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See detailHCCI engine modeling and experimental investigations - Part 1: The reduction, composition and validation of a n-heptane/iso-octane mechanism
Machrafi, Hatim ULg; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S. et al

in Combustion Science And Technology (2007), 179(12), 2561-2580

A certain possible approach for the control of HCCI chemistry is to use kinetic chemistry mechanisms. This opens a field of interest that lead to the composition of a validated reduced PRF chemistry ... [more ▼]

A certain possible approach for the control of HCCI chemistry is to use kinetic chemistry mechanisms. This opens a field of interest that lead to the composition of a validated reduced PRF chemistry mechanism. For this purpose a skeletal chemical reaction mechanism for n-heptane and for iso-octane are constructed from a detailed n-heptane and iso-octane mechanism of the Chalmers University of Technology. Subsequently these two mechanisms are forged into one reduced chemical reaction mechanism for mixtures of n-heptane and isooctane (39 species and 47 reactions). This mechanism is numerically validated against the Chalmers mechanisms, respecting the HCCI application range. The reduced mechanism is also successfully numerically validated against another more detailed mechanism provided by LLNL. Engine experiments are performed validating this mixture mechanism with respect to the fuel composition containing n-heptane and iso-octane. The influence of the compression ratio and the equivalence ratio is also studied and used to validate the reduced PRF mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of atherosclerosis for the vascular surgeon.
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg

in Liapis, C. D. (Ed.) European Manual of Medicine (2007)

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See detailLa confrontation de l’offre et de la demande mondiales de céréales fixe désormais le prix payé au producteur européen
Burny, Philippe ULg

in Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux; Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (Eds.) 40 ans Livre blanc Céréales-Gembloux février 2007 (2007)

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See detailGénération automatique d'une base de données de silhouettes humaines au moyen d'un avatar humain tridimensionnel
Pierard, Sébastien ULg

Master's dissertation (2007)

Pour la conception de systèmes de vidéo-surveillance, il est avantageux d’avoir un système de détection automatique d’êtres humains. Certains de ces systèmes sont basés sur la reconnaissance de la forme ... [more ▼]

Pour la conception de systèmes de vidéo-surveillance, il est avantageux d’avoir un système de détection automatique d’êtres humains. Certains de ces systèmes sont basés sur la reconnaissance de la forme de silhouettes humaines. L’utilisation de méthodes d'apprentissage pour la reconnaissance nécessite une base de données de silhouettes humaines, dont il est intéressant d’automatiser la génération. Dans ce travail, nous utilisons un avatar humain tridimensionnel, celui du projet open-source MakeHuman, afin de générer automatiquement la base de données. Le choix des configurations (positions, orientations et poses) à donner à l’avatar pour obtenir une base de données adéquate est central. Dans un premier temps, nous tentons une étude de l’impact de modifications dans le mode tridimensionnel sur la silhouette. Cet impact est quantifié par la distance de Hausdorff. Parmi les modifications envisagées se trouvent le déplacement, la rotation et le changement de pose de l’avatar. Nous espérions déterminer, à partir de ces impacts, les pas par lesquels doivent varier les différents paramètres. Les configurations que doit prendre l’avatar, pour obtenir une base de données suffisamment riche sans être trop volumineuse, seront obtenues en prenant toutes les combinaisons des valeurs des différents paramètres. Le nombre de configurations est exponentiel en le nombre de degrés de liberté, ce qui rend l’approche inutilisable en pratique, même si nous sommes indifférents à la translation et à la mise à l’échelle des silhouettes. Dans un deuxième temps, nous avons opté pour une approche radicalement différente. Cette fois, nous n’espaçons plus les silhouettes, mais les poses. La position de l’avatar est fixée et il ne peut tourner qu’autour de l’axe vertical. Les poses sont choisies en effectuant des tirages aléatoires des différents paramètres. Cette approche aléatoire du problème a mené à l’élaboration d’un nouveau logiciel, Silhouette. Il est écrit en Java et une interface écrite en C lui permet, grâce à Java Native Interface d’exploiter efficacement le moteur de pose de MakeHuman. Parmi les fonctionnalités de Silhouette, notons la possibilité de restreindre les poses à un ensemble voulu, de ne générer que des silhouettes correspondant à des poses licites et d’annoter les silhouettes. Grâce au logiciel mis en place, nous avons été en mesure de générer diverses bases de données. Nous avons étudié l'impact de l'utilisation de celles-ci sur les performances d'un système de détection de personnes existant. Nous obtenons des résultats encourageants, 73% des silhouettes humaines étant correctement détectées. Un raffinement et un paramétrage soigneux de la méthode devraient mener à des résultats excellents. [less ▲]

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See detailFemmes et pèlerinages
Dor, Juliette ULg; Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

Book published by Compostela Group of Universities (2007)

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See detailFAIMES, Celles. La motte seigneuriale
Dejardin, Valérie; Masson, Christophe ULg

in Dejardin, Valérie; Maquet, Julien (Eds.) Le patrimoine de Wallonie (2007)

