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See detailNeurobiologie et pharmacothérapie du trouble obsessionnel-compulsif.
Ansseau, Marc ULg; Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

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See detailVers un renouveau des études régionales et fédérales ? Un panorama d’approches politologiques contemporaines
Dandoy, Régis; Van Wynsberghe, Caroline; Perrin, Nathalie ULg

in Fédéralisme - Régionalisme (2008), 8(2),

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See detailThermo-plasticity of fine-grained soils at various saturation states: Application to nuclear waste disposal
François, Bertrand ULg

Doctoral thesis (2008)

Soil is a particulate material that may undergo irreversible strain as the relative positions of the constituent particles change. That irreversible behaviour may be induced not only by an external stress ... [more ▼]

Soil is a particulate material that may undergo irreversible strain as the relative positions of the constituent particles change. That irreversible behaviour may be induced not only by an external stress variation but also by temperature or suction changes. The geomaterials that will be involved in the confinement of radioactive waste in deep geological formations will be submitted to strong thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical modifications. Those modifications may produce a significant change of the characteristics of the confinement barrier. A safety assessment of such facilities must be performed that considers the potential thermo-plasticity effects in the confining soil. Following the need for understanding and quantifying such effects, a constitutive model that deals with the thermo-mechanical modelling of unsaturated soils is proposed. In light of elastoplasticity, this model is based on the relevant temperature and suction effects on the mechanical behaviour of fine-grained soils, as observed in experiments. In addition, an experimental program has been undertaken in order to corroborate and to extend the existing results. Finally, the developed constitutive model has been properly implemented in a finite element code in order to study the behaviour of the soils that confine the nuclear waste. Therefore, this work addresses the issue from three different directions: a constitutive, experimental, and numerical point of view. (i) Constitutive study. The elaboration of a thermo-plastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is done in a systematic manner. Starting from a hardening plasticity model for isothermal and saturated conditions, the constitutive relations are progressively extended to non-isothermal conditions and then to unsaturated states. For the more advanced model, a generalized effective stress framework is adopted, which includes a number of intrinsic thermo-hydro-mechanical connections, to represent the stress state in the soil. Two coupled constitutive aspects are used to fully describe the soil behaviour. The mechanical constitutive part is built on concepts of bounding surface theory and multi-mechanism plasticity, while water retention characteristics are described using elasto-plasticity to reproduce the hysteretic response and the effect of temperature and dry density on the soil's water retention properties. The theoretical formulation is supported by comparisons with experimental results. (ii) Experimental study. Aiming at a better understanding of the non-isothermal mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils, a series of oedometric compression tests under controlled temperatures and suction conditions has been carried out on a silty material. The characteristics and the calibrations of the experimental apparatus are presented. The main results are interpreted in light of the proposed constitutive framework. The compressibility of the soil tested appears not to be affected by the temperature, but it decreases with a suction increase. As far as the preconsolidation stress is concerned, the results show a decrease of the yield limit with increasing temperature, while a suction increase tends to enhance this limit. Finally, an analytical expression is proposed to describe the evolution of the preconsolidation stress with respect to temperature and suction. (iii) Numerical study. In the issue of nuclear waste disposal, the quantification of the temporal and spatial distributions of the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena that occur in the confining soils requires that numerical simulations be carried out under imposed boundary conditions. To this end, the last part of this work presents finite element modelling results of several in-situ or laboratory simulation tests through using the developed constitutive model that was implemented in an advanced finite element code. The parameters of the different materials involved in the simulated experiments are determined by means of an extensive literature analysis on their thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical characteristics. The simulation results are interpreted in light of the elasto-thermoplasticity of saturated and unsaturated soils, which emphasizes the significant role of thermo-plastic processes in the global thermo-hydromechanical response of the confining materials. In that sense, this work supplies, in a systematic and progressive manner, constitutive explanations that may help to provide a better understanding of what the effects of thermo-plasticity in soils involved in the confinement of nuclear waste are. [less ▲]

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See detailRésoudre des problèmes : pas de problème !
Fagnant, Annick ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg; Demonty, Isabelle ULg

Book published by De Boeck (2008)

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See detailHet zoekgeraakte bijproduct. Over literaire prijzen
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Freespace Nieuwzuid (2008), 8(32), 6-23

This article reflects on the growing importance of literary prizes, while other literary institutions are rapidly losing ground and influence.

