References of "2008"
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See detailDer unmögliche Chronotopos – Die „Stunde Null“ als Mythos der Narration am Beispiel von Günter Grass’ „Im Krebsgang“.
Pontzen, Alexandra ULg

in Preusser, Heinz-Peter; Galli, Matteo (Eds.) Deutsche Gründungsmythen von der Hermannschlacht bis zum Wunder von Bern. (2008)

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See detailThe Perturbation Finite Element Method for Magnetic Modeling of a Loudspeaker
Ferreira da Luz, Mauricio V.; Dular, Patrick ULg; V Sabariego, Ruth ULg et al

in Proceedings of 6ème Conférence Européenne sur les Méthodes Numériques en Electromagnétisme (NUMELEC2008) (2008)

This paper shows that the application of a perturbation finite element method can provide a useful alternative to correct the equivalent magnetic circuits used to model loudspeakers. A ring magnet design ... [more ▼]

This paper shows that the application of a perturbation finite element method can provide a useful alternative to correct the equivalent magnetic circuits used to model loudspeakers. A ring magnet design of a loudspeaker is modeled by means of an axisymmetric magnetic vector potential formulation. The effects of geometry variations on its performances are analyzed. The perturbation solution allows further adapting and refining the equivalent magnetic circuit model of the loudspeaker to each possible variation. Results will be compared with the classical finite element solution. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Dubois, Daniel (Ed.) COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS (2008)

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System. [less ▲]

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See detailLa marche du sujet fibromyalgique et d’un sujet dépressif est-elle différenciable ? Exploration de deux affections « voisines » à partir d’un accéléromètre tri-axial.
Maquet, Didier ULg; Jaspar, J.; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2008), 75

Objectif : Analyser la marche de populations souffrant d’affections présentant certaines similitudes en termes de symptomatologie (fatigue, stress, anxiété, ralentissement psychomoteur, …) et pour ... [more ▼]

Objectif : Analyser la marche de populations souffrant d’affections présentant certaines similitudes en termes de symptomatologie (fatigue, stress, anxiété, ralentissement psychomoteur, …) et pour lesquelles le diagnostic différentiel apparaît parfois malaisé. Patients et méthodes : Cette étude inclut 32 sujets fibromyalgiques (46  10 ans), 20 sujets hospitalisés pour un état dépressif (49  14 ans) et 20 sujets volontaires contrôles (49  16 ans). L’analyse tri-dimensionnelle de la marche est réalisée à partir d'un système ambulatoire d'accélérométrie triaxial (Locometrix® Centaure Metrix, France) et d'une ligne de chronométrage. Le sujet marche à sa vitesse de confort, équipé de l'accéléromètre fixé à l'aide d'une ceinture élastique. L'épreuve, composée de 6 trajets rectilignes de 40 mètres, permet de suivre le profil des paramètres analysés tout au long de la distance totale parcourue (240 mètres). Les paramètres analysés sont : la vitesse de marche, la fréquence de pas, la longueur de pas, la symétrie et la régularité des pas, la puissance mécanique suivant les axes antéro-postérieur, crânio-caudal et médio-latéral, le coût énergétique. Résultats : La marche de la population fibromyalgique présente diverses altérations significatives non seulement en comparaison de la population contrôle mais aussi de la population dépressive. Nous observons chez le fibromyalgique une réduction significative (p < 0,05) de la vitesse de marche, de la longueur de pas, des activités suivant les axes antéro-postérieur et crânio-caudal. En outre, cette population présente une marche moins régulière (p < 0,05) alors que le coût énergétique de la marche est diminué (p < 0,05). Les paramètres de marche enregistrés au sein de la population dépressive apparaissent intermédiaires entre sujets contrôles et fibromyalgiques. Cependant, aucune modification significative ne s’observe entre populations contrôle et dépressive. Des travaux ultérieurs tenteront en outre de mettre en relation l’altération des paramètres de marche avec le degré d’anxiété et de dépression objectivé. Discussion : Bien que l’on évoque régulièrement un ralentissement fonctionnel chez les sujets souffrant de ces 2 affections « voisines », ce travail démontre que la marche d’un sujet dépressif et d’un sujet fibromyalgique semble différenciable. Ce dernier adopte une marche plus lente, moins régulière et visant à une « économie » d’énergie comme l’atteste le coût énergétique et les activités suivant les 3 axes. Conclusion : Cette épreuve pourrait constituer un outil original dans la caractérisation d’une population pathologique et le suivi longitudinal d’un patient. [less ▲]

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See detailRestauration des potentialités de sols dégradés à l’aide du zaï et du compost dans le Yatenga (Burkina Faso)
Sawadogo, H.; Bock, Laurent ULg; Lacroix, D. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(3),