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See detailConclusion
Otte, Marcel ULg; Chirica, Vasile; Haesaerts, Paul et al

in Otte, Marcel; Chirica, Vasile; Haesaerts, Paul (Eds.) L'Aurignacien et le Gravettien de Mitoc-Malu Galben (Moldavie roumaine) (2007)

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See detailExperimental models/cell model: organotypic cultures
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg

Conference (2007)

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See detailPhonology and syntax in French children with SLI: A longitudinal study
Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics (2007), 21(11-12, NOV-DEC), 945-951

Maillart and Parisse found out that French children with specific language impairment (SLI) presented strong difficulties in phonology when compared with normally-developing children matched by MLU (NLD ... [more ▼]

Maillart and Parisse found out that French children with specific language impairment (SLI) presented strong difficulties in phonology when compared with normally-developing children matched by MLU (NLD). Some of the youngest children from this study were followed to provide developmental information about their language deficit. Children were tested again in the same way as before (free spontaneous production) and matched by MLU against other NLD children. The previous phonological analysis was extended to include syntax as well as phonology. Percentage of words correct was computed for both phonology and syntax. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed with children's age as covariate. Results showed a significant difference between SLI and NLD children for phonology but not for syntax. There was a trend that showed that the difference between SLI and NLD children tended to increase with age. The same analysis was performed separately for 9 frequent syntactic categories for phonology and for syntax. A significant difference was found for prepositions, nouns, subject pronouns, and verbs in phonology. Effects were found for determiners and prepositions in syntax. As well as confirming the importance of phonological difficulties in SLI, our results call for a developmental theory of phonological and syntactic deficits in SLI, where differences between SLI and NLD grow with age and where there is a timing difference between phonology (earlier) and syntax (later). [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of the Belgian Donor and Transplant Statistics 2006: Results of Consecutive Yearly Data Follow-up by the Belgian Section of Transplant Coordinators
Van Gelder, F.; Delbouille, Marie-Hélène ULg; Vandervennet, M. et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2007), 39

Background. The Belgian Section of Transplant Coordinators, created in 1997 under the auspices of the Belgian Transplant Society, is in charge of the collection of the national data about donor ... [more ▼]

Background. The Belgian Section of Transplant Coordinators, created in 1997 under the auspices of the Belgian Transplant Society, is in charge of the collection of the national data about donor/procurement activities. Methods. Data are collected in all Belgian transplant centers. An annual report is finalized by combining these data with data from the Eurotransplant database. Results. An increase of both potential donors (n 501, 14.4%) and effective donors (n 273, 16.7%) was observed in 2006 versus 2005. Among effective donors, 28 were non–heart-beating donors (10.25%). Overall donor ratio was 26.26 donors per million inhabitants. Within potential donors, absence of organ harvesting was due to medical contraindications (28%), family refusal (13%), or legal refusal (2%). Donor mean age was 46.4 years and mean organs/donor was 3.21 1.7. An overall reduction of Belgian waiting lists was observed in 2006 as compared with 2005 ( 5.7% for kidney, 25.7% for liver, 9.4% for heart, 6.7% for lung, and 11.7% for pancreas), while waiting list mortality was 18% for liver, 11% for heart, and 7% for lung. As compared with 2005, transplant activities increased for kidney (n 485, 24.3%), heart lungs (n 73, 7.3%), and lungs (n 83, 39.4%) but decreased for liver (n 236, 2.1%). Living donation represented 8.45% for kidney ( 28.1% vs 2005) and 8% for liver transplantation ( 29.6%). Conclusion. Globally, a marked increase of procurement and transplant activities was observed in 2006, allowing to limit waiting list and waiting list mortality. Further increase of living donor activity and non–heart-beating donation remains necessary to extend the donor pool. [less ▲]

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See detailL’accompagnement professionnel face aux enjeux de qualité de services
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Brougère, G.; Vandenbroeck, M. (Eds.) Repenser l’éducation des jeunes enfants (2007)

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See detailNon-invasive assessment of airway responsiveness in healthy and allergen-sensitised cats by use of barometric whole body plethysmography
Kirschvink, N.; Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Delvaux, François et al

