References of "2007"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSize-selected compound semiconductor quantum dots by nanoparticle conversion
Wacaser, Brent A; Dick, Kimberly A; Zanolli, Zeila ULg et al

in Nanotechnology (2007), 18(10),

We have developed a novel technology, called nanoparticle conversion, for producing compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in which the dot size, surface density, position, and the materials system are ... [more ▼]

We have developed a novel technology, called nanoparticle conversion, for producing compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in which the dot size, surface density, position, and the materials system are all independently controlled. Nanoparticle conversion also lends itself to spatially controlled positioning of QDs. To demonstrate this technology we report the formation of InP QDs using nanoparticle conversion. We have produced QDs on substrates of different types by converting randomly and lithographically positioned nanoparticles into compound semiconductors in a chemical vapour deposition system. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements reveal that the morphology of these QDs is similar to that of QDs produced by other techniques. Photo- and cathodoluminescence measurements show that the converted nanoparticles exhibit properties and behaviours typical of semiconductor QDs. These include quantum confinement, free-to-bound recombination and blinking. Production of multi-component QDs like InP, GaN, and InAsP on various substrates like Si, SiO2, and sapphire show that this technology can produce a wide variety of different types of QD on different substrates with minimal need for process optimization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailA multi-scale strategy for the modelling of failure in masonry plates and shells
Massart, Thierry J.; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Diaby, Adama

Conference (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes neuromuscular electrical stimulation influence muscle recovery after maximal isokinetic exercise?
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Soltani, Karim ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(2), 143-149

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted of 3 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions performed by the knee flexor muscles of the dominant leg on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. There was an interval of 8 weeks between both bouts and the order of the recovery mode (ES or PR) was block-randomly assigned. ES recovery consisted of a 25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the hamstring muscles. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings peak torques were evaluated before and immediately after the provocation exercise, after the recovery period, as well as 24 h (d1), 48 h (d2), 72 h (0) and 168 h (0) after the bout. Subjective perception of muscle soreness (VAS, 0-10 a.u.) was evaluated before exercise and at d1, d2, 0 and d7. To assess the CK activity, five blood samples were drawn before exercise and at d1, d2, d3 and d7. For both recovery modes, the greatest reductions in isokinefic muscle performances were measured on d2 (66.3 +/- 24.1 % of initial values (ES) vs. 57.4 +/- 26.5% (PR) for the concentric mode and 55.6 +/- 16% (ES) vs. 53.1 +/- 19.3% (PR) for the eccentric mode). d2 also corresponded to the highest painful sensations (5.4 +/- 2.14 a.u. (ES) vs. 6.15 +/- 2.55 a.u. (PR)). Peak activities of CK were reached on d3 (47507 +/- 19973 IU/l (ES) vs. 75887 41962 IU/l (PR)). Serum CK was lower with ES than PR at 0 (p <= 0.05) but all other parameters changed in a manner that was not statistically different between the two recovery protocols (p > 0.05). This strong trend could be explained by an electro-induced hyperperfusion that may efficiently wash out the muscle from the cellular debris resulting from the initial injury, and hence diminish the inflammatory response and the delayed amplification of tissue damages. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 382 (20 ULg)
See detailExposer l'art conceptuel: entre oeuvre d'art et concept
Eloy, Céline ULg

Conference (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailModelling the evolution of climate and sea level over the third millennium (MILMO)
Fichefet, Thierry; Driesschaert, Emmanuelle; Goosse, Hugues et al

Report (2007)

A new three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity was developed. This model, named LOVECLIM, consists of five major components representing the atmosphere (ECBilt), the ocean and sea ... [more ▼]

