B2 enzymes such as Aeromonas hydrophila CphA are inhibited by the binding of a second zinc ion. We crystallized A. hydrophila CphA in order to determine the binding site of the inhibitory zinc ion. X-ray data from zinc-saturated crystals allowed us to solve the crystal structures of the di-zinc forms of the wild-type enzyme and N220G mutant. The first zinc ion binds in the "cysteine" site, as previously determined for the mono-zinc form of the enzyme. The second zinc ion occupies a slightly modified "histidine" site, where the conserved His118 and His196 residues act as metal ligands. This atypical coordination sphere probably explains the rather high dissociation constant for the second zinc ion compared to those observed in enzymes of subclasses B1 and B3. Inhibition by the second zinc ion results from immobilization of the catalytically-important His118 and His196 residues, as well as the folding of the Gly232-Asn233 loop into a position that covers the active site. [less ▲]

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See detailGentamicin in infective endocarditis: how to use it?
Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Moutschen, Michel ULg

in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2009), 49(2), 320-1321

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See detailImpact of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH replacement upon thymus function in adult patients.
Morrhaye, Gabriel ULg; Kermani, Hamid; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(5), 5668

BACKGROUND: Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and GH secretagogues reverse age-related changes in thymus cytoarchitecture and increase thymopoiesis. GH administration also enhances thymic mass and function in HIV-infected patients. Until now, thymic function has not been investigated in adult GH deficiency (AGHD). The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate thymic function in AGHD, as well as the repercussion upon thymopoiesis of GH treatment for restoration of GH/IGF-1 physiological levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-two patients with documented AGHD were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were measured: plasma IGF-1 concentrations, signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) frequency, and sj/beta TREC ratio. Analyses were performed at three time points: firstly on GH treatment at maintenance dose, secondly one month after GH withdrawal, and thirdly one month after GH resumption. After 1-month interruption of GH treatment, both plasma IGF-1 concentrations and sjTREC frequency were decreased (p<0.001). Decreases in IGF-1 and sjTREC levels were correlated (r = 0.61, p<0.01). There was also a decrease in intrathymic T cell proliferation as indicated by the reduced sj/beta TREC ratio (p<0.01). One month after reintroduction of GH treatment, IGF-1 concentration and sjTREC frequency regained a level equivalent to the one before GH withdrawal. The sj/beta TREC ratio also increased with GH resumption, but did not return to the level measured before GH withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AGHD under GH treatment, GH withdrawal decreases thymic T cell output, as well as intrathymic T cell proliferation. These parameters of thymus function are completely or partially restored one month after GH resumption. These data indicate that the functional integrity of the somatotrope GH/IGF-1 axis is important for the maintenance of a normal thymus function in human adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NTC00601419. [less ▲]

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See detailMariage et union libre : quelle égalité en droit pénal ?
Masset, Adrien ULg

in Liber Amicorum Henri-D. Bosly. Loyauté, justice et vérité. (2009)

Le Code pénal belge date de 1867 et a subi de nombreuses modifications, mais est resté sourd à de nombreuses évolutions connues dans d'autres branches du droit (couples homosexuels, cohabitation légale ... [more ▼]

Le Code pénal belge date de 1867 et a subi de nombreuses modifications, mais est resté sourd à de nombreuses évolutions connues dans d'autres branches du droit (couples homosexuels, cohabitation légale, parents naturels ou adoptants, ...) Le couple non marié a été nié au début du Code pénal pour être ensuite pris en compte petit à petit, de manière disparate. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst record of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Boumans, Louis; Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Phegea (2009), 37(4), 153-160

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of ... [more ▼]

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species. [less ▲]

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See detailAutoimmune angioneurotic edema in a patient with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Mukeba, Didier; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Giot, Jean-Baptiste ULg et al

in Helicobacter (2009), 14(1), 9-11

Association of acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema with other diseases is increasing. However, the precise mechanism by which antibodies to C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) are produced, is not ... [more ▼]

Association of acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema with other diseases is increasing. However, the precise mechanism by which antibodies to C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) are produced, is not elucidated. We describe a patient with IgA antibodies against C1-INH without other autoimmune markers. Our patient had gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, proven by biopsy. This case suggests that H. pylori infection can act as triggering factor for acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an original approach to evaluate effects of surfactants, biomass and pollutants on the scaling-up of a two-phase partitioning bioreactor
Aldric, Jean-Marc ULg

(2009)

BACKGROUND: Two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) are considered as a new technology for xenobiotic degradation in gaseous effluents. However, there is still a need for more knowledge on how to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) are considered as a new technology for xenobiotic degradation in gaseous effluents. However, there is still a need for more knowledge on how to design and scale-up TPPBs. The partitioning of the two phases remains a misunderstood way of research. In particular, the impact of pollutant (isopropylbenzene), biomass and surfactant extract needs to be better evaluated. RESULTS:. An adaptated scale-down apparatus has been developed in order to quantify the speed of phase partitioning (SPP) into a plug flow section. Firstly, it was shown that isopropylbenzene (IPB) doesn’t destabilize more significantly the system. Secondly, respectively 0.5 g.L-1 and 0.05 g.L-1 of biomass and surfactant extract, separately or in mixture, were sufficient to ensure the stability of the two-phase system. Finally, a 100 m3 limit of scaling-up was suggested on the basis of the circulation time comparison. CONCLUSION: The scaling-up of an aqueous/silicone-oil TPPB was found to be definitely conceivable when the presence of biotic compounds were considered. However, further considerations are needed to verify our assumptions, in particular by taking into account the velocity field pattern in full-scale bioreactors and reproduce it in lab-scale apparatus. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of surfactants and biomass on the gas/liquid mass transfer in an aqueous-silicone oil two-phase partitioning bioreactor using Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 to remove VOCs from gaseous effluents
Aldric, Jean-Marc ULg; Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2009), 84

