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See detailHarcèlement psychologique au travail : processus relationnels et profils de victimes. Approche processuelle, intégrative et dynamique d’un phénomène complexe.
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (2009), 72(2), 155-184

Dans le domaine de la recherche sur le harcèlement moral au travail, un nouvel enjeu majeur est apparu au cours des dernières années : mieux comprendre la complexité des processus apparaissant à ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine de la recherche sur le harcèlement moral au travail, un nouvel enjeu majeur est apparu au cours des dernières années : mieux comprendre la complexité des processus apparaissant à différents niveaux (individuel, interpersonnel, groupal, organisationnel) dans ces situations. Dans cette optique, nous utilisons un modèle d’analyse processuel, intégrateur et dynamique pour analyser le contenu de 100 entretiens menés avec des victimes de harcèlement moral. Les résultats montrent que les situations de harcèlement relèvent plus souvent d’une action négative de l’environnement social autour de la relation interpersonnelle entre harceleur et harcelé que de l’existence d’un processus victimatoire entre ces deux acteurs, qui apparaissent plutôt en conflit. En effet, la relation entre harceleur et harcelé ne relève que dans 22 cas sur 50 d’une dynamique victimatoire, alors qu’il existe une victimisation de l’environnement social (collègues et/ou organisation) dans 48 cas sur 50. Cinq profils de victimes sont également dégagés, mettant en lumière la diversité des configurations sociales du harcèlement. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of osteoporosis in the elderly.
Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cannata-Andia, Jorge Benito et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2009), 25(10), 2373-2387

ABSTRACT Background: Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, and the median age for hip fracture in women is approximately 83 years. Osteoporotic fracture risk is multifactorial, and ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background: Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, and the median age for hip fracture in women is approximately 83 years. Osteoporotic fracture risk is multifactorial, and often involves the balance between bone strength and propensity for falling. Objective: To present an overview of the available evidence, located primarily by Medline searches up to April, 2009, for the different management strategies aimed at reducing the risk of falls and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. Results: Frailty is an independent predictor of falls, hip fractures, hospitalisation, disability and death in the elderly that is receiving increasing attention. Non-pharmacological strategies to reduce fall risk can prevent osteoporotic fractures. Exercise programmes, especially those involving high doses of exercise and incorporating balance training, have been shown to be effective. Many older people, especially the very elderly and those living in care institutions, have vitamin D inadequacy. In appropriate patients and given in sufficient doses, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is effective in reducing both falls and osteoporotic fractures, including hip fractures. Specific anti-osteoporosis drugs are underused, even in those most at risk of osteoporotic fracture. The evidence base for the efficacy of most such drugs in the elderly is incomplete, particularly with regard to nonvertebral and hip fractures. The evidence base is perhaps most complete for the relatively recently introduced drug, strontium ranelate. Non-adherence to treatment is a substantial problem, and may be exacerbated by the requirements for safe oral administration of bisphosphonates. Conclusion: Evidence-based strategies are available for reducing osteoporotic fracture risk in the elderly, and include exercise training, vitamin D and calcium supplementation, and use of evidence-based anti-osteoporotic drugs. A positive and determined approach to optimising the use of such strategies could reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in this high-risk group. [less ▲]

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See detailFonctions et localisation préférentielle des travaux de forge dans les campagnes du Haut-Empire de Narbonnaise : pour une approche paléométallurgique des faits archéologiques
Pagès, Gaspard ULg

in Leveau, Philippe; Raynaud, Claude; Sablayrolles, Robert (Eds.) et al Les formes de l’habitat rural gallo-romain : Terminologies et typologies à l’épreuve des réalités archéologiques, Actes du colloque AGER VIII (2009)

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See detailLe Falstaff de Shakespeare
D'Anna, Vinciane; Delville, Michel ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailLes Exercices de style : traduction intralinguale ? Le cas de "Homophonique"
Goto, Kanako ULg

in Delbreil, Daniel (Ed.) Les Amis de Valentin Brû - Nouvelles séries (2009)

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See detailNiche differentiation among neotropical soldierless soil-feeding termites revealed by stable isotope ratios
Bourguignon, Thomas; Sobotnik, Jan; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2009), 41

Termites represent one of the most abundant belowground animal taxa in tropical rainforests, where their species richness is much higher than in any other ecosystem. This high diversity in soil ecosystems ... [more ▼]

