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See detailSleep transforms the cerebral trace of declarative memories
Gais, Steffen; Albouy, Geneviève ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2007), 104(47), 18778-18783

After encoding, memory traces are initially fragile and have to be reinforced to become permanent. The initial steps of this process occur at a cellular level within minutes or hours. Besides this rapid ... [more ▼]

After encoding, memory traces are initially fragile and have to be reinforced to become permanent. The initial steps of this process occur at a cellular level within minutes or hours. Besides this rapid synaptic consolidation, systems consolidation occurs within a time frame of days to years. For declarative memory, the latter is presumed to rely on an interaction between different brain regions, in particular the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, sleep has been proposed to provide a setting that supports such systems consolidation processes, leading to a transfer and perhaps transformation of memories. Using functional MRI, we show that postlearning sleep enhances hippocampal responses during recall of word pairs 48 h after learning, indicating intrahippocampal memory processing during sleep. At the same time, sleep induces a memory-related functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the mPFC. Six months after learning, memories activated the mPFC more strongly when they were encoded before sleep, showing that sleep leads to long-lasting changes in the representation of memories on a systems level. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch and development in Europe in the field of muscle science and meat technology
Clinquart, Antoine ULg

in Sciences des Aliments (2007), 27(2), 109-122

The aim of the Journées des Sciences du Muscle et Technologies de la Viande is to give a report on the most recent research works to the technical, economical and scientific actors of the meat production ... [more ▼]

The aim of the Journées des Sciences du Muscle et Technologies de la Viande is to give a report on the most recent research works to the technical, economical and scientific actors of the meat production and transformation chain. The topics of these researches and the organisations that carry them out evolve with time, depending in particular to the needs of the actors (producers, manufacturers, distributors, consumers) and of the socio-economic context. In addition, these researches fit themselves more than ever in an international context, particularly on a European level. The objective of this lecture, a somewhat ambitious idea, is to give an overview of the researches undertaken in Europe in muscle science and meat technology field. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative responses to sodium selenite and organic selenium supplements in Belgian Blue cows and calves
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Spring, P.; Andrieu, S. et al

in Livestock Science (2007), 111(3), 259-263

Belgian Blue (BB) beef cattle is particularly prone to selenium (Se) deficiency due to the poor Se content of soil and roughages on rearing farms and the higher requirements of this hypermuscled breed ... [more ▼]

Belgian Blue (BB) beef cattle is particularly prone to selenium (Se) deficiency due to the poor Se content of soil and roughages on rearing farms and the higher requirements of this hypermuscled breed. The goal of this trial was to compare the effects of different forms and concentrations of Se supplementation on Se status, health and performance in 60 pregnant Se-deficient BB cows. Cows were allocated to 3 experimental groups receiving selenized-yeast at 0.5 ppm Se on total ration (Y-Se 0.5), Na-selenite at 0.5 ppm Se on total ration (Na-Se 0.5) and Na-selenite at 0.1 ppm Se on total ration (Na-Se 0.1), respectively. Cows were supplemented from 2 months before calving until 2 months after calving. Data on performance, health and Se status of the dams and their calves were analyzed using a linear model, least squares means and logistic regression. At the end of the study, plasmatic Se (pSe) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in cows receiving Y-Se than in cows from other groups. Glutathion-peroxidase in erythrocytes (GSH-pxe) was higher in Y-Se and Na-Se 0.5 than Na-Se 0.1 group (P<0.01). Se content in colostrum and milk was significantly higher (P< 0.01) in Y-Se than other groups. At birth, Se status of calves from group Y-Se was significantly higher than those of other groups (P<0.01). Plasmatic Se in calves remained higher for 75 days after birth in Y-Se compared to other groups (P<0.01). Diarrhoea was the most commonly observed disease in the calves and, during the first 15 days of life, diarrhoea occurred in 6%, 21% and 35% of calves from groups Y-Se, Na-Se 0.5 and Na-Se 0.1, respectively. Over the whole 75 days trial period, incidence of diarrhoea was 19, 29 and 65%, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG) in calves born from Y-Se group of cows tended to be higher than in Na-Se 0.5 (P=0.06) and Na-Se 0.1 (P<0.05) but there was no difference between Na-Se 0.5 and Na-Se 0.1 (P>0.1). At the same dosage, Y-Se conferred better Se status in both dams and their calves than did Na-Se. Requirement of 0.1 ppm Se seems to be insufficient in BB to optimise health and performance. Regarding health status and ADG in calves, Y-Se seems also to result in better performance. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBIANZO: biodiversity of three representative groups of the Antarctic Zoobenthos: comparative structure, distribution and fucntion
De Broyer, Claude; Vanreusel, Ann; Vanhove, Sandra et al