A new three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity was developed. This model, named LOVECLIM, consists of five major components representing the atmosphere (ECBilt), the ocean and sea ice (CLIO), the terrestrial biosphere (VECODE), the oceanic carbon cycle (LOCH) and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets (AGISM). It also includes a global glacier-melt algorithm which is run in off-line mode. It is worth mentioning that there are very few models of this type worldwide. ECBilt is a quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model with 3 levels and a T21 horizontal resolution. It includes simple parameterisations of the diabatic heating processes and an explicit representation of the hydrological cycle. Cloud cover is prescribed according to present-day climatology. CLIO is a primitive-equation, free-surface ocean general circulation model coupled to a thermodynamic–dynamic sea-ice model. Its horizontal resolution is 3° × 3°, and there are 20 levels in the ocean. VECODE is a reduced-form model of vegetation dynamics and of the terrestrial carbon cycle. It simulates the dynamics of two main terrestrial plant functional types (trees and grassland) at the same resolution as that of ECBilt. LOCH is a comprehensive model of the oceanic carbon cycle that takes into account both the solubility and biological pumps. The version utilised here has the same resolution as the one of CLIO, which greatly facilitates the coupling between both models. Finally, AGISM is composed of a three-dimensional thermomechanical model of the ice sheet flow, a visco-elastic bedrock model and a model of the mass balance at the ice–atmosphere and ice–ocean interfaces. The Antarctic ice-sheet module also contains a model of the ice-shelf dynamics to enable interactions with the ocean and migration of the grounding line. For both ice sheets, calculations are made on a 10 km × 10 km resolution grid with 31 sigma levels. The performance of LOVECLIM was assessed by conducting ensemble simulations over the last few centuries. Starting from different initial conditions, the model was integrated from year 1500 AD up to year 2000 AD with solar irradiance, volcanic activity, tropospheric ozone amount, greenhouse-gas (including CO2) concentrations and sulphate-aerosol load evolving with time according to reconstructions. Over the last 140 years, the model simulates a global surface warming ranging from 0.33°C to 0.43°C, with a mean value of 0.38°C. This value is about 0.15°C lower than the observed one. A detailed analysis of the results has revealed the model behaves reasonably well at mid- and high latitudes. By contrast, at low latitudes, the agreement between the model results and observational estimates is less good, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In those regions, LOVECLIM significantly underestimates the warming and the climate variability observed during the last few decades. The coarse resolution of the model and the simplified representation of the atmospheric dynamical and physical processes seem to be the two major candidates responsible for this deficiency. Regarding the Greenland ice sheet, we found a slightly increasing ice volume during the period 1700–2000 AD. This trend is largely explained as a residual response to the late Holocene forcing, in particular to the Little Ice Age cooling after year 1500 AD. The effect is not particularly large, however, amounting to only 1.2 cm of global sea-level rise over the entire period. The growing trend stabilizes during the 20th century, with almost no net effect on ice volume. Only during the last decades of the 20th century, the ice volume begins to decrease in response to the imposed warming. We also found the Antarctic ice sheet to be retreating slowly at a rate equivalent to a global sea-level rise of about 1.7 cm during the 20th century. This evolution is mostly due to a long-term background trend of +2.6 cm, mitigated by about 0.9 cm from slightly rising accumulation rates over the same period. The ongoing dominance of past climatic changes on the contemporary ice-sheet evolution is a fine illustration of the inertia encountered when studying the response of large continental ice sheets. In this case, it mainly results from an ongoing grounding-line retreat in West Antarctica following rising sea levels since the Last Glacial Maximum. As far as mountain glaciers and small ice caps are concerned, their area and volume are found to reach a maximum in the late 19th century corresponding to the Little Ice Age, but this maximum and the ensuing 20th century glacier retreat are not very pronounced. Over the last hundred years, the model simulates an ice loss equivalent to only 0.89 cm of sea-level rise. This value is at the lower end compared to other assessments. One reason is the low total ice volume assumed by the global glacier-melt algorithm (about 20 cm of total sea-level rise, a factor 2.5 less than previous estimates). A second reason is the prescribed global ice mass balance for the 1961–1990 reference period, which is also at the lower end of other simulations. For the 20th century, LOVECLIM explains about 7.6 cm of sea-level rise. The bulk of that value, about 4.7 cm, comes from thermal expansion of the World Ocean. The Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets combined lead to a sea-level rise of 2 cm, and glaciers and ice caps are responsible for about 0.9 cm of sea-level rise. These numbers are similar to those that have been derived for the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) for the same components except for the lower glacier contribution as found here. Over the industrial era, the net uptake of carbon by the ocean simulated by LOVECLIM is within the range of current estimates, although at the lower end of this range. It should be noted that a detailed evaluation of the performance of the terrestrial carbon-cycle module was impossible to perform given the very wide range of available data. Experiments with interactive atmospheric CO2 concentration were also carried out with LOVECLIM forced by CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning and land-use change. Interestingly enough, the atmospheric CO2 level computed by the model in year 2000 AD compares relatively well with the observed one. A series of climate-change projections were then conducted over the 21st century. In these experiments, LOVECLIM was driven by changes in greenhouse-gas (including CO2), tropospheric ozone and sulphate-aerosol concentrations following the IPCC SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2. In year 2100 AD, the model predicts a globally averaged, annual mean surface warming of 1°C, 1.4°C and 1.8°C for scenarios B1, A1B and A2, respectively, and an associated increase in precipitation of 3.6%, 5.1% and 6.6%, respectively. In agreement with studies performed with climate general circulation models (CGCMs), a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is noticed in all runs. At the end of the 21st century, the decrease in the maximum value of the annual mean meridional overturning streamfunction below the surface layer in the Atlantic basin, which is an index of the MOC intensity, reaches 19% for scenario B1, 21% for scenario A1B and 27% for scenario A2. In our model, as in the majority of CGCMs, this decrease is caused more by