Termites represent one of the most abundant belowground animal taxa in tropical rainforests, where their species richness is much higher than in any other ecosystem. This high diversity in soil ecosystems is however difficult to explain by classical Hutchinsonian niche theory, as there is little evidence for spatial or temporal separation between species. Using δ13C and δ15N isotopic ratios, we tested if resource partitioning along the humification gradient occurs in neotropical soldierless termites of the Anoplotermes-group. Two distinct sites were investigated to check if interspecific differences are transposable between sites. Significant differences in δ15N were found between species of the Anoplotermes-group. Although some species displayed higher intersite δ15N variation than others, species-average δ15N values for both sites were highly correlated, showing that sympatric soldierless soil-feeding termites feed on distinct components of the soil. Our data also suggest that some species are more likely to shift along this gradient than others, in response to overall habitat conditions or to the presence of competitors. Feeding niche differentiation can therefore account for the high species richness and diversity of soldierless soil-feeding termites in neotropical rainforests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fast regulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylations is species and tissue-independent.
Charlier, Thierry ULg; Harada, Nobuhiro; Ball, Gregory F. et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailTrophic relationships in a tropical stream food web assessed by stable isotope analysis
Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Bouchon, Claude et al

in Freshwater Biology (2009), 54(5), 1028-1041

1. Stable isotope analysis, coupled with dietary data from the literature, was used to investigate trophic patterns of freshwater fauna in a tropical stream food web (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). 2 ... [more ▼]

1. Stable isotope analysis, coupled with dietary data from the literature, was used to investigate trophic patterns of freshwater fauna in a tropical stream food web (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). 2. Primary producers (biofilm, algae and plant detritus of terrestrial origin) showed distinct delta C-13 signatures, which allowed for a powerful discrimination of carbon sources. Both autochthonous (C-13-enriched signatures) and allochthonous (C-13-depleted signatures) resources enter the food web. The migrating behaviour of fishes and shrimps between marine and freshwater during their life cycles can be followed by carbon isotopes. Here, shrimp delta C-13 signatures were shown to shift from -16 parts per thousand (for juveniles under marine influence) to -24.7 parts per thousand (for adults in freshwater habitats). For resident species, delta C-13 values partly reflected the species' habitat preferences along the river continuum: species living in river mouths were C-13-enriched in comparison with those collected upstream. 3. Nitrogen isotopic ratios were also discriminating and defined three main trophic guilds among consumers. The delta N-15 values of herbivores/detritivores were 5.0-8.4 parts per thousand, omnivores 8.8-10.2 parts per thousand and carnivores 11-12.7 parts per thousand. 4. Mixing model equations were employed to calculate the possible range of contribution made by respective food sources to the diet of each species. The results revealed the importance of omnivorous species and the dependence of riverine biota on terrestrial subsidies, such as leaf detritus and fruits. Finally, the abundance of shrimps and their feeding habits placed in relief their key role in tropical freshwater food webs. Isotopic analysis provides a useful tool for assessing animal feeding patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex modulation of singing behavior by testosterone in an open-ended learner, the European Starling.
Van Hout, Alain J*-M; Eens, Marcel; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2009), 56(5), 564-73

In many temperate zone songbird species males only produce song during the breeding season, when plasma testosterone (T) levels are high. Males of some species sing throughout the year, even when T levels ... [more ▼]

In many temperate zone songbird species males only produce song during the breeding season, when plasma testosterone (T) levels are high. Males of some species sing throughout the year, even when T levels are low, indicating a dissociation between high T levels and song rate. Given that few studies have taken advantage of these species, we compare here song traits expressed under high versus low T concentrations and we study the role of testosterone in adult song learning in the European Starling, an open-ended learner in which repertoire size dramatically increases with age. We performed a detailed comparison of song complexity and song rate between fall and spring in 6-year-old intact male European starlings. In parallel, we investigated whether potential seasonal changes were regulated by the gonadally induced increase in plasma T, by comparing seasonal changes in intact and castrated males of the same age (castrated as juveniles during their first fall) and by subsequently experimentally elevating T in half of the castrated males. While song rate and stereotypy did not differ between intacts and castrates or between fall and spring, both groups increased their average song bout length from fall to spring, but only intact males increased their repertoire size, indicating that effects of seasonal T changes differ between song traits. Intact males overall displayed a larger song repertoire and a longer bout length than the castrates, and implantation with T caused a turnover in repertoire composition in castrates. However, as the castrates had never experienced high T levels and yet displayed a markedly higher repertoire size than that of typical yearling males, this suggests that the progressive increase of song repertoire with age in male starlings is not dependent on gonadal T, although it may be T-enhanced. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of chronic kidney disease in Kinshasa: results of a pilot study from the Democratic Republic of Congo
Sumaili, Ernest K.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Zinga, Chantal V. et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2009), 24(1), 117-122