Report (2007)

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See detailJustice institutionnelle, justice démocratique. Clercs et profanes. Les maisons de justice et du droit comme révélateur de tensions entre des modèles politiques de justice
Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Droit et Société (2007), 66

Institutional Justice, Democratic Justice. Professionals and Laypeople : The “Maison de justice et du droit” Reveals Tensions between Political Models of Justice Legal institutions in France are facing ... [more ▼]

Institutional Justice, Democratic Justice. Professionals and Laypeople : The “Maison de justice et du droit” Reveals Tensions between Political Models of Justice Legal institutions in France are facing new challenges in terms of the partnership and territorial dimensions of their action, and the “Maison de justice et du droit” is part of this context. The collaboration between actors of various social backgrounds reveals contradictions with regard to the definition of the activities (jurisdictional or not) and the public (residents of the “districts” or not) of this legal structure of proximity. These contradictions display tensions between two models of justice : institutional and democratic. Finally, they reactivate the recurring question of the respective legitimacy of law professionals and lay actors. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of alternansucrase in potato plants
Jacon, Géraldine ULg; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Suurs, Luc et al

in Biotechnology Letters (2007), 29

Alternan, which consists of alternating alpha(1 - 3)/alpha (1 - 6)-linked glucosyl residues, was produced in potato tubers by expressing a mature alternansucrase (Asr) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ... [more ▼]

Alternan, which consists of alternating alpha(1 - 3)/alpha (1 - 6)-linked glucosyl residues, was produced in potato tubers by expressing a mature alternansucrase (Asr) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1355 in potato. Detection of alternan was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in tuber juices, revealing a concentration between 0.3 and 1.2 mg g–1 fresh wt. The Asr transcript levels correlated well with alternan accumulation in tuber juices. It appeared that the expression of sucrose-regulated starch- synthesizing genes (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit S and granule-bound starch synthase I) was down-regulated. Despite this, the physico- chemical properties of the transgenic starches were unaltered. These results are compared to those obtained with other transgenic potato plants producing mutan [alpha (1 - 3)-linked glucosyl residues and dextran [alpha (1 - 6)-linked glucosyl residues]. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent advances in palynology
Steemans, Philippe ULg; Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

in Carnets de Géologie = Notebooks on Geology (2007), Memoir 2007/01

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See detailEffect of a fungal lectin from Xerocomus chrysenteron (XCL) on the biological parameters of aphids.
Jaber, Karimi; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Paquereau, Laurent et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2007), 72(3), 629-38

Aphids are important pests of crop plants in Europe. Increasing resistance of aphids to insecticides and their side effects on the environment and non target organism's including human's stimulated ... [more ▼]

Aphids are important pests of crop plants in Europe. Increasing resistance of aphids to insecticides and their side effects on the environment and non target organism's including human's stimulated research on alterative methods of aphid control, including the use of entomotoxic proteins. Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins that are widely distributed in nature; they have been isolated from microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals. Several of these proteins were tested for their potential biocide effect on plenty of pests. A fungal lectin, namely Xerocomus Chrysenteron lectin (XCL) was previously purified and was shown to be toxic for several pests including aphids. XCL was clearly the most toxic lectin against M. persicae. In this work, bioassays using artificial diets incorporating a broad range of XCL concentrations (from 10 microg x ml(-1) to 5000 microg x ml(-1)) were developed to assess the negative effects of XCL on the biological parameters (development duration, weight and fecundity) of M. persicae a polyphagous aphid found on more than 400 host plant species and transmitting more than 100 viral diseases. A significant mortality of aphids was observed, corresponding to the LC50 and LC90 of 0, 46 and 6, 02 mg/ml respectively after 24hrs. Significant differences of M. persicae weight, development duration and fecundity (P < 0.05) was observed between the tested XCL concentrations. Conavalia ensifomris lectin (ConA) was included as lectin reference on the bioassay experiments and was shown to be less toxic and induced lower negative changes in M. persicae biological parameters when compared with XCL. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covariance flux sites
Reichstein, Markus; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2007), 34(1),

