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See detailVariations in the sound producing mechanism in the pearlfish Carapini (Carapidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lagardère, Jean-Paul; Chancerelle, Yannick et al

in Journal of Zoology (2008), 276

Sound production in Carapus boraborensis results from the action of different sonic muscles terminating in complex tendons, which have hooks that fit over a tubercle on the swimbladder wall. The primary ... [more ▼]

Sound production in Carapus boraborensis results from the action of different sonic muscles terminating in complex tendons, which have hooks that fit over a tubercle on the swimbladder wall. The primary sonic muscles (PSM) draw progressively the forepart of the swimbladder until the hook releases the tubercle. This allows the swimbladder to snap back to its resting position, which initiates the onset of the sound. In the present study, the morphology of the C. boraborensis sound-producing apparatus and the resulting sounds were compared with Encheliophis gracilis and Carapus homei. The main difference concerns the direct insertion of the PSM on the swimbladder in C. homei and E. gracilis and, concurrent sonic characteristics. These morphological features also allow both fish to produce an additional kind of sound with more compact pulses, each being clearly composed of two parts and each having a different frequency. The sound producing system could be compared with a guitarist who makes a sound in releasing a guitar string and modulates it by moving his/her finger along the string. However, E. gracilis possess more filtered sounds than C. boraborensis and C. homei, probably because of the unusual shape of its swimbladder. This study highlights the diversity and plasticity of sonic mechanisms and their implication in the development of sonic repertoire in evolving species. [less ▲]

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See detailVapor phase doping with N-type dopant into silicon by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition
Takeuchi, Shotaro; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Leys, Frederik et al

in 214th ECS Meeting, 2008 (2008)

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See detailCognitive Event-Related Potentials in Comatose and Post-Comatose States
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Perrin, F.

in Neurocritical Care (2008), 8(2), 262-70

We review the interest of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) in comatose, vegetative, or minimally conscious patients. Auditory cognitive ERPs are useful to investigate residual cognitive functions ... [more ▼]

We review the interest of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) in comatose, vegetative, or minimally conscious patients. Auditory cognitive ERPs are useful to investigate residual cognitive functions, such as echoic memory (MMN), acoustical and semantic discrimination (P300), and incongruent language detection (N400). While early ERPs (such as the absence of cortical responses on somatosensory-evoked potentials) predict bad outcome, cognitive ERPs (MMN and P300) are indicative of recovery of consciousness. In coma-survivors, cognitive potentials are more frequently obtained when using stimuli that are more ecologic or have an emotional content (such as the patient's own name) than when using classical sine tones. [less ▲]

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See detailAdenylate Kinase-Independent Thiamine Triphosphate Accumulation under Severe Energy Stress in Escherichia Coli
Gigliobianco, Tiziana ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Makarchikov, Alexander F et al

in BMC Microbiology (2008), 8

BACKGROUND: Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) exists in most organisms and might play a role in cellular stress responses. In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in response to amino acid starvation but the mechanism ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) exists in most organisms and might play a role in cellular stress responses. In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in response to amino acid starvation but the mechanism of its synthesis is still a matter of controversy. It has been suggested that ThTP is synthesized by an ATP-dependent specific thiamine diphosphate kinase. However, it is also known that vertebrate adenylate kinase 1 catalyzes ThTP synthesis at a very low rate and it has been postulated that this enzyme is responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. RESULTS: Here we show that bacterial, as vertebrate adenylate kinases are able to catalyze ThTP synthesis, but at a rate more than 106-fold lower than ATP synthesis. This activity is too low to explain the high rate of ThTP accumulation observed in E. coli during amino acid starvation. Moreover, bacteria from the heat-sensitive CV2 strain accumulate high amounts of ThTP (>50% of total thiamine) at 37 degrees C despite complete inactivation of adenylate kinase and a subsequent drop in cellular ATP. CONCLUSION: These results clearly demonstrate that adenylate kinase is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. Furthermore, they show that E. coli accumulate large amounts of ThTP under severe energy stress when ATP levels are very low, an observation not in favor of an ATP-dependent mechanisms for ThTP synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailSyphilis en 2008: controverses et attitudes pratiques.
Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULg; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 4(168), 1823-7

Rising incidence rate of syphilis is observed in economically advanced countries, particularly among homosexual men and subpopulation with low socioeconomic status. The various clinical presentations are ... [more ▼]

