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See detailValidation of version-4.61 methane and nitrous oxide observed by MIPAS
Payan, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Oelhaf, H. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2009), 9(2), 413-442

The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In ... [more ▼]

The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailmycoses
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; QUATRESOOZ, Pascale ULg; PIERARD-FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg

in Dermatologie et infections sexuellement transmissibles (2009)

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See detailGenotype by environment interaction in dairy cattle
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Rekik, Boulbaba; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2009), 13(1), 155-164

The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G x E) from reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems, Methods ... [more ▼]

The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G x E) from reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems, Methods applied to deal with G x E (controlled experiments and large data modeling) were discussed. A G x E was confirmed essentially when high differences between production environments and/or genotypes (genetically distant genotypes) were observed. Environmental effects were aggregated in most studies and identification of the components of the environment was largely unresolved, with only a few studies based on more definite-descriptors of environment. The implications of G x E on breeding decisions are discussed. Breeders should select genotypes on production traits within environmental conditions comparable to where candidate animals are intended to perform. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting and modeling a scroll expander integrated into an Organic Rankine Cycle
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Cuevas, Cristian et al

in Applied Thermal Engineering (2009), 29

Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC’s) are particularly suitable for recovering energy from low-grade heat sources. This paper first presents the results of an experimental study carried out on a prototype of an ... [more ▼]

Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC’s) are particularly suitable for recovering energy from low-grade heat sources. This paper first presents the results of an experimental study carried out on a prototype of an open-drive oil-free scroll expander integrated into an ORC working with refrigerant HCFC-123. By exploiting the overall expander performance measurements, the eight parameters of a scroll expander semi-empirical model are then identified. The model is able to compute variables of first importance such as the mass flow rate, the delivered shaft power and the discharge temperature, and secondary variables such as the supply heating-up, the exhaust cooling-down, the ambient losses, the internal leakage and the mechanical losses. The maximum deviation between the predictions by the model and the measurements is 2% for the mass flow rate, 5% for the shaft power and 3 K for the discharge temperature. The validated model of the expander is finally used to quantify the different losses and to indicate how the design of the expander might be altered to achieve better performances. This analysis pointed out that the internal leakages and, to a lesser extent, the supply pressure drop and the mechanical losses are the main losses affecting the performance of the expander. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
Dupuy, Eric; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2009), 9(2), 287-343

This paper presents extensive bias determination analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and ... [more ▼]

This paper presents extensive bias determination analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45 60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about + 20% on average). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within +/- 10% (average values within +/- 6%) between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (similar to 35-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30%) in the 45-55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Falstaff de Shakespeare
D'Anna, Vinciane; Delville, Michel ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailInsights into the Defense-Related Events Occuring in Plant Cells Following Perception of Surfactin-Type Lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis
Jourdan, Emmanuel ULg; Henry, Guillaume; Duby, F. et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2009), 22(4), 456-468

Multiple strains of Bacillus subtilis were demonstrated to stimulate plant defense responses, and cyclic lipopeptides may be involved in the elicitation of this induced systemic resistance phenomenon ... [more ▼]

Multiple strains of Bacillus subtilis were demonstrated to stimulate plant defense responses, and cyclic lipopeptides may be involved in the elicitation of this induced systemic resistance phenomenon. Here, we further investigated molecular events underlying the interaction between wuch lipopeptides and plant cells. Addition of surfactin but not fengycin or iturin in the micromolar range to tobacco cell suspensions induced defense-related early events such as extracellular medium alkalinization coupled with ion fluxes and reactive oxygen species production. Surfactin also stimulated the defense enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and lipoxygenase and modified the pattern of phenolics produced by the elicited cells. The occurence of these surfactin-elicited early events is closely related to Ca2+ influx and dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation but is not associed with any marked phytotoxicity or adverse effect on the integrity and growth potential of the treated tobacco cells. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques éducatives et approche par les capacités
Verhoeven, Marie; Dupriez, Vincent; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Ethique publique (2009), 11