changes in surface heat flux than by changes in surface freshwater flux. Under the forcing scenario A1B, LOVECLIM simulates a global sea-level rise of 31.3 cm in year 2100 AD. As for the 20th century, the most important contributor is the oceanic thermal expansion (+18.8 cm), followed by the contributions from the Greenland ice sheet (+5.2 cm), glaciers and ice caps (+3.8 cm) and the Antarctic ice sheet (+3.5 cm). The total rise is equivalent to a quadrupling of the sea-level rise simulated for the 20th century. Our sea-level value is somewhat lower than the central estimate for the same four components of about 40 cm in the IPCC TAR predictions. This can be explained by the low climate sensitivity of LOVECLIM, and hence the lower global temperature rise, which mostly affects the largest contribution of thermal expansion of the World Ocean. Another difference with the IPCC TAR predictions is the positive contribution from Antarctica of several cm of sea-level rise. That is in contrast to most other simulations showing a growing ice sheet and a negative contribution to global sea level of typically between -5 and -20 cm. The IPCC TAR also found a generally larger contribution from mountain glaciers and small ice caps. Our glacier-volume loss is smaller because of the lower initial glacier volume assumed by the glacier-melt algorithm. The total projected sea-level rise for the 21st century is only slightly affected by the scenario itself. For the range of SRES scenarios used by LOVECLIM, the total sea-level rise is found to vary between +22 and +35 cm by year 2100 AD. The much larger range of between +9 and +88 cm obtained for the IPCC TAR arose mainly from the inclusion of model uncertainties, and not from the greenhouse-gas-forcing scenarios employed. As expected, climate change impacts the air–sea CO2 exchange in the model by lowering the solubility and hence the net uptake of carbon by the ocean. The effect is however rather modest at the century time-scale given the moderate increase in sea-surface temperature simulated by LOVECLIM. In addition, we do not observe any significant change in the oceanic biology at the global scale during the 21st century. The picture is a bit different regarding the terrestrial biosphere. Both the climate and fertilization effects strongly increase the carbon uptake in VECODE. A number of experiments with interactive atmospheric CO2 concentration were also carried out over the 21st century. Contrary to other modelling studies, LOVECLIM predicts lower atmospheric CO2 levels at the end of the 21st century when the effect of climate change on the carbon cycle is accounted for in the model. The warming enhances the net uptake of carbon by the terrestrial biosphere which more than offsets the reduction in oceanic uptake resulting from the solubility decrease. Finally, we have thoroughly analysed the model response to a range of stabilized anthropogenic forcings over the next millennia. For the variety of forcing scenarios considered, LOVECLIM simulates a globally averaged, annual mean surface warming ranging between 0.55°C and 3.75°C and an associated decrease in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extent. However, no simulation predicts an entirely ice-free Arctic Ocean during summertime at the millennium time-scale. In the most pessimistic case, a small ice pack of about 0.5×106 km2 persists. Our results also suggest that it is very likely that the volume of the Greenland ice sheet will largely decrease in the future. After 1000 years of model integration, the ice volume is reduced by more than 20% when the radiative forcing is higher than 6.5 W m-2. Moreover, for a radiative forcing greater than 7.5 W m-2, the ice sheet melts away in less than 3000 years. Note that the ice-sheet disintegration might be even more rapid if processes responsible for the widespread glacier acceleration currently observed in Greenland were taken into consideration in the model. We also found that the freshwater flux from the melting Greenland ice sheet into the neighbouring oceans, which peaks in the most extreme scenario tested at 0.11 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m3 s-1) and remains above 0.1 Sv during three centuries, is not large enough to trigger a shutdown of the Atlantic MOC in our model, in contrast to some other models. Those models are however more responsive to freshwater perturbations than ours. Besides, we showed that climate feedbacks play a crucial role in the ice-sheet evolution and that the Greenland deglaciation considerably enhances the greenhouse-gas-induced warming over Greenland and the central Arctic. This stresses the importance of incorporating the two-way interactions between the Greenland ice sheet and climate in climate- and sea-level-change projections at the millennial time-scale. For the Antarctic ice sheet, the response is much less drastic than for the Greenland ice sheet. For instance, after 3000 years of 4×CO2 forcing (∼7.7 W m-2), the Antarctic grounded ice volume and area are reduced in our model by only 8% and 4%, respectively. For a sustained radiative forcing of 8.5 W m-2 (the highest forcing scenario considered in our study), LOVECLIM predicts a global sea-level rise of 7.15 m by year 3000 AD. Most of it is due to melting of the Greenland ice sheet (+4.25 m), followed by melting of the Antarctic ice sheet (+1.42 m), thermal expansion (+1.29 m) and the contribution from mountain glaciers and small ice caps (+0.19 m). Our results show that it will be very difficult to limit the eventual sea-level rise to less than 1 m after 1000 years, unless the atmospheric CO2 concentration can be stabilized to less than twice its pre-industrial level. Such a goal can only be reached by emission reductions far larger than any policy currently pursued. Concerning the carbon cycle, the experiments carried out with LOVECLIM highlight the opposite responses of the terrestrial and oceanic carbon reservoirs to climate change. We also found that, when anthropogenic CO2 emissions cease, the terrestrial biosphere becomes a weak carbon source, while the ocean continues to be a sink. It should be mentioned that no dramatic change in the global marine productivity is observed in our simulations. This arises from the fact that the modifications of the oceanic properties that affect this productivity (stratification, meridional overturning, …) are rather moderate. The effects of climate change are however not negligible. In particular, the decrease in sea-ice extent predicted by the model results in a longer growing season and a larger nutrient uptake (especially silica) in polar regions. As a result, by the end of the 23rd century, silica concentrations in the upper 100 m of the Southern Ocean drop by as much of 30% for the most extreme forcing scenarios. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailManet et son double. Mallarmé au miroir de la peinture
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Denooz J; Dortu, V.; Steinmetz, R. (Eds.) Mosaïque. Hommages à Pierre Somville (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOxygen mass transfer in a biphasic medium: Influence on the biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Gomes, N.; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Teixeira, J. et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2007), 35(3), 380-386

