References of "2008"
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See detailSchuld und Scham
Preusser, Heinz-Peter; Pontzen, Alexandra ULg

Book published by Winter Verlag (2008)

Aias, herausragender griechischer Heros vor Troia, metzelt im Zustand der Raserei Herdenvieh nieder, in dem er seine Gegner zu erkennen glaubt. Zur Besinnung gekommen, stürzt er sich, beschämt über den ... [more ▼]

Aias, herausragender griechischer Heros vor Troia, metzelt im Zustand der Raserei Herdenvieh nieder, in dem er seine Gegner zu erkennen glaubt. Zur Besinnung gekommen, stürzt er sich, beschämt über den Ehrverlust, in sein Schwert. Die ‚Entschuldigung‘, die für Aias nur durch Entleibung zu leisten war, entspricht heute etwa dem medial inszenierten Rückzug aus der politischen Öffentlichkeit, dem Rücktrittsangebot oder dem Fehlereingeständnis. Offensichtlich gibt es nach wie vor ein kollektives Bedürfnis nach solchen stellvertretenden Reinigungsritualen. Anlässe und Reaktionsformen haben sich zwar gewandelt, das Gefühl der Scham aber ist immer noch von existenziell-individueller Bedeutung und besitzt eine öffentlich wirksame Symbolik. Historisch gesehen spannt der Band einen Bogen von der (laut Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) ‚gewissenlosen‘ griechischen Antike bis in die ‚unverschämte‘ Gegenwart. Systematisch betrachtet konfrontieren die unterschiedlichen Kulturkreise einander in ihren Definitionen und Kompensationen von Fehlverhalten: vom paganen Griechentum über das christliche Abendland bis hin zum Islam. Im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert bestimmen Diskurse der Bewältigung den Umgang mit der Geschichte, mit Fragen der Kriegsschuld oder des Völkermordes. Kulturelle, nationale, historische und gender-spezifische Unterschiede prägen die verbalen Entschuldigungen, das öffentliche und private Verhalten, Kleidercode und Körpersprache. Während Schamdiskurse dazu dienen, eigenes Fehlverhalten in der Gemeinschaft zu regulieren oder vor dem Selbst zu rechtfertigen, funktionieren umgekehrt Schuldzuschreibungen oder gezielte Beschämungen des anderen als Herrschaftsinstrumente: prominent etwa in den Bildern von Abu Ghraib. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal chemistry of natural and synthetic fillowite-type phosphates
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Keller, Paul; Grew, Ed et al

Conference (2008)

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See detailPregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein F-50 kDa [Fragment] from Bison bonasus placenta - Access number P85324
Kiewisz, J.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2008)

N-terminal microsequence obtained after purification and characterization of placental proteins in Bison bonasus. Proteins were submitted to SwissProt databank.

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See detailPreserver le fonctionnement du cerveau...par la pratique d'une activite physique?
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 293-8

Over the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the relationship between brain function and physical exercise. Preliminary evidence from observational and interventional studies in ... [more ▼]

Over the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the relationship between brain function and physical exercise. Preliminary evidence from observational and interventional studies in humans suggests a positive and robust effect of chronic aerobic exercise on several brain functions across the entire lifespan. Physical activity and exercise might also serve to reduce the risk of age-associated neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain poorly understood. More scientific work is needed before disseminating more specific recommendations to the general population. [less ▲]

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See detailLow incidence of anti-osteoporosis treatment after hip fracture.
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Vanoverloop, Johan; Fabri, Valerie et al

in Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. American Volume (2008), 90(10), 2142-8