Rising incidence rate of syphilis is observed in economically advanced countries, particularly among homosexual men and subpopulation with low socioeconomic status. The various clinical presentations are divided into early and late stages, including neurosyphilis. The latter can occur during any stage of the disease, leading to the question "when to perform lumbar puncture", particularly in HIV positive patients. Penicillin continues to be the first-line therapy for all stages of syphilis. An alternative treatment should be considered as an exemption, after advice from a specialist. All patients require prolonged clinical and serological follow-up after treatment to rule out relapse or re-infection. The diagnosis of syphilis is an opportunity to search and treat other sexually transmitted diseases in patients and their sexual partner(s). [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the Ixodes ricinus tick blood-feeding on the antigen-specific antibody response in vivo.
Menten-Dedoyart, Catherine ULg; Couvreur, B.; Thellin, Olivier ULg et al

in Vaccine (2008), 26(52), 6956-64

The blood meal of hard ticks such as Ixodes ricinus lasts several days. This is made possible by tick salivary factors that inhibit inflammation, haemostasis and the host immune response. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

The blood meal of hard ticks such as Ixodes ricinus lasts several days. This is made possible by tick salivary factors that inhibit inflammation, haemostasis and the host immune response. We assessed the latter on a model of immune response in vivo. A significant reduction of specific IgM and IgG levels was observed in BALB/c mice infested 5 days before injection with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and QuilA but not in mice infested 5 days after the immunization. This effect was not observed in mock-infested mice and could not be attributed to the use of anesthetics. The antibody response was not merely delayed and the Th(1)/Th(2) balance appeared not altered. T-dependent zones and germinal centers in lymph nodes draining the tick bite site showed no apparent morphological alterations or shift in T cell subpopulations. However, the spleens of tick-infested mice had also an enlarged red pulp, indicating an increased extramedullary haematopoietic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a drug-cyclodextrin complexation reaction by a static supercritical carbon dioxide process
Brion, Michael; Nizet, Dominique; Evrard, Brigitte ULg

Poster (2008)

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See detailRisk-aware decision making and dynamic programming
Defourny, Boris ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

Conference (2008)

This paper considers sequential decision making problems under uncertainty, the tradeoff between the expected return and the risk of high loss, and methods that use dynamic programming to find optimal ... [more ▼]

This paper considers sequential decision making problems under uncertainty, the tradeoff between the expected return and the risk of high loss, and methods that use dynamic programming to find optimal policies. It is argued that using Bellman's Principle determines how risk considerations on the return can be incorporated. The discussion centers around returns generated by Markov Decision Processes and conclusions concern a large class of methods in Reinforcement Learning. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis of Process Faults in Chemical Systems Using a Local Partial Least Squares Approach
Kruger, Uwe; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in AIChE Journal (2008), 54(10), 2581-2596

This article discusses the application of partial least squares (PLS) for monitoring complex chemical systems. In relation to existing work, this article proposes the integration of the statistical local ... [more ▼]

This article discusses the application of partial least squares (PLS) for monitoring complex chemical systems. In relation to existing work, this article proposes the integration of the statistical local approach into the PLS framework to monitor changes in the underlying model rather than analyzing the recorded input/output data directly. As discussed in the literature, monitoring changes in model parameters addresses the problems of nonstationary behavior and presents an analogy to model-based approaches. The benefits of the proposed technique are that (i) a detailed mechanistic plant model is not required, (ii) nonstationary process behavior does not produce false alarms, (iii) parameter changes can be non-Gaussian, (iv) Gaussian monitoring statistics can be established to simplify the monitoring task, and (v) fault magnitude and signatures can be estimated. This is demonstrated by a simulation example and the analysis of recorded data from two chemical processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Fair Trade Organizations necessarily Social Enterprises?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2008), 4(3), 186-201

Purpose – Fair trade organisations (FTOs) have been taken quite early as examples of Social Enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The purpose of this paper is to examine ... [more ▼]

Purpose – Fair trade organisations (FTOs) have been taken quite early as examples of Social Enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The purpose of this paper is to examine more deeply the link between FTOs and SE, both at a conceptual and at an empirical level. Design/methodology/approach – First, different theoretical frameworks of SE are introduced and confront FT to each of these frameworks. The second step is an empirical study of FTOs across four European countries to illustrate and deepen the links between FT and SE, focusing on the goals and the governance structures of FTOs. Findings – All the FTOs combine in some way economic, social and sometimes also political goals. FTOs are thus coherent to the “hybrid goals” nature of SEs. FTOs' governance is also quite specific and often innovative in terms of organisational architecture and stakeholders' involvement. Some FTOs are closer to the European – participatory – approach while others are closer to US – individual – approaches. Finally, the governance structures of FTOs seem to reflect quite well their goal mix. Research limitations/implications – This paper provides a more solid basis for the often implicit link between FT and SE. Future researches could use this work to explore specific topics of the SE literature in the context of FT (e.g. stakeholders' involvement). The FT example could also be used to examine further the shifting boundaries of the SE reality. Originality/value – The originality of this paper is to apply the SE concept to a specific field and to show how, within this field, there is at the same time a diversity of organisations, reflecting the diversity of SE approaches; and a range of specific features (especially in terms of goal mix and governance) distinguishing SEs from other types of organisations. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational modelling of peri-implant healing
Amor, Nadia; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Vander Sloten, Jos et al

in Middleton, J.; Jones, M. L.; Shrive, N. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th interantional symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2008)