In this work, an empirical correlation is proposed to describe kLa as a function of operating conditions (agitation and aeration rates) and of oil and surfactant volumetric fractions in a ... [more ▼]

In this work, an empirical correlation is proposed to describe kLa as a function of operating conditions (agitation and aeration rates) and of oil and surfactant volumetric fractions in a biotransformation medium, an oil-in-water dispersion. An interaction effect between the oil and the surfactant effects was found, since oil presence increased kLa in the absence of the surfactant but had an opposite effect when Tween 80 was available in the medium. The biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate (MR) into γ-decalactone (an aroma compound of industrial interest), by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, was carried out at different conditions of operation, to evaluate the influence of kLa on the production of the aroma. It was demonstrated that kLa had an influence on the aroma production; however, for the low hydrophobic substrate concentration used (1.08% v/v) and cellular density of 2.0 × 107 cells mL-1, a minimal kLa value of 70 h-1 was necessary to attain the maximal aroma production. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLiberté académique et cour d'arbitrage
Pâques, Michel ULg

in L’humanisme dans la résolution des conflits. Utopie ou réalité ? Liber amicorum Paul Martens (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCorrecting tensile test results of ECAE-deformed aluminium
Poortmans, Stijn; Boubakar, Diouf; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Scripta Materialia (2007), 56(9), 749-752

Performing tensile tests on ECAE material reveals a long post-uniform elongation. In order to calculate correct true stress–true strain diagrams, three different approaches are used: measurements of the ... [more ▼]

Performing tensile tests on ECAE material reveals a long post-uniform elongation. In order to calculate correct true stress–true strain diagrams, three different approaches are used: measurements of the actual sample geometry, a neck evolution model proposed by Segal [V.M. Segal, S Ferrasse, F. Alford, Mater. Sci. Eng. A442 (2006) 321–326] and an inverse modelling method by finite element (FE) simulations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (6 ULg)
See detailPulmonary scintigraphy
Votion, Dominique ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in McGorum, B. C.; Dixon, P. M.; Robinson, N. E. (Eds.) et al Equine Respiratory Medicine and Surgery (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailModave, Pont-de-Bonne. Les fortifications du "Rocher du vieux-Château".
Delye, Emmanuel ULg

in Dejardin, Valérie; Maquet, Julien (Eds.) Le patrimoine militaire de Wallonie (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 169 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparison of cross-field pitting in fresh, dried and charcoalified softwoods
Gerards, Thomas ULg; Damblon, Freddy ULg; Wauthoz, B. et al

in Iawa Journal (2007), 28(1), 49-60

Cross-field pitting is one of the most reliable characters for softwood identifi cation. During charcoalification, a range of severe qualitative and quantitative modifications may occur in cross-field ... [more ▼]