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See detailPotato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tuber Physiological Age Index Is A Valid Reference Frame In Postharvest Ageing Studies
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Postharvest Biology & Technology (2008), 50(1), 103-106

Essential yield components of potato crops are influenced by the physiological age of the tubers at planting. Previous studies have attempted to develop biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers ... [more ▼]

Essential yield components of potato crops are influenced by the physiological age of the tubers at planting. Previous studies have attempted to develop biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers of potato tuber ageing. This research note focuses on characterising a physiological age index (PAI) based on sprouting parameters and originally developed by Caldiz et al. [Caldiz, D.O., Fernandez, L.V., Struik, P.C., 2001. Physiological age index: a new, simple and reliable index to assess the physiological age of seed potato tubers based on the haulm killing date and length of the incubation period. Field Crop. Res. 69, 69–79]. The PAI progression of two cultivars (‘Bintje’ and ‘Désirée’) was measured and modelled over 2 harvest years. The preliminary results were consistent with other ageing markers such as the incubation period (IP) and desprouting sensitivity. Under our experimental conditions, the PAI allowed us to describe cultivar-specific and harvest year-specific age variations measured from the time the haulm (foliage) was killed and the mother plant's influence on the tubers was no longer present. By contrast, the IP data displayed a higher inherent variability that impaired their discrimination ability. Critical PAI values corresponding to the main postharvest developmental steps (e.g., dormancy, apical dominance, multiple sprouting) were then identified on the basis of emergence pattern data, allowing us to propose this index as a useful reference frame for future ageing studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAn integrated mathematical modelling framework for the study of bone fracture healing
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Vander Sloten, Jos; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

in Journal of Biomechanics (2008), 41

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See detailEukaryotic complex I: functional diversity and experimental systems to unravel the assembly process
Remacle, Claire ULg; Barbieri, Rosario; Cardol, Pierre ULg et al

in Molecular Genetics & Genomics (2008), 280

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See detailLe purisme enfantin au prisme du discours spontané
Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Français Moderne (Le) (2008), LXXXVI/1

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See detail"Strategies of life detection": Summary and outlook
Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L; Gomez-Elvira, Javier et al

in Space Science Reviews (2008), 135(1-4), 371-380

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See detailNovel mechanisms for neuroendocrine regulation of aggression.
Soma, Kiran K; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Newman, Amy E M et al

in Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2008), 29(4), 476-89

In 1849, Berthold demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for aggressive behavior in roosters. Since then, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm ... [more ▼]

In 1849, Berthold demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for aggressive behavior in roosters. Since then, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm that the brain receives gonadal hormones, primarily testosterone, which modulate relevant neural circuits. While this paradigm has been extremely useful, recent studies reveal important alternatives. For example, most vertebrate species are seasonal breeders, and many species show aggression outside of the breeding season, when gonads are regressed and circulating testosterone levels are typically low. Studies in birds and mammals suggest that an adrenal androgen precursor-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-may be important for the expression of aggression when gonadal testosterone synthesis is low. Circulating DHEA can be metabolized into active sex steroids within the brain. Another possibility is that the brain can autonomously synthesize sex steroids de novo from cholesterol, thereby uncoupling brain steroid levels from circulating steroid levels. These alternative neuroendocrine mechanisms to provide sex steroids to specific neural circuits may have evolved to avoid the "costs" of high circulating testosterone during particular seasons. Physiological indicators of season (e.g., melatonin) may allow animals to switch from one neuroendocrine mechanism to another across the year. Such mechanisms may be important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species, including humans. [less ▲]

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See detailIron microbial mats in Modern and Phanerozoic environments
Baele, J. M.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; De Jong, J. et al

in Instruments, Methods and Missions for Astrobioçlogy- Proc. of SPIE (2008), 7097

The recognition of iron microbial mats in terrestrial environments is of great relevance for the search for extraterrestrial life, especially on mars where significant iron minerals were identified in the ... [more ▼]

The recognition of iron microbial mats in terrestrial environments is of great relevance for the search for extraterrestrial life, especially on mars where significant iron minerals were identified in the subsurface. Most researches focused on very ancient microbial mats (e.g. BIFs) since they formed on Earth at a time where similar conditions are supposed to have prevailed on Mars too. However, environmental proxies are often difficult to use for these deposits on Earth which, in addition, may be heavily transformed due to diagenesis or even metamorphism. Here we present modern and phanerozoic iron microbial mats occurrences illustrating the wide variety of environments in which they form, including many marine settings, ponds, creeks, caves, volcanoes, etc. Contrarily to their Precambrian counterparts, Modern and Phanerozoic deposits are usually less affected by diagenesis and the environmental conditions likely to be better constrained. Therefore, their investigation may help for the search for morphological and geochemical biosignatures (e.g. iron isotopes) in ancient iron microbial occurrences on Earth but also on other Planets. In particular, many of the case studies presented here show that microstromatolithe-like morphologies may be valuable targets for screening potential biosignatures in various rock types. [less ▲]

