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See detailA discontinuous Galerkin formulation of non-linear Kirchhoff–Love shells
Noels, Ludovic ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2009), 78(3), 296-323

Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods provide a means of weakly enforcing the continuity of the unknown-field derivatives and have particular appeal in problems involving high-order derivatives. This ... [more ▼]

Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods provide a means of weakly enforcing the continuity of the unknown-field derivatives and have particular appeal in problems involving high-order derivatives. This feature has previously been successfully exploited (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 2008; 197:2901-2929) to develop a formulation of linear Kirchhoff-Love shells considering only the membrane and bending responses. In this proposed one-field method - the displacements are the only unknowns, while the displacement field is continuous, the continuity in the displacement derivative between two elements is weakly enforced by recourse to a DG formulation. It is the purpose of the present paper to extend this formulation to finite deformations and non-linear elastic behaviors. While the initial linear formulation was relying on the direct linear computation of the effective membrane stress and effective bending couple-stress from the displacement field at the mid-surface of the shell, the non-linear formulation considered implies the evaluation of the general stress tensor across the shell thickness, leading to a reformulation of the internal forces of the shell. Nevertheless, since the interface terms resulting from the discontinuous Galerkin method involve only the resultant couple-stress at the edges of the shells, the extension to non-linear deformations is straightforward. [less ▲]

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See detailSubchondral bone in osteoarthritis physiopathology: state-of-the art and perspectives.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Pesesse, Laurence ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg

in Bio-medical Materials & Engineering (2009), 19(4-5), 311-6

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritic disease, and it is a major cause of disability and impaired quality of life in the elderly. A hallmark of the disease is progressive degeneration ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritic disease, and it is a major cause of disability and impaired quality of life in the elderly. A hallmark of the disease is progressive degeneration of articular cartilage and subsequent joint space narrowing. However, OA is a complex disease not limited to cartilage degeneration, but involving also synovial membrane and subchondral bone, thereby presenting alternatives approaches for treatment. In this paper, we propose a short review of the recent advances in the understanding of the role played by subchondral bone in OA. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodiversity of three representative groups of the Antarctic zoobenthos - Coping with change (BIANZO II)
Raes, Maarten; Vanreusel, Ann; Pasotti, Francesca et al

Report (2009)

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See detailA modular approach to quality of life assessment in paediatric oncology
Fonseca, Marta; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in Psychology & Health (2009), 24(Supp 1), 175

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See detailDoes implicit memory during anaesthesia persist in children?
Lopez, Ursula; Habre, w; Laurencon, M. et al

in British Journal of Anaesthesia (2009), 102(3), 37984

Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to ... [more ▼]

Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to demonstrate implicit memory during general anaesthesia, possibly because of differences in methodological design. We therefore designed a prospective study with the aim of evaluating implicit memory in children undergoing general anaesthesia, using a perceptual memory test based on the mere exposure effect, previously tested in a control group. Methods. Twelve infrequent neutral words were played 12 times in a random sequence via headphones to 36 children aged 8–12 yr during elective or emergency surgery. The children were not premedicated, and general anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The word presentation started immediately after the surgical incision. Within 36 h after the stimulus presentation, the memory was assessed by using a forced-choice preference judgement task. Time constraint and word deterioration with a low-pass filter were used to prevent the subjects from utilizing intentional retrieval. The implicit memory score was obtained by calculating the proportion of target words preferred, which was compared with the chance level (0.5). Results. The percentage of correct responses given by the children was comparable with the chance level. The memory score was mean (SD) 0.48 (0.16) (95% CI 0.43–0.53). Conclusions. The use of a perceptual implicit memory test based on the mere exposure procedure in children failed to reveal any evidence of implicit memory under general anaesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs genetiques de l'alcoolo-dependance Revue des principales donnees de la litterature.
Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2009), 35(5), 461-9

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting both from neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors. It is frequently associated with comorbid psychiatric ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting both from neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors. It is frequently associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders or with specific personality or behavioral features. Although action can be taken on the environment in order to decrease the risk of the illness, current methods used to prevent or to treat this pathology show moderate efficacy: problematic consumption of ethanol in the general population as well as relapse rates under treatment in dependent patients remain indeed very high. LITERATURE FINDINGS: It is therefore of major importance to broaden our knowledge of alcohol dependence and its comorbidities so as to improve both their prevention and treatment. In this perspective, recent progress in the field of neurosciences may contribute to achieve this goal. Precisely, genetics is a promising way benefiting from many advances in genetic epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology, neuroimaging and pharmacology. In parallel with a better understanding of the neurobiology of addictions and associated behaviors, these techniques led to the identification of brain mechanisms in which a genetic variation may influence the individual vulnerability towards alcohol dependence. Moreover, there is growing evidence that alcoholism results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors influencing both its expression and its course. Given the fact that alcohol-dependence seems highly heritable (50 to 60% of the variance in both men and women), this review assesses the role of some of the genomic regions linked with the disease, as well as the principal variants of candidate genes identified as specifically involved in the predisposition. Polymorphisms of genes influencing alcohol metabolism, GABAergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission seem, indeed, at stake in the development of alcohol-dependence and its related features such as personality, behavior, impulse control or craving. In the future, a better characterization of the links between genotypes and phenotypes will probably increase our ability to treat alcoholic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailJusqu'où va-t-on au nom de l'éthique? La lutte antidopage dans le cyclisme sur route
Fincoeur, Bertrand ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2009), 4