BACKGROUND: Following hip fracture, pharmacologic treatment can reduce the rate of subsequent fragility fractures. The objective of the present study was to assess the proportion of patients who are ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Following hip fracture, pharmacologic treatment can reduce the rate of subsequent fragility fractures. The objective of the present study was to assess the proportion of patients who are managed with bisphosphonates or selective estrogen-receptor modulators after hip fracture and to evaluate, among those managed with alendronate, the twelve-month compliance and persistence with treatment. METHODS: Data were gathered from health insurance companies and were collected by AIM (Agence Intermutualiste) for the Belgian National Social Security Institute (INAMI). We selected all postmenopausal women who had been hospitalized for a hip fracture between April 2001 and June 2004 and had not been previously managed with bisphosphonates. Patients who had received alendronate treatment after the hip fracture were categorized according to their formulation use during the follow-up study (daily, weekly, daily followed by weekly, or weekly followed by weekly). Compliance at twelve months was quantified with use of the medication possession ratio (i.e., the number of days of alendronate supplied during the first year of treatment, divided by 365). Persistence with prescribed treatment was calculated as the number of days from the initial prescription to a lapse of more than five weeks after completion of the previous prescription refill. The cumulative treatment persistence rate was determined with use of Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: A total of 23,146 patients who had sustained a hip fracture were identified. Of these patients, 6% received treatment during the study period: 4.6% received alendronate, 0.7% received risedronate, and 0.7% received raloxifene. Bisphosphonate treatment was dispensed to 2.6% and 3.6% of the patients within six months and one year after the occurrence of the hip fracture, respectively. Among women who received alendronate daily (n = 124) or weekly (n = 182) and were followed for at least one year after the hip fracture, the twelve-month mean medication possession ratio was 67% (65.9% in the daily group and 67.7% in the weekly group). The analysis of persistence with treatment included a total of 726 patients (142 in the daily group, 261 in the weekly group, and 323 in the switch group). At twelve months, the rate of persistence was 41% and the median duration of persistence was 40.3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of patients who experience a hip fracture do not take anti-osteoporotic therapy after the fracture. Furthermore, among patients who begin alendronate treatment after the fracture, the adherence to treatment decreases over time and remains suboptimal. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition des recepteurs CB1 et metabolisme du glucose: rimonabant dans le diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Van Gaal, Luc F

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 4(168), 1812-7

Endocannabinoid system is overactivated in individuals with abdominal obesity. CBI receptors, first individualized in the brain, are also expressed in the adipocyte, the skeletal muscle, the liver, the ... [more ▼]

Endocannabinoid system is overactivated in individuals with abdominal obesity. CBI receptors, first individualized in the brain, are also expressed in the adipocyte, the skeletal muscle, the liver, the gut, and the pancreas. Their blockade improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile, thanks increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels. Rimonabant, a selective antagonist of CBI receptors, improves glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, treated with diet alone, metformin, sulfonylurea or insulin, while it also reduces body weight and other risk factors. Ongoing studies aim at further demonstrating the potential of rimonabant in the management of type 2 diabetes, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and in the protection against cardiovascular complications in (diabetic) patients with abdominal obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for quality improvement in cardiac surgery. The College of Cardiac Surgery : results of the 2007 survey.
De Smet, J. M.; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Van Kerrebroeck, Chr et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2008), 108(6), 638-44

Optimal delivery of health care is a common goal of individual physicians, professional organizations, hospital structures and governmental authorities. A growing concern has emerged from the public ... [more ▼]

Optimal delivery of health care is a common goal of individual physicians, professional organizations, hospital structures and governmental authorities. A growing concern has emerged from the public, media and third payer organizations concerning the quality of care and the amount of resources spending. In the United States, large databases, guidelines and performance evaluation have been elaborated by medical societies, particularly in the area of cardiac surgery. These tools are useful for improvement of patients' care, resources distribution, pay for performance and public and practitioners' awareness. The evaluation of quality is based on composite models combining structure, process and outcome indices. However, pitfalls such as patients' selection, and risk avoidance in order to improve results must been prevented by adjustment of the treated populations' risk factors by specific scores. The Belgian Health authorities have built a structure directed at delivery of care improvement based on "Care Programs", monitored by Colleges formed by delegates of professional organizations. The College of Cardiac Surgery has promoted several studies aimed at data collection and evaluation. In 2007, a survey was addressed to all the Belgian Cardiac surgeons to define their opinion as to the best indicators of care in their specialty. These results will serve to define further avenues of research. By maintaining the responsibility of care evaluation in the hands of the involved professionals, this kind of cooperation between governmental and physicians' organizations seems to serve the best interests of the public and the practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailUntersuchung frühzeitiger Reaktionen lymphozytärer Proteine auf γ-Bestrahlung humanen Vollbluts und deren Dosisabhängigkeit – Voraussetzung für die Entwicklung eines individuellen strahlenbiologischen Dosimeters
Turtoi, Andrei ULg

Book published by Forschungszentrum Jülich (2008)

The present thesis is concerned with the issues involved in obtaining reliable experimental data permitting a retrospective assessment of radiation-induced doses at the time of application or ... [more ▼]