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See detailA quoi tient le succès des interventions ?
Pichault, François ULg

in Vrancken, Didier; Dubois, Christophe; Schoenaers, Frédéric (Eds.) Penser la négociation. Mélanges en hommage à Olgierd Kut (2008)

Proposes a conceptual framework concerning the key success factors of action researches in organizations, based on the way in which the relations with the client are negotiated

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See detailTARC and IL-5 expression correlates with tissue eosinophilia in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.
Thielen, Caroline ULg; Radermacher, Vincent ULg; Trimeche, Mounir et al

in Leukemia Research (2008), 32(9), 1431-8

The current study attempts to characterize the eosinophilia associated with T-cell lymphomas and to investigate its possible relationship with the secretion of eosinophil-stimulating factors by lymphoma ... [more ▼]

The current study attempts to characterize the eosinophilia associated with T-cell lymphomas and to investigate its possible relationship with the secretion of eosinophil-stimulating factors by lymphoma cells and/or intra-tumoral surrounding cells. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 50 patients diagnosed with peripheral T-cell lymphomas, either unspecified (PTCL-U, n=30) or angioimmunoblastic (AITL, n=20) were morphologically assessed for intra-tumoral eosinophilia and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies directed against TARC, IL-5, RANTES, and eotaxin. The AITL and PTCL-U cases contained a mean of 147+/-41 and 102+/-37 eosinophils per 10 high power fields, respectively. Thirty-two of 47 cases (68%) showed IL-5-positive lymphoma cells while 15/50 (30%) tumors showed variable staining for TARC in scattered non-lymphoid cells with dendritic morphology. TARC and IL-5-positive cases possessed significantly more eosinophils. Our data indicate that IL-5 and TARC expression highly correlate with eosinophilia in T-cell lymphomas, suggesting that these chemokines are involved in the recruitment of eosinophils into the tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailVerb-late word order in Old Swedish subordinate clauses : Loan, Ausbau phenomenon, or both?
Zeevaert, Ludger ULg; Höder, Steffen

in Siemund, Peter; Kintana, Noemi (Eds.) Contact languages and language contact (2008)

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See detailSiluro-Devonian miospore biostratigraphy of the Urubu River area, western Amazon Basin, northern Brazil
Steemans, Philippe ULg; Rubinstein, C.; Melo, J. H. G.

in Geobios (2008), 41

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See detailInferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up.
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel; El-Sadr, Wafaa et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197(8), 1145-55

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL. Rates and predictors of opportunistic disease or death (OD/death) and the relative risk (RR) in DC versus VS groups according to the latest CD4+ cell count and HIV RNA level are reported. RESULTS: During a mean of 16 months of follow-up, DC patients spent more time with a latest CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL (for DC vs. VS, 31% vs. 8%) and with a latest HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (71% vs. 28%) and had a higher rate of OD/death (3.4 vs. 1.3/100 person-years) than VS patients. For periods of follow- up with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL, rates of OD/death were increased but similar in the 2 groups (5.7 vs. 4.6/100 person-years), whereas the rates were higher in DC versus VS patients (2.3 vs. 1.0/100 person-years; RR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.4]) for periods with the latest CD4+ cell count >or= 350 cells/microL-an increase explained by the higher HIV RNA levels in the DC group. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of OD/death in DC patients was associated with (1) spending more follow-up time with relative immunodeficiency and (2) living longer with uncontrolled HIV replication even at higher CD4+ cell counts. Ongoing HIV replication at a given CD4+ cell count places patients at an excess risk of OD/death. [less ▲]

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See detailStress oxydant et antioxydants: mythes et réalités.
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