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See detailEmission of alarm pheromone in aphids: A non-contagious phenomenon
Verheggen, François ULg; Mescher, M. C.; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2008), 34(9), 1146-1148

In response to attack by natural enemies, most aphid species release an alarm pheromone that causes nearby conspecifics to cease feeding and disperse. The primary component of the alarm pheromone of most ... [more ▼]

In response to attack by natural enemies, most aphid species release an alarm pheromone that causes nearby conspecifics to cease feeding and disperse. The primary component of the alarm pheromone of most species studied is (E)-beta-farnesene. We recently demonstrated that the production and accumulation of (E)-beta-farnesene during development by juvenile aphids is stimulated by exposure to odor cues, most likely by (E)-beta-farnesene emitted by other colony members. Here, we tested whether the release of (E)-beta-farnesene can be triggered by exposure to the alarm pheromone of other individuals, thereby amplifying the signal. Such contagious emission might be adaptive under some conditions because the amount of (E)-beta-farnesene released by a single aphid may not be sufficient to alert an appropriate number of individuals of the colony to the presence of a potential threat. By using a push-pull headspace collection system, we quantified (E)-beta-farnesene released from Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids exposed to conspecific alarm signals. Typical avoidance behavior was observed following exposure to (E)-beta-farnesene (i.e., aphids ceased feeding and dropped from host-plant); however, no increase in alarm pheromone amount was detected, suggesting that contagious release of (E)-beta-farnesene does not occur. [less ▲]

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See detailVers un renouveau des études régionales et fédérales ? Un panorama d’approches politologiques contemporaines
Dandoy, Régis; Van Wynsberghe, Caroline; Perrin, Nathalie ULg

in Fédéralisme - Régionalisme (2008), 8(2),

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See detailAn assumed natural strain technique for 2D solid-shell elements
Nguyen, Nhu Huynh ULg; PHAM, V. N.; Hogge, Michel ULg et al

in Proceedings of ACOMEN’2008, Advanced Computational Methods in Engineering (2008)

With the combination of the enhanced assumed strain (EAS) and assumed natural strain (ANS) techniques in the removal of shear and volumetric locking, the solid-shell formulation requires a minimum set of ... [more ▼]

With the combination of the enhanced assumed strain (EAS) and assumed natural strain (ANS) techniques in the removal of shear and volumetric locking, the solid-shell formulation requires a minimum set of enhanced modes, and this results in a competitive approach when compared with other fully EAS solid elements in terms of computational costs. Moreover, the latter reportedly suffers difficulties when dealing with very thin plate and shell structures due to the severe transverse shear locking. The paper presents an alternative solid-shell formulation, in which the ANS technique is applied to the upper and lower surfaces instead of at the mid-surface of the solid-shell element as previously adopted. The numerical results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de la 62ème session de la Société Internationale Fernand de Visscher à Fribourg
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité [= RIDA] (2008), LV

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See detailVerb-late word order in Old Swedish subordinate clauses : Loan, Ausbau phenomenon, or both?
Zeevaert, Ludger ULg; Höder, Steffen

in Siemund, Peter; Kintana, Noemi (Eds.) Contact languages and language contact (2008)

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See detailDiscrimination of parasitized aphids by a hoverfly predator: effects on larval performance, foraging, and oviposition behavior
Almohamad, Raki; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (2008), 128(1), 73-80

The choice of oviposition site by female aphidophagous predators is crucial for offspring performance, especially in hoverflies whose newly hatched larvae are unable to move over large distance. Predator ... [more ▼]

The choice of oviposition site by female aphidophagous predators is crucial for offspring performance, especially in hoverflies whose newly hatched larvae are unable to move over large distance. Predator and parasitoid interactions within the aphidophagous guild are likely to be very important in influencing the choices made by predatory hoverfly females. In the present study, the foraging and oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) was investigated with respect to the parasitized state of its aphid prey, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera: Aphididae), that were parasitized by Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). We also recorded the number of eggs laid by hoverfly females when subjected to parasitized aphids. Furthermore, we studied the influence of being fed with parasitized aphids on hoverfly larval performance. Hoverfly females did not exhibit any preference for plants infested with unparasitized or aphids parasitized for 7 days. On the other hand, plants infested with mummies or exuvia were less attractive for E. balteatus. These results were correlated with (i) the number of eggs laid by E. balteatus females and (ii) larval performance. Thus, our results demonstrate that E. balteatus behavior is affected by parasitoid presence through their exploitation of aphid colonies. Indeed, hoverfly predators select their prey according to the developmental state of the parasitoid larvae. [less ▲]

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