Abstract Background. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with CKD in ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with CKD in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 503 adult residents in 10 of the 35 health zones of Kinshasa were studied in a randomly selected sample. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation (eGFR) and compared with the Cockcroft–Gault equation for creatinine clearance. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria) and kidney function (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were examined. Results. The prevalence of all stages of CKD according to K/DOQI guidelines was 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.0–15.1%]. By stage, 2% had stage 1 (proteinuria with normal eGFR), 2.4% had stage 2 (proteinuria with an eGFR of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2), 7.8% had stage 3 (eGFR, 30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 0.2% had stage 5 (eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2). Hypertension and age were independently associated with CKD stage 3. The prevalences of major non-communicable diseases considered in this study were 27.6% (95% CI, 25.7–31.3%) for hypertension, 11.7% (95% CI, 10.3–14.4%) for diabetes mellitus and 14.9% (95% CI, 13.3–17.9%) for obesity. Hypertension was also independently associated with proteinuria. Conclusion. More than 10% of the Kinshasa population exhibits signs of CKD, which is affecting adults in their productive years. Risk factors for CKD, including hypertension, diabetes and obesity, are increasing. These alarming data must guide current and future healthcare policies to meet the challenge raised by CKD in this city and hopefully in the whole country. [less ▲]

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See detailCreutzfeldt-jakob, Parkinson, lewy body dementia and Alzheimer diseases: from diagnosis to therapy.
Dupiereux-Fettweis, Ingrid ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg; Quadrio, Isabelle et al

in Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 9(1), 2-11

Depositions of proteins in form of amyloid and non-amyloid plaques are common pathogenic signs of more than 20 degenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system or a variety of peripheral tissues ... [more ▼]

Depositions of proteins in form of amyloid and non-amyloid plaques are common pathogenic signs of more than 20 degenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system or a variety of peripheral tissues. Among the neuropathological conditions, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and the prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), present ambiguities as regarding their differential diagnosis. At present, their diagnosis must be confirmed by post-mortem examination of the brain. Currently the ante-mortem diagnosis is still based on the integration of multiple data (clinical, paraclinical and biological analyses) because no unique marker exists for such diseases. The detection of specific biomarkers would be useful to develop a differential diagnostic, distinguishing not only different neurodegenerative diseases but also the disease from the non-pathological effects of aging. Several neurodegenerative biomarkers are present at very low levels during the early stages of the disease development and their ultra-low detection is needed for early diagnosis, which should permit more effective therapeutic interventions, before the disease concerned can progress to a stage where considerable damage to the brain has already occurred. In the case of prion diseases, there are concerns regarding not only patient care, but the wider community too, with regard to the risk of transmission of prions, especially during blood transfusion, for which, four cases of variant CJD infection associated with transfusion of non-leukocyte-depleted blood components have been confirmed. Therefore the development of techniques with high sensitivity and specificity represent the major challenge in the field of the protein misfolding diseases. In this paper we review the current analytical and/or biochemical diagnostic technologies used mainly in prion, but also in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and emphasizing work on the protein detection as a surrogates and specific biomarker in the body fluid of patients (urine, CSF and blood). This review highlights the urgency of the development of early and sensitive diagnostics in terms of therapeutic challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre Asclépios et Hippocrate. Etude des cultes guérisseurs et des médecins en Carie
Nissen, Cécile ULg

Book published by CIERGA (2009)

Asclépios et Hippocrate sont tous deux associés à l’art médical dans la Grèce antique. Cependant, l’un appartient au monde des dieux et l’autre est mortel. La distinction est d’importance et reflète ... [more ▼]