The present thesis is concerned with the issues involved in obtaining reliable experimental data permitting a retrospective assessment of radiation-induced doses at the time of application or contamination. In order to provide prompt medical treatment of those injured in accidents with ionizing radiation, biological procedures that can be implemented swiftly and at an early stage are required both to determine the radiation dose originally received as well as to assess the course of the dose-dependent biological reactions on the basis of individual sensitivity to radiation. To this end, in the present thesis the lymphocyte proteins (phosphoproteins and total proteins) in blood taken from test subjects who had been exposed to γ-radiation (applied dose: 0-4 Gy) were analysed just 15 minutes after completing irradiation by means of 2D gel electrophoresis. Only those early-response proteins (ERPROs) that displayed a significant radiation-induced change were identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS. For validation purposes, the dose-dependent gene expression of some of these proteins was determined by RT-qPCR. The following ERPROs displayed pronounced early reactions in the form of changes of concentration in comparison to unirradiated control samples: talin-1, talin-2, β-actin, mutant β-actin, peroxin-1 and also the phosphoproteins annexin-A6, MHC-binding protein-2, zyxin-2, interleukin-17E and phosphoglycerate kinase-1. The majority of the lymphocyte ERPROs represent proteins responsible for changes to the cytoskeleton, proliferation and cell cycle, modulation of immunoreactions as well as protein degradation and energy production. Other cellular processes may not have been determined due to the sensitivity restrictions of the 2D-PAGE and MS methods, but cannot be excluded. Gene expression studies revealed that a combination of methods, comprising RT-qPCR and 2D-PAGE as well as DNA microarray and Western blot, may in future be able to overcome these restrictions. The slopes of the curves from concentration measurements of various early response proteins after doses had been applied in the 0 and 4 Gy range yielded a characteristic arrangement or pattern representative of an individual. In case of contamination, this pattern prepared ex vivo serves as a reference for identifying the originally unknown dose, thus creating the necessary condition for applying an individual radiation biodosimeter. This thus provides for the first time an experimental means of biologically quantifying in retrospect radioactive doses in the 0 and 4 Gy range after a relatively short time. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D et al

in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2008), 9

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. CONCLUSION: In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of PAG in the milk and blood in cow’s in comparison to other examination methods for pregnancy diagnosis.
Gajewski, Z.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Konopka, A. A. et al

in Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2008), (Suppl II), 190

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See detailLong-term evolution of the North Anatolian fault (Turkey)
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Van Der Woerd, J.; King, G. et al

in Geological Society of London (Special publication : Geodynamics of Collision and Collapse at the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia Subduction Zone, Editor R. Govers) (2008)

The deformation and 40Ar-39Ar dating of recent volcanism that remarkably sits across the North Anatolian Fault eastern termination in Turkey, together with previous studies, put strong constraints on the ... [more ▼]

The deformation and 40Ar-39Ar dating of recent volcanism that remarkably sits across the North Anatolian Fault eastern termination in Turkey, together with previous studies, put strong constraints on the long- term evolution of the fault. We argue that after a first phase of 10 Ma, characterized by a slip rate of about 3 mm/yr, and during which most of the trace was established, the slip rate jumped to about 20 mm/yr on average over the last 2.5 Ma, without substantial increase of the fault length. The transition correlates with a change in the geometry at the junction with the East Anatolian Fault that makes the extrusion process more efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailLes lipases sont des hydrolases atypiques : principales caractéristiques et applications
Fickers, Patrick ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(2), 119-130

Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous ... [more ▼]

Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous solution or as biocatalysts in organic synthesis. As hydrolases, they are responsible of the triglycerids catabolism into fatty acids and glycerol. In many organisms, this reaction plays a major role in the fat and lipid metabolism. In addition, lipases are also able to hydrolyse phospholipids and cholesterol esters. In organic solvent, lipases could catalyse reactions such as esterifications, acidolysis or alcoolysis with enantio-, regio- and chimioselectivity. Lipases form a mixed class of enzyme due to their animal, vegetal or microbial origins. All those properties led to the development of many applications in the food and chemical industries but also in the medical and therapeutic field. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin of Saturn's aurora: Simultaneous observations by Cassini and the Hubble Space Telescope
Bunce, E. J.; Arridge, C. S.; Clarke, J. T. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113(A9),

Outer planet auroras have been imaged for more than a decade, yet understanding their physical origin requires simultaneous remote and in situ observations. The first such measurements at Saturn were ... [more ▼]

Outer planet auroras have been imaged for more than a decade, yet understanding their physical origin requires simultaneous remote and in situ observations. The first such measurements at Saturn were obtained in January 2007, when the Hubble Space Telescope imaged the ultraviolet aurora, while the Cassini spacecraft crossed field lines connected to the auroral oval in the high-latitude magnetosphere near noon. The Cassini data indicate that the noon aurora lies in the boundary between open- and closed-field lines, where a layer of upward-directed field-aligned current flows whose density requires downward acceleration of magnetospheric electrons sufficient to produce the aurora. These observations indicate that the quasi-continuous main oval is produced by the magnetosphere-solar wind interaction through the shear in rotational flow across the open-closed-field line boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailDer unmögliche Chronotopos – Die „Stunde Null“ als Mythos der Narration am Beispiel von Günter Grass’ „Im Krebsgang“.
Pontzen, Alexandra ULg

in Preusser, Heinz-Peter; Galli, Matteo (Eds.) Deutsche Gründungsmythen von der Hermannschlacht bis zum Wunder von Bern. (2008)