Cross-field pitting is one of the most reliable characters for softwood identifi cation. During charcoalification, a range of severe qualitative and quantitative modifications may occur in cross-field pitting. As most fossil or archaeological wood remains are preserved as charcoal (fusain), the question arises whether these modifications hamper the accurate identification of some taxa. This work is a systematic biometric study of a wide range of gymnosperm cross-field pitting after experimental charcoalification. We focused on the window-like, piceoid, taxodioid, cupressoid, araucarioid and podocarpoid cross-field pitting types. Our main results are the following: 1) Cross-field pits of wood specimens dried out before charcoalification are hidden by a thin closing wall; in this case, it is often impossible to discriminate between the various types of cross-field pitting. 2) Piceoid cross-field pitting becomes taxodioid-like after charcoalification. 3) Biometric study of charred softwood cross-field pitting dimensions shows that the ratios between height and width of pit aperture and border allow us to distinguish and characterise four types of pitting (window-like, piceoid, taxodioid, cupressoid + araucarioid + podocarpoid [= CAP]). The discrimination within the CAP type requires further investigation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 181 (3 ULg)
See detailOptimisation de colonnes d'éolienne
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Richir, T.; Pircababu, Eugen

Report (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
See detailBioéthique
Palermini, Patricia ULg

in Durand, Pascal (Ed.) Les Nouveaux Mots du Pouvoir. Abécédaire critique (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConsidering the effects of localised fires in the numerical analysis of a building structure
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Pintea, Dan; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2007), 42(6-7, SEP-OCT), 473-481

The methodologies that are used for analysing the fire behaviour of a structure that is subjected to a uniform thermal situation cannot be applied when the fire is localised. The concept of "zoning" can ... [more ▼]

The methodologies that are used for analysing the fire behaviour of a structure that is subjected to a uniform thermal situation cannot be applied when the fire is localised. The concept of "zoning" can be applied: the structure is divided into several zones in which the situation is approximated as uniform. It is shown here that this division can lead to spurious forces in the structure. The structural code of the first author has been adapted in order to accommodate a continuous spatial variation of the fire environment. A series of uncoupled 2D thermal analyses is performed along the length of the beam finite elements and a series of ID thermal analyses is performed across the thickness of the shell finite elements. After a discussion of the concept and the particularities dictated by the continuous thermal environment, the methodology utilised is explained and is shown in an example consisting of a composite steel concrete car park subjected to a localised fire of the type given in Eurocode 1. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConformational and thermodynamic changes of the repressor/DNA operator complex upon monomerization shed new light an regulation mechanisms of bacterial resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics
Boudet, J.; Duval, V.; Van Melckebeke, H. et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2007), 35(13), 4384-4395

In absence of beta-lactam antibiotics, Blal and Mecl homodimeric repressors negatively control the expression of genes involved in P-lactam resistance in Bacillus licheniformis and in Staphylococcus ... [more ▼]

In absence of beta-lactam antibiotics, Blal and Mecl homodimeric repressors negatively control the expression of genes involved in P-lactam resistance in Bacillus licheniformis and in Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently to P-lactam presence, Blal/Mecl is inactivated by a single-point proteolysis that separates its N-terminal DNA-binding domain to its C-terminal domain responsible for its dimerization. Concomitantly to this proteolysis, the truncated repressor acquires a low affinity for its DNA target that explains the expression of the structural gene for resistance. To understand the loss of the high DNA affinity of the truncated repressor, we have determined the different dissociation constants of the system and solved the solution structure of the B. licheniformis monomeric repressor complexed to the semi-operating sequence OP1, of blaP (1/20P(1)blaP) by using a de novo docking approach based on inter-molecular nuclear Overhauser effects and chemical-shift differences measured on each macromolecular partner. Although the N-terminal domain of the repressor is not subject to internal structural rearrangements upon DNA binding, the molecules adopt a tertiary conformation different from the crystallographic operator-repressor dimer complex, leading to a 300 rotation of the monomer with respect to a central axis extended across the DNA. These results open new insights for the repression and induction mechanisms of bacterial resistance to beta-lactams. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)