in Veterinary Journal (2007), 173(2), 343-352

This study aimed at determining whether airway responsiveness (AR) tests performed by use of barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP) were repeatable in cats and to what extent AR was affected by the ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at determining whether airway responsiveness (AR) tests performed by use of barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP) were repeatable in cats and to what extent AR was affected by the nebulization protocol used, the age of the animals, the inflammatory status of the airways and prior bronchodilator treatment. Repeatability of AR was tested on two occasions in 30 healthy cats. The concentration of carbachol inducing a 300% increase of the enhanced pause (Penh) - an estimator of airflow limitation - was calculated (C-Penh300) and did not differ significantly between the two tests (0.035 +/- 0.017% compared to 0.034 +/- 0.016%) and was significantly and positively correlated. The comparison between rapidly and slowly increasing carbachol concentrations was performed in ten healthy cats and showed a significantly lower C-Penh300 (%) when slowly increasing concentrations were used (0.037 +/- 0.013% compared to 0.039 +/- 10.015%, P < 0.05). A significant age-related increase of C-Penh300 was evidenced by performing AR tests in 15 healthy cats at 12, 18, 24 and 30 months (12 months: 0.026 +/- 0.008%, 18 months: 0.031 +/- 0.009%, 24 months: 0.038 +/- 0.01%, 30 months: 0.043 +/- 0.014%, P < 0.05). C-Penh300 significantly decreased in 12 Ascaris suum-sensitised cats after allergen exposure (0.026 +/- 0.016% compared to 0.033 +/- 0.016%, P < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with the granulocyte percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (r = -0.36, P < 0.01). Compared with a placebo inhalation, pretreatment with inhaled salbutamol significantly increased C-Penh300 in four healthy cats (0.093 +/- 0.021% compared to 0.036 +/- 0.004%, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that AR determination by use of BWBP is promising as non-invasive indicator of lower airway inflammation or for monitoring response to bronchodilator treatment. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes principales formations végétales
Ouédraogo, M.; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Cornélis, D.

in Delvingt, W.; Vermeulen, Cédric (Eds.) Nazinga (2007)

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See detailCapital social et variables socio-démographiques : quelle valeur ajoutée ?
Italiano, Patrick ULg; Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Conference (2007)

The paper presents a multivariate analysis of survey data to assess in what measure indicators of social capital keep an explanatory power when we control main socio-demographic variables. The result is ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a multivariate analysis of survey data to assess in what measure indicators of social capital keep an explanatory power when we control main socio-demographic variables. The result is that those variable do not absorb the totality of the effect of social capital but the remaining impact is weak. [less ▲]

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See detailSub-domain finite element method for efficiently considering strong skin and proximity effects
Dular, Patrick ULg; V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Gyselinck, Johan et al

in COMPEL (2007), 26(4), 974-985

Purpose - This paper seeks to develop a sub-domain perturbation technique to efficiently calculate strong skin and proximity effects in conductors within frequency and time domain finite element (FE ... [more ▼]

Purpose - This paper seeks to develop a sub-domain perturbation technique to efficiently calculate strong skin and proximity effects in conductors within frequency and time domain finite element (FE) analyses. Design/methodology/approach - A reference eddy current FE problem is first solved by considering perfect conductors. This is done via appropriate boundary conditions (BCs) on the conductors. Next the solution of the reference problem gives the source for eddy current FE perturbation sub-problems in each conductor then considered with a finite conductivity. Each of these problems requires an appropriate volume mesh of the associated conductor and its surrounding region. Findings - The skin and proximity effects in both active and passive conductors can be accurately determined in a wide frequency range, allowing for precise losses calculations in inductors as well as in external conducting pieces. Originality/value - The developed method allows one to accurately determine the current density distributions and ensuing losses in conductors of any shape, not only in the frequency domain but also in the time domain. Therefore, it extends the domain of validity and applicability of impedance-type BC techniques. It also offers an original way to uncouple FE regions that allows the solution process to be lightened, as well as efficient parameterized analyses on the signal form and the conductor characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep-related hippocampo-cortical interplay during emotional memory recollection.
Sterpenich, Virginie ULg; Albouy, Geneviève ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in PLoS Biology (2007), 5(11), 282

Emotional events are usually better remembered than neutral ones. This effect is mediated in part by a modulation of the hippocampus by the amygdala. Sleep plays a role in the consolidation of declarative ... [more ▼]

Emotional events are usually better remembered than neutral ones. This effect is mediated in part by a modulation of the hippocampus by the amygdala. Sleep plays a role in the consolidation of declarative memory. We examined the impact of sleep and lack of sleep on the consolidation of emotional (negative and positive) memories at the macroscopic systems level. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we compared the neural correlates of successful recollection by humans of emotional and neutral stimuli, 72 h after encoding, with or without total sleep deprivation during the first post-encoding night. In contrast to recollection of neutral and positive stimuli, which was deteriorated by sleep deprivation, similar recollection levels were achieved for negative stimuli in both groups. Successful recollection of emotional stimuli elicited larger responses in the hippocampus and various cortical areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, in the sleep group than in the sleep deprived group. This effect was consistent across subjects for negative items but depended linearly on individual memory performance for positive items. In addition, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex were functionally more connected during recollection of either negative or positive than neutral items, and more so in sleeping than in sleep-deprived subjects. In the sleep-deprived group, recollection of negative items elicited larger responses in the amygdala and an occipital area than in the sleep group. In contrast, no such difference in brain responses between groups was associated with recollection of positive stimuli. The results suggest that the emotional significance of memories influences their sleep-dependent systems-level consolidation. The recruitment of hippocampo-neocortical networks during recollection is enhanced after sleep and is hindered by sleep deprivation. After sleep deprivation, recollection of negative, potentially dangerous, memories recruits an alternate amygdalo-cortical network, which would keep track of emotional information despite sleep deprivation. [less ▲]

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See detailL'art de choisir: une question de style
Pâques, Michel ULg

in Annales de Droit de Louvain (2007), (4), 351-354

teaching of law, choice of topics to be taught, how to present them, academic freedom

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