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See detailOvarian steroidogenesis inhibition by constant photothermal conditions is caused by a lack of gonadotropin stimulation in Eurasian perch
Milla, S.; Mandiki, S. N. M.; Hubermont, P. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2009), 163(3), 242-250

In fish, the reasons for the inhibition of reproduction by constant photothermal conditions of rearing are far from clear. In an in vivo experiment, two groups of females reared under natural (4-28 ... [more ▼]

In fish, the reasons for the inhibition of reproduction by constant photothermal conditions of rearing are far from clear. In an in vivo experiment, two groups of females reared under natural (4-28 degrees C) or constant photothermal conditions (20-22 degrees C, photoperiod 12/12) were investigated for gonad development, sex-steroids (testosterone-T, 17-beta-estradiol-E2 and 11 Keto-Testosterone-11KT) dynamics and brain aromatase activity in January, February and March. Two days before each sampling date, a group of females reared under constant conditions was injected with HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: 100 Ul/kg) and evaluated for the same parameters. In addition, in vitro ovarian steroidogenesis capacity for each female was determined with or without stimulation by HCG and/or IGF-1 (insulin-like Growth Factor-1). The results indicate that vitellogenesis stage is the limit ovarian stage never reached in females submitted to constant photothermal conditions. This was associated with gonadogenesis delay and low levels of circulating sex-steroids (T, E2 and 11KT). Nevertheless, HCG injections partly counteracted the plasma steroid deprivation, indicating that ovaries from fish reared under constant photothermal conditions suffer from a lack of gonadotropin stimulation, maybe caused by plasma LH suppression. Such finding was confirmed by the in vitro ovary incubation test. HCG and IGF-1 treatments induced broad testosterone and 17-beta-estradiol elevations and the exposure to constant photothermal conditions, in some cases, decreased that response to HCG. In conclusion, we show that the inhibition of reproductive cycle in Eurasian perch females by constant photothermal conditions of rearing may be related to lower sex-steroid levels and to an inhibition of ovarian regulation by gonadotropins (at least LH), probably stopping gonadogenesis before vitellogenesis stage. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe story of a tragedy. How people in Haut-Katanga interpret the post-colonial history of Congo
Rubbers, Benjamin ULg

in Journal of Modern African Studies (2009), 42(2), 267-289

Cet article analyse les cadres narratifs auxquels les habitants du Haut-Katanga recourent pour rendre compte de l'histoire post-coloniale du Congo.

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See detailVariations in stratigraphic and reservoir properties adjacent to the Mid-Paleocene sequence boundary, Campo section, Pyrenees, Spain
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Loisy, Corinne; Cerepi, Adrian et al

in Sedimentary Geology (2009), 219

The Paleocene of the Campo section, Spain has different sedimentological characteristics above and below the Mid-Paleocene Unconformity. Beneath the unconformity sediments are dominated by evaporitic ... [more ▼]

The Paleocene of the Campo section, Spain has different sedimentological characteristics above and below the Mid-Paleocene Unconformity. Beneath the unconformity sediments are dominated by evaporitic carbonates and collapse breccias. Above it they are characterized by continental detrital beds alternating with paleosols. Different subaerial features are observed and correspond to different porosity values, pore–throat sizes and micrite morphologies. Unexposed or intertidal facies have low porosity, low throat–pore size (mesoporosity) and well preserved rhombic crystals. Intermediate exposed facies (paleosols) possess medium porosity, medium pore–throat size (microporosity) and mainly micro-rhombic crystals. Finally, the facies corresponding to high exposure intensity and to evaporitic original facies presents high porosity, permeability, large pore–throat size and rounded micritic crystals. These observations show that the emersion phase caused important dissolution, especially when associated with an easily dissolved original lithofacies. [less ▲]

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See detailDeutscher Einfluss und syntaktischer Wandel im Schwedischen
Zeevaert, Ludger ULg

in Wollin, Lars; Neuendorff, Dagmar; Szurawitzki, Michael (Eds.) Deutsch im Norden : Akten der nordisch-germanistischen Tagung zu Åbo/Turku, Finnland, 18.–19. Mai 2007 (2009)