BACKGROUND: The two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has become a new strategy in the context of waste gas treatment. However, the impact of biomass and surfactants on gas/liquid (G/L) mass transfer ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has become a new strategy in the context of waste gas treatment. However, the impact of biomass and surfactants on gas/liquid (G/L) mass transfer needs to be better evaluated because the impact of these factors on the mass transfer coefficient “ ” and the interfacial area “ ”, respectively, remains misunderstood. RESULTS: Our study showed that, firstly, the surfactant extract produced by Rhodococcus erythropolis reduced the surface hydrophobicity of the biomass. Secondly, an optimal concentration appeared to exist for both of the components, respectively 0.5 g.L-1 and 0.7 g.L-1 for biomass (B) and surfactant extract (SE) when the global mass transfer coefficient ( ) of oxygen was measured in a silicone oil/water TPPB. However, the combination of B and SE was found to induce a negative synergism. In particular, SE improved the interfacial area “ ” by increasing the bubble diameter, while B reduced it as soon as a concentration of 1g.L-1 was exceeded. By contrast, the SE acted negatively on the , while B improved it overall. CONCLUSION: Better consideration is needed of the effect of biotic components in order to understand the phenomenon of G/L mass transfer in a TPPB. The behaviour of biomass growth and surfactants may strongly influence the mathematical models suggested in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on mass transfer of isopropylbenzene and oxygen in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor in the presence of silicone oil.
Aldric, Jean-Marc ULg; Lecomte, Jean-Paul; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2009), 153

A two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) to treat gas effluents polluted by volatile organic compound (VOC) has been developed. In this work, both the mass transfer of isopropylbenzene (IPB) and oxygen ... [more ▼]

A two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) to treat gas effluents polluted by volatile organic compound (VOC) has been developed. In this work, both the mass transfer of isopropylbenzene (IPB) and oxygen have been considered in relation to their influence on the hydrodynamics of the reactor and the type of silicone oils used as a second phase. The synergistic effect of silicone oil and stirrer speed on the global oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KLa) and gas-hold-up (up to 12%) have been investigated. The addition of 10% of low viscosity silicone oil (10 centistokes) in the reactor does not significantly affect the oxygen transfer rate. The very high solubility of IPB in the silicone oil leads to an enhancement of driving force term, especially for high fraction of silicone oil. However, it does not seem useful to exceed a volume fraction of 10% since KLaIPB decreases sharply at higher proportions of silicone oil. KLaIPB and KLa O2 evolve in the same way with the proportion of silicone oil. These results confirm the potentialities of our bioreactor to improve both the oxygen and pollutant gas transfer in the field of the treatment of gaseous pollutants, even for highly concentrated effluents. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiproxy evidence of `Little Ice Age' palaeoenvironmental changes in a peat bog from northern Poland
De Vleeschouwer, François ULg; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jaroslaw et al

in Holocene (2009), 19(4), 625-637

`Little Ice Age' (LIA) climatic deteriorations have been abundantly documented in various archives such as ice, lake sediments and peat bog deposits. Palaeoecological analyses of peat samples have ... [more ▼]

`Little Ice Age' (LIA) climatic deteriorations have been abundantly documented in various archives such as ice, lake sediments and peat bog deposits. Palaeoecological analyses of peat samples have identified these climatic deteriorations using a range of techniques, for example palynology, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae or carbon isotopic analyses. The use of inorganic geochemistry and the reconstruction of dust fluxes has remained a challenge in tracing the nature of LIA climatic changes. Although the idea of enhanced erosion conditions and storminess is commonly discussed, the conditions for dust deposition in peatlands over Europe during the LIA are rarely favourable, because the natural forest cover over Europe was much more important than nowadays, preventing dust deposition. This intense forest canopy masks the deposition of dust in peatlands. In northern Poland, near the Baltic shore, the S[l]owi[n]skie B[l]ota area was deforested around AD 1100, ie, just before the LIA, and therefore constitutes a key area for the reconstruction of LIA climatic change. With the support of a well-constrained chronology, climatic fluctuations are recorded in an ombrotrophic bog using inorganic geochemistry, plant macrofossils and carbon isotopic analyses. The reconstruction of LIA climatic changes is in good agreement with other records from Poland and NE Europe. However, a c. 50-year discrepancy can be observed between various records. This discrepancy is possibly due to progressive time-dependent cooling gradient from north to south Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailLes cas cliniques, une vision panachee de la medecine: de la simple anecdote a l'enseignement pratique.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(7-8), 357

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