Asclépios et Hippocrate sont tous deux associés à l’art médical dans la Grèce antique. Cependant, l’un appartient au monde des dieux et l’autre est mortel. La distinction est d’importance et reflète adéquatement les deux conceptions de la médecine que ces noms portent en eux, l’une généralement qualifiée de « religieuse » et l’autre de « rationnelle ». Ces deux facettes de la médecine antique sont au cœur de la présente étude, qui s’attache à en redéfinir la portée et la complémentarité. Centrée sur la Carie, une région d’Asie Mineure qui a livré une documentation abondante, l’analyse aborde les cultes guérisseurs patronnés par Asclépios, mais aussi par Pluton et Coré à Acharaca, Men à Attouda ou encore Hémithéa à Castabos. Quant aux médecins, ils formaient une « école » célèbre à Cnide dès la période classique et à Laodicée du Lycos à l’époque impériale, mais certains d’entre eux pratiquaient de manière indépendante de toute « secte » établie. En embrassant d’un même regard des pratiques dont l’étude est souvent éclatée dans les recherches modernes, ce livre offre une vision nuancée des interactions qui existaient entre cultes guérisseurs et pratique médicale, rendant à la médecine antique l’unité qui était la sienne. [less ▲]

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See detailLa frontière linguistique : le mur des Belges ?
Reuchamps, Min ULg

in Département de science politique de l'Université de Liège (Ed.) Entre les murs - Un collage (2009)

This contribution, which should not be seen as a theory-driven scientifically based endeavor, raises the following question : does the linguistic border constitue the wall of the Belgians? In order to ... [more ▼]

This contribution, which should not be seen as a theory-driven scientifically based endeavor, raises the following question : does the linguistic border constitue the wall of the Belgians? In order to tackle this question, the author puts forward insights from the media, history, political science and sociology. But one should not expect to find here a solution to this tricky question… [less ▲]

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See detailGene activation cascade triggered by a single photoperiodic cycle inducing flowering in Sinapis alba
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Tamseddak, Karim; Bonhomme, Delphine ULg et al

in The Plant Journal (2009), 59

Molecular genetic analyses in Arabidopsis disclosed a genetic pathway whereby flowering is induced by the photoperiod. This cascade is examined here within the time course of floral transition in the long ... [more ▼]

Molecular genetic analyses in Arabidopsis disclosed a genetic pathway whereby flowering is induced by the photoperiod. This cascade is examined here within the time course of floral transition in the long-day (LD) plant Sinapis alba induced by a single photoperiodic cycle. In addition to previously available sequences, the cloning of CONSTANS (SaCO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (SaFT) homologues allowed expression analyses to be performed to follow the flowering process step by step. A diurnal rhythm in SaCO expression in the leaves was observed and transcripts of SaFT were detected when light was given in phase with SaCO kinetics only. This occurred when day length was extended or when a short day was shifted towards a ‘photophile phase’. The steady-state level of SaFT transcripts in the various physiological situations examined was found to correlate like a rheostat with floral induction strength. Kinetics of SaFT activation were also consistent with previous estimations of translocation of florigen out of leaves, which could actually occur after the inductive cycle. In response to one 22-h LD, initiation of floral meristems by the shoot apical meristem (SAM) started about 2 days after activation of SaFT and was marked by expression of APETALA1 (SaAP1). Meanwhile, LEAFY (SaLFY) was first up-regulated in leaf primordia and in the SAM. FRUITFULL (SaFUL) was later activated in the whole SAM but excluded from floral meristems. These patterns are integrated with previous observations concerning upregulation of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SaSOC1) to provide a temporal and spatial map of floral transition in Sinapis. [less ▲]

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See detailLa détection des patrons de réponses problématiques dans le contexte des tests informatisés
Blais, Jean-Guy; Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg

in Blais, Jean-Guy (Ed.) Evaluation des apprentissages et technologies de l’information et de la communication : Enjeux, applications et modèles de mesure (2009)

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See detailMariage et union libre : quelle égalité en droit pénal ?
Masset, Adrien ULg

in Liber Amicorum Henri-D. Bosly. Loyauté, justice et vérité. (2009)

Le Code pénal belge date de 1867 et a subi de nombreuses modifications, mais est resté sourd à de nombreuses évolutions connues dans d'autres branches du droit (couples homosexuels, cohabitation légale ... [more ▼]

Le Code pénal belge date de 1867 et a subi de nombreuses modifications, mais est resté sourd à de nombreuses évolutions connues dans d'autres branches du droit (couples homosexuels, cohabitation légale, parents naturels ou adoptants, ...) Le couple non marié a été nié au début du Code pénal pour être ensuite pris en compte petit à petit, de manière disparate. [less ▲]

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