Pioneering work in the last century has resulted in a widely accepted paradigm that primary production is strongly positively related to temperature and water availability such that the northern ... [more ▼]

Pioneering work in the last century has resulted in a widely accepted paradigm that primary production is strongly positively related to temperature and water availability such that the northern hemispheric forest carbon sink may increase under conditions of global warming. However, the terrestrial carbon sink at the ecosystem level (i.e. net ecosystem productivity, NEP) depends on the net balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration ( TER). Through an analysis of European eddy covariance flux data sets, we find that the common climate relationships for primary production do not hold for NEP. This is explained by the fact that decreases in GPP are largely compensated by parallel decreases in TER when climatic factors become more limiting. Moreover, we found overall that water availability was a significant modulator of NEP, while the multivariate effect of mean annual temperature is small and not significant. These results indicate that climate- and particularly temperature-based projections of net carbon balance may be misleading. Future research should focus on interactions between the water and carbon cycles and the effects of disturbances on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchically nanostructured porous functional ceramics
Vantomme, A.; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Yuan, Z.-Y. et al

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2007), 336-338 III

We demonstrate here a self-formation phenomenon of hierarchy with multiple-scaled porosity. Macrochanneled structures, labelled as CMI-7, with openings ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns and wormhole-like ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate here a self-formation phenomenon of hierarchy with multiple-scaled porosity. Macrochanneled structures, labelled as CMI-7, with openings ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns and wormhole-like mesoporous walls with various ceramic compositions, such as ZrO2, TiO2, Al 2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2-SiO 2, ZrO2-Tio2, ZrO2-Y 2O3,..., aluminosilicates, aluminophosphates, silicoaluminophosphates, metallophosphates, can be prepared by just controlling the hydrolysis and polycondensation rates of the pre-selected ceramic sources. The macrochannels (funnel-like or straight) are well parallel each other and perpendicular to the tangent of the particles' surface. These hierarchical porous ceramics can be used in catalysis, separation and for immobilization of biological molecules and even microorganisms for filtration and bioreactor applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment Of A New Probe For Specific And Sensitive Detection Of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma Mali' In Inoculated Apple Trees
Aldaghi, M.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Roussel, S. et al

in Annals of Applied Biology (2007), 151(2), 251-258

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See detailKarsts in sandstones and quatrzites of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Willems, Luc ULg; Rodet, J.; Pouclet, A. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailDe wereld volgens Ptolemaeus
Adam, Renaud ULg; Bracke, Wouter; Sorgeloos, Claude

in Bracke, Wouter; Danckaert, Lisette; De Candt, Caroline (Eds.) et al Formatting Europe : mapping a continent : tien eeuwen kaarten van Europa uit de collecties van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België (2007)

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See detailFaint innate hypomelanotic spotting in black skin.
Hermanns, Jean-Francois; Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (2007), 17(4), 352-3

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See detailEFFECT OF THE COPOLYMERS SEMO B86 Y SEMO B124 ON DYNAMIC VISCOELASTICITY AND AGGREGATION ABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES
Danieli, V; Fontana, A; Alessi, A et al

in Anales de la Asociación Argentina de Física (2007), 19

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See detailEmerging therapeutic agents for onychomycosis.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs (2007), 12(3), 345-53

Onychomycosis is a frequent disorder that represents the most prevalent fungal infection, particularly among older individuals. Diverse fungi of the dermatophyte, non-dermatophyte mold and yeast families ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis is a frequent disorder that represents the most prevalent fungal infection, particularly among older individuals. Diverse fungi of the dermatophyte, non-dermatophyte mold and yeast families have been reported to be responsible for onychomycosis. The output from the pharmaceutical industry of new antifungals to treat onychomycosis has been limited over the last decade. Present treatment options include both oral and topical drugs, with oral therapies giving better outcomes. However, neither of these treatment options provides high cure rates that are durable. At present, azoles and allylamines are keeping the pivotal roles. New derivatives with a favorable risk-benefit ratio and new formulations of older azoles seem to be promising. Thus, ongoing drug development activities have focused on novel delivery technologies to facilitate incorporation of existing antifungal drugs inside the nail plate and the discovery of new active antifungals. [less ▲]

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