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See detailLa marche du sujet fibromyalgique et d’un sujet dépressif est-elle différenciable ? Exploration de deux affections « voisines » à partir d’un accéléromètre tri-axial.
Maquet, Didier ULg; Jaspar, J.; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2008), 75

Objectif : Analyser la marche de populations souffrant d’affections présentant certaines similitudes en termes de symptomatologie (fatigue, stress, anxiété, ralentissement psychomoteur, …) et pour ... [more ▼]

Objectif : Analyser la marche de populations souffrant d’affections présentant certaines similitudes en termes de symptomatologie (fatigue, stress, anxiété, ralentissement psychomoteur, …) et pour lesquelles le diagnostic différentiel apparaît parfois malaisé. Patients et méthodes : Cette étude inclut 32 sujets fibromyalgiques (46  10 ans), 20 sujets hospitalisés pour un état dépressif (49  14 ans) et 20 sujets volontaires contrôles (49  16 ans). L’analyse tri-dimensionnelle de la marche est réalisée à partir d'un système ambulatoire d'accélérométrie triaxial (Locometrix® Centaure Metrix, France) et d'une ligne de chronométrage. Le sujet marche à sa vitesse de confort, équipé de l'accéléromètre fixé à l'aide d'une ceinture élastique. L'épreuve, composée de 6 trajets rectilignes de 40 mètres, permet de suivre le profil des paramètres analysés tout au long de la distance totale parcourue (240 mètres). Les paramètres analysés sont : la vitesse de marche, la fréquence de pas, la longueur de pas, la symétrie et la régularité des pas, la puissance mécanique suivant les axes antéro-postérieur, crânio-caudal et médio-latéral, le coût énergétique. Résultats : La marche de la population fibromyalgique présente diverses altérations significatives non seulement en comparaison de la population contrôle mais aussi de la population dépressive. Nous observons chez le fibromyalgique une réduction significative (p < 0,05) de la vitesse de marche, de la longueur de pas, des activités suivant les axes antéro-postérieur et crânio-caudal. En outre, cette population présente une marche moins régulière (p < 0,05) alors que le coût énergétique de la marche est diminué (p < 0,05). Les paramètres de marche enregistrés au sein de la population dépressive apparaissent intermédiaires entre sujets contrôles et fibromyalgiques. Cependant, aucune modification significative ne s’observe entre populations contrôle et dépressive. Des travaux ultérieurs tenteront en outre de mettre en relation l’altération des paramètres de marche avec le degré d’anxiété et de dépression objectivé. Discussion : Bien que l’on évoque régulièrement un ralentissement fonctionnel chez les sujets souffrant de ces 2 affections « voisines », ce travail démontre que la marche d’un sujet dépressif et d’un sujet fibromyalgique semble différenciable. Ce dernier adopte une marche plus lente, moins régulière et visant à une « économie » d’énergie comme l’atteste le coût énergétique et les activités suivant les 3 axes. Conclusion : Cette épreuve pourrait constituer un outil original dans la caractérisation d’une population pathologique et le suivi longitudinal d’un patient. [less ▲]

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See detailRestauration des potentialités de sols dégradés à l’aide du zaï et du compost dans le Yatenga (Burkina Faso)
Sawadogo, H.; Bock, Laurent ULg; Lacroix, D. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(3),

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See detailOn boundary condition in tunnels under partial saturation
Gerard, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Toll, David (Ed.) Unsaturated Soils: Advances in Geo-Engineering (2008)

A new hydraulic boundary condition modelling the hydraulic transfers between porous medium and ambient atmosphere occurring during gallery excavations is described. It combines two modes of water ... [more ▼]

A new hydraulic boundary condition modelling the hydraulic transfers between porous medium and ambient atmosphere occurring during gallery excavations is described. It combines two modes of water exchanges in partial saturation: seepage and evaporation flows. Numerical simulations of a gallery excavation in dilatant geomaterial are carried out in isothermal conditions. The results show the influence of hydric boundary condition on the convergence of the gallery and the importance of the determination of vapour transfer coeffi-cient between atmosphere and porous medium. [less ▲]

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