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See detailHomobimetallic Ruthenium Vinylidene, Allenylidene, and Indenylidene Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Studies
Sauvage, Xavier ULg; Borguet, Yannick ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo et al

in Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis (2009), 351(3), 441-455

Four homobimetallic ruthenium-(p-cymene) complexes bearing a tricyclohexylphosphine ligand and polyunsaturated carbon-rich fragments were obtained via a vinylidene-allenylidene-indenylidene cascade ... [more ▼]

Four homobimetallic ruthenium-(p-cymene) complexes bearing a tricyclohexylphosphine ligand and polyunsaturated carbon-rich fragments were obtained via a vinylidene-allenylidene-indenylidene cascade pathway from the ethylene complex [(p-cymene)Ru(mu-Cl)(3)RuCl(PCy3)(eta(2)-C2H4)] (7a). All the products were isolated and fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies. The molecular structure of the indenylidene complex 11 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The catalytic activity of the four complexes was probed in various types of olefin metathesis reactions and compared with those of a related homobimetallic ruthenium-benzylidene complex, as well as first, second, and third generation monometallic Grubbs catalysts. In the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of diethyl diallylmalonate, the homobimetallic ruthenium-indenylidene complex 11. outperformed all the ruthenium-benzylidene complexes under investigation and was only slightly less efficient than its monometallic parent. Cross-metathesis experiments with ethylene showed that deactivation of ruthenium-benzylidene or indenylidene complexes was due to the rapid bimolecular decomposition of methylidene active species into ethylene complex 7a. Vinylidene and allenylidene complexes were far less efficient catalyst precursors for ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) or RCM and remained inert under an ethylene atmosphere. Their catalytic activity was, however, substantially enhanced upon addition of an acidic co-catalyst that most likely promoted their in situ transformation into indenylidene species. Due to its straightforward synthesis and high metathetical activity, homobimetallic ruthenium-indenylidene complex 11 is a valuable intermediate for the preparation of the Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst [Cl2Ru(PCy3)(=CH-o-O-i-PrC6H4)] via stoichiometric cross-metathesis with 2-isopropoxystyrene. ne procedure did not require any sacrificial phosphine and the transition metal not incorporated into the final product was easily recovered and recycled at the end of the process. [less ▲]

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See detailLes pratiques de flexicurité : pour une approche analytique
Pichault, François ULg; Xhauflair, Virginie ULg

in Pras, Bernard (Ed.) Management : tensions d’aujourd’hui (2009)

The paper proposes an analytical grid likely to describe the emerging compromises between flexibility and security at an interorganizational level.

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See detailA Simple Method to Determine Electrospray Response Factors of Noncovalent Complexes
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Analytical Chemistry (2009), 81(16), 6708-6715

The quantitative study of noncovalent complexes by electrospray mass spectrometry requires the determination of the relative response of each species. The method proposed here to determine the ... [more ▼]

The quantitative study of noncovalent complexes by electrospray mass spectrometry requires the determination of the relative response of each species. The method proposed here to determine the electrospray response factors is based on the use of (1) an internal standard and (2) the mass balance equation applied to one binding partner M, for which different complexes MxLy are detected in the electrospray mass spectra. A set of experiments providing various ratios between the complexes (e.g. different ligand concentrations in a titration experiment or different time points in a kinetics experiment) is used to generate a set of independent linear equations that can be solved using simple matrix algebra to find the response factors of each MxLy complex relative to that of the internal standard. The response factors can then be used to determine equilibrium dissociation constants or for the quantitative monitoring of reaction kinetics. The first is illustrated with a study of DNA-ligand complexes, where we show that neither minor groove binding nor intercalation dramatically affects the DNA response factor. The second is illustrated with a study of the association kinetics of the telomeric G-quadruplex dGGG(TTAGGG)3 with its complementary strand, where the response factors allow correcting for the relative response of the quadruplex and the long duplex and obtaining reproducible association rate constants independently of the source tuning potentials. [less ▲]

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