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See detailEcological thresholds: an assessment of methods to identify abrupt changes in species-habitat relationships
Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ecography (2009), 32(6), 1075-1084

Habitat thresholds are usually defined as "points of abrupt change" in the species–habitat relationships. Habitat thresholds can be a key tool for understanding species requirements, and provide an ... [more ▼]

Habitat thresholds are usually defined as "points of abrupt change" in the species–habitat relationships. Habitat thresholds can be a key tool for understanding species requirements, and provide an objective definition of conservation targets, by identifying when habitat loss leads to a rapid loss of species, and the minimum amount of habitat necessary for species persistence. However, a large variety of statistical methods have been used to analyse them. In this context, we reviewed these methods and, using simulated data sets, we tested the main models to compare their performance on the identification of thresholds. We show that researchers use very different analytical tools, corresponding to different operational definitions of habitat thresholds, which can considerably affect their detection. Piecewise regression and generalized additive models allow both the distinction between linear and nonlinear dynamics, and the correct identification of break point position. In contrast, other methods such as logistic regression fail because they may incorrectly detect thresholds in gradual patterns, or they may over or underestimate the threshold position. In conservation or habitat modelling, it is important to focus efforts efficiently and the inappropriate choice of statistical methods may have detrimental consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit international et européen des sociétés
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Gol, Déborah ULg; Pasteger, David ULg et al

Book published by Larcier (2009)

La multiplication et l’internationalisation des transactions commerciales impliquent une plus grande mobilité des entreprises. Filialisations, délocalisations, création de succursales et d’agences, etc ... [more ▼]

La multiplication et l’internationalisation des transactions commerciales impliquent une plus grande mobilité des entreprises. Filialisations, délocalisations, création de succursales et d’agences, etc., tel est désormais le lot commun de la vie économique. Parallèlement aux migrations des personnes physiques, les déplacements de personnes morales suscitent, eux aussi, un vaste travail de réglementation, non plus seulement au niveau des structures étatiques, mais aussi sur un plan international, voire supranational. C’est cette question de la régulation des sociétés dans l’espace transnational qui constitue l’objet du présent ouvrage. Une première partie de l’ouvrage consiste à identifier les premières dispositions adoptées pour tenir compte de ce phénomène économique, à travers l’étude du droit international, aussi bien privé que public. Une seconde partie examine l’ensemble des règles adoptées au plan de la Communauté européenne dans le même domaine. Les auteurs s’attèlent à décomposer cet ensemble selon la source des dispositions en cause : droit primaire, droit dérivé, jurisprudence de la Cour de justice. Cet ouvrage est l'un des rares en langue française à présenter un panorama significatif des normes applicables à la question de la circulation des sociétés au-delà de leurs frontières d’origine et des problèmes qui en résultent. [less ▲]

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See detailOutils isotopiques : TEP et TEP/TDM
Hustinx, Roland ULg

in Dupas, Jean-Louis; Louis, Edouard; Marteau, Philippe (Eds.) Maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin. (2009)

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See detailIs phonological short-term memory related to phonological analysis stages in auditory sentence processing?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Lorent, Julie

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2009), 21

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See detailPerception of head and neck cancer quality of life within the medical world: a multicultural study.
Demez, Pierre ULg; Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Head & Neck (2009), 31(8), 1056-67

BACKGROUND: Physician's perception of quality of life of patients with cancer is unclear. No reports have evaluated its influence on patient management. METHODS: Five hundred otolaryngologists completed a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Physician's perception of quality of life of patients with cancer is unclear. No reports have evaluated its influence on patient management. METHODS: Five hundred otolaryngologists completed a questionnaire regarding the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. RESULTS: Seventy-eight percent of responders thought that quality of life must be considered when choosing treatment, even if this meant decreased survival. Seventy-five percent thought it justified to withhold curative treatment if this would lead to impaired quality of life. Pain and breathing were the most important symptoms to consider. The perception was worse for physicians practicing in Latin culture, working in private practice, or with no personal acquaintance with a head and neck cancer victim and was better after radiotherapy than after surgery and chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Quality of life is important for physicians and is considered as essential as survival by many physicians. The perception of patient's quality of life influences the treatment choice. [less ▲]