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See detailPrevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006.
Vercauteren, Jurgen; Derdelinckx, Inge; Sasse, Andre et al

in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2008), 24(3), 355-62

This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was ... [more ▼]

This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was initiated as part of the pan-European SPREAD program, and continued thereafter for four inclusion rounds until December 2006. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and genotypic resistance testing was done on a sample taken within 6 months of diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were included. The overall prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Belgium was 9.5% (27/285, 95% CI: 6.6-13.4). Being infected in Belgium, which largely coincided with harboring a subtype B virus, was found to be significantly associated with transmission of drug resistance. The relatively high rate of baseline resistance might jeopardize the success of first line treatment as more than 1 out of 10 (30/285, 10.5%) viruses did not score as fully susceptible to one of the recommended first-line regimens, i.e., zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Our results support the implementation of genotypic resistance testing as a standard of care in all treatment-naive patients in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailSubgroup and resistance analyses of raltegravir for resistant HIV-1 infection.
Cooper, David A; Steigbigel, Roy T; Gatell, Jose M et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2008), 359(4), 355-65

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with triple-class drug resistance and in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. METHODS: We conducted subgroup analyses of the data from week 48 in both studies according to baseline prognostic factors. Genotyping of the integrase gene was performed in raltegravir recipients who had virologic failure. RESULTS: Virologic responses to raltegravir were consistently superior to responses to placebo, regardless of the baseline values of HIV-1 RNA level; CD4 cell count; genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score; use or nonuse of darunavir, enfuvirtide, or both in optimized background therapy; or demographic characteristics. Among patients in the two studies combined who were using both enfuvirtide and darunavir for the first time, HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 89% of raltegravir recipients and 68% of placebo recipients. HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 69% and 80% of the raltegravir recipients and in 47% and 57% of the placebo recipients using either darunavir or enfuvirtide for the first time, respectively. At 48 weeks, 105 of the 462 raltegravir recipients (23%) had virologic failure. Genotyping was performed in 94 raltegravir recipients with virologic failure. Integrase mutations known to be associated with phenotypic resistance to raltegravir arose during treatment in 64 patients (68%). Forty-eight of these 64 patients (75%) had two or more resistance-associated mutations. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with an optimized background regimen in both studies, a consistently favorable treatment effect of raltegravir over placebo was shown in clinically relevant subgroups of patients, including those with baseline characteristics that typically predict a poor response to antiretroviral therapy: a high HIV-1 RNA level, low CD4 cell count, and low genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00293267 and NCT00293254.) [less ▲]

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See detailDecline of antibiotic use in primary care.
Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Moutschen, Michel ULg

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2008), 8(5), 272273

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See detailThe development of subordinate clauses in Old Swedish - an example of contact-induced language change?
Zeevaert, Ludger ULg

in Zanchi, Anna (Ed.) Skáldamjöðurinn. Selected proceedings of the UCL graduate symposia in Old Norse literature and philology, 2005-2006 (2008)

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See detailEvaluation économique de la campagne de dépistage de l'ostéoporose menée en Province de Liège avec le concours de Liège Province Santé
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Pire, Georges et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(10), 588-94

The Province of Liege has conducted an osteoporosis screening strategy for women aged 50 to 69 years. The objective of this study is to investigate the economic characteristics of the screening strategy ... [more ▼]

The Province of Liege has conducted an osteoporosis screening strategy for women aged 50 to 69 years. The objective of this study is to investigate the economic characteristics of the screening strategy and to assess its cost-effectiveness, using a Markov microsimulation model. Our analyses suggest that the osteoporosis screening strategy is efficient if the medical community and the patients fulfill the recommendations of the Province of Liege health authorities and if persistence is optimized. Therefore, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement should be performed in all individuals with positive ultrasound screening; individuals having a positive BMD diagnosis should be treated and adherence to therapy should be increased. Furthermore, to improve the efficiency of the screening strategy, we suggest to target screening on women with one or more clinical risk factors, or on women aged 65 years and older. [less ▲]

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