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See detailLa question de la défense antimissiles en Europe. Entre dilemmes, confusions et tensions
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Annuaire français de relations internationales 2008 (2008)

L’extrême complexité du dossier sur le bouclier antimissile américain en Europe qu’il faut replacer dans le contexte de la défense globale américaine, du jeu du chat et de la souris iranien, sans parler ... [more ▼]

L’extrême complexité du dossier sur le bouclier antimissile américain en Europe qu’il faut replacer dans le contexte de la défense globale américaine, du jeu du chat et de la souris iranien, sans parler de la confusion des programmes antimissiles OTAN et américains, fait que la thématique appelle à d’autres interrogations : nouvelle pertinence de la dissuasion nucléaire européenne, avenir des relations avec la Russie, militarisation de l’espace, perception de la menace, silence assourdissant de l’Union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the evolution and expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nucleus-encoded transfer RNA genes
Cognat, Valerie; Deragon, Jean*-Marc; Vinogradova, Elizaveta et al

in Genetics (2008), 179(1), 113-123

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 259 tRNA genes were identified and classified into 49 tRNA isoaccepting families. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we determined the evolutionary history for each tRNA ... [more ▼]

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 259 tRNA genes were identified and classified into 49 tRNA isoaccepting families. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we determined the evolutionary history for each tRNA gene family. The majority of the IRNA sequences are more closely related to their plant counterparts than to animals ones. Northern experiments also permitted LIS to show that at least one member of each IRNA isoacceptor family is transcribed and correctly processed in vivo. A short stretch of T residues known to be a signal for termination of polymerase III transcription was found downstream of most IRNA genes. It allowed us to propose that the vast majority of the IRNA genes are expressed and to confirm that numerous IRNA genes separated by short spacers are indeed cotranscribed. Interestingly, in silico analyses and hybridization experiments show that the cellular IRNA abundance is correlated with the number of tRTNA genes and is adjusted to the codon usage to optimize translation efficiency. Finally, we studied the origin of SINEs, short interspersed elements related to tRNAs, whose presence in Chlamydomonas is exceptional. Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that tRNA(Asp)-related SINEs originate front a prokaryotic-type IRNA either horizontally transferred from a bacterium or originally present in mitochondria or chloroplasts. [less ▲]

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See detailACMEG-TS: A unified elasto-plastic constitutive model to simulate coupled processes in non-isothermal unsaturated soils.
François, Bertrand ULg; Laloui, Lyesse

in 1st European Conf. on Unsaturated Soils (2008)

Research interest in the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils is growing as a result of an increasing number of geomechanical problems involving both thermal and unsaturated effects. A new ... [more ▼]

Research interest in the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils is growing as a result of an increasing number of geomechanical problems involving both thermal and unsaturated effects. A new constitutive model dealing with partially saturated soils under non-isothermal conditions is presented through a unified and highly coupled constitutive approach. In the context of the elasto-thermoplasticity and the critical state theory, the so-called ACMEG-TS model uses the concepts of multi-mechanism and bounding surface theory. The generalized effective stress framework is adopted to represent the stress state in the soil. This model brings advancements on the thermo-hydraulic couplings that directly affect the mechanical behaviour of the materials. The constitutive relations based on the evolutions of the two key parameters (the reconsolidation pressure and the air-entry suction) make it possible to reproduce the main features of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils. Theoretical aspects of the paper are supported by comparisons between numerical simulations and experimental results extracted from literature. [less ▲]

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See detailLa peau et ses principales neurocristopathies.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Vandenbossche, Géraldine ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 354-8

The neurocristopathies encompass genetic disorders targeting some structures originating from the neural crest development. Hence, skin is affected by some clinical manifestations of these disorders. This ... [more ▼]

The neurocristopathies encompass genetic disorders targeting some structures originating from the neural crest development. Hence, skin is affected by some clinical manifestations of these disorders. This review covers the main aspects found in neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, incontinentia pigmenti, neurocutaneous melanoblastosis, basal cell naevomatosis and the epidermal naevus syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailHafting and raw material from animals. Guide to the identification of hafting traces on stone tools
Rots, Veerle ULg

in Anthropozoologica (2008), 43(1), 43-66

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See detailTailor-made morphologies for Pd/SiO2 catalysts through sol-gel process with various silylated ligands
Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Tran, Kim Yên; Arrachart, Guilhem et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2008), 115

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