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See detailPituitary adenomas in young patients : when should we consider a genetic predisposition ?
Jaffrain-Rea, M. L.; Tichomirova, M.; Daly, A. F. et al

in Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism (2009), 4(6), 529-531

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See detailThe 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1-4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil).
Willems, Luc ULg

in Retrovirology (2009), 6

The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote ... [more ▼]

The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15-20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence and transformation.
Boxus, Mathieu ULg; Willems, Luc ULg

in British Journal of Cancer (2009), 101(9), 1497-501

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to persist and replicate in the presence of a strong immune response. In ... [more ▼]

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to persist and replicate in the presence of a strong immune response. In this review, we summarise these mechanisms and their contribution to T-cell transformation and ATL development. [less ▲]

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See detailSciences, technologies et société : Guide pratique en 250 questions
Wautelet, Michel; Duvivier, Damien; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Book published by De Boeck - 3e édition (2009)

Nous vivons incontestablement dans une société où les sciences et les technologies jouent un rôle essentiel. Étant donné le nombre grandissant de questions cruciales, possédant un ou plusieurs aspects ... [more ▼]

Nous vivons incontestablement dans une société où les sciences et les technologies jouent un rôle essentiel. Étant donné le nombre grandissant de questions cruciales, possédant un ou plusieurs aspects technoscientifiques, il est nécessaire que chacun puisse se faire une idée, personnelle, mais justifiée. Mais, entre le spécialiste, le technicien et le citoyen, une étape est généralement manquante. Lorsqu’on essaye d’en savoir plus sur une technologie donnée ou un problème scientifique complexe pour essayer d’effectuer des calculs d’ordres de grandeur, on trouve peu de données utiles. C’est le point de départ de cet ouvrage : associer des connaissances suffisantes de notions fondamentales de sciences à des données techniques afin d’en savoir plus sur une technologie donnée ou un problème scientifique complexe C’est donc au travers de 250 questions et réponses que le lecteur pourra appréhender des thématiques aussi diverses que le bâtiment, l’informatique, les énergies ou encore les transports. Ce livre s’adresse à plusieurs catégories de lecteurs. D’abord, au citoyen désireux de se faire une opinion sur certains thèmes à caractère technoscientifique. Au curieux aussi, qui veut savoir sur quoi reposent différentes technologies, quels sont leurs liens et implications avec la société. Aux enseignants, qui trouveront des données numériques, des formules de base pour illustrer leur cours de sciences. La volonté de cet ouvrage est de démontrer qu’il est possible d’appréhender des problèmes de société majeurs, à partir de notions scientifiques vues dans le secondaire. N’est-ce pas une voie à suivre pour recréer une dynamique nouvelle dans l’enseignement des sciences, et pour montrer aux enseignants et aux jeunes l’utilité des cours de sciences ? Ce livre s’adresse aussi à tous ceux qui ont mission d’informer le public. Ils trouveront ici des données, des raisonnements utiles pour, selon leurs propres sources, réévaluer certains chiffres officiels, analyser certains discours techniques ou politiques à l’aide de faits scientifiques et techniques. La plupart des réponses aux 250 questions qui suivent sont donc accessibles au plus grand nombre, ce qui fait de cet ouvrage un guide pratique à l’usage de tous ! [less ▲]

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See detailIngestibilité et valeur alimentaire des foins issus de prairies de haute valeur biologique
Decruyenaere, Virginie; Houba, Quentin; Stilmant, Didier et al

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailComent j'explore...- les pertes de sang d'origine vaginale dans l'enfance
Pelletier, R.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(4), 219-22

Le saignement vaginal prépubertaire est considéré comme une ménarche isolée lorsque, en l’absence de toute anomalie mise en évidence par les examens médicaux (corps étranger, tumeur, infection…), il n’y ... [more ▼]

Le saignement vaginal prépubertaire est considéré comme une ménarche isolée lorsque, en l’absence de toute anomalie mise en évidence par les examens médicaux (corps étranger, tumeur, infection…), il n’y pas de développement d’un autre caractère sexuel secondaire. Si d’autres signes pubertaires (thélarche, pubarche, pic de croissance, …) se développent, le saignement vaginal ne sera plus isolé et nous parlerons dès lors de puberté précoce vraie. C’est donc le suivi de la patiente qui nous permettra de faire le diagnostic différentiel entre ménarche précoce isolée bénigne et puberté précoce vraie engageant le pronostic statural et nécessitant une prise en charge spécifique. L’étiologie de la ménarche isolée reste indéterminée et des études complémentaires sont nécessaires. Plusieurs examens complémentaires doivent être réalisés afin d’exclure des pathologies tumorales, infectieuses, traumatiques ou encore hormonales et ceux-ci doivent être répétés lors du suivi de la patiente. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the impact of labor market matching on regional disparities
Tharakan, Joseph ULg; Tropeano, Jean-Philippe

in Journal of Regional Science (2009), 49(1), 57-80

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