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See detailIs Alzheimer's disease a disconnection syndrome? Evidence from a crossmodal audio-visual illusory experiment
Delbeuck, Xavier; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Neuropsychologia (2007), 45(14), 3315-3323

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), loss of connectivity in the patient's brain has been evidenced by a range of electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies. However, few neuropsychological research projects ... [more ▼]

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), loss of connectivity in the patient's brain has been evidenced by a range of electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies. However, few neuropsychological research projects have sought to interpret the cognitive modifications following the appearance of AD in terms of a disconnection syndrome. In this paper, we sought to investigate brain connectivity in AD via the study of a crossmodal effect. More precisely, we examined the integration of auditory and visual speech information (the McGurk effect) in AD patients and matched control subjects. Our results revealed impaired crossmodal integration during speech perception in AD, which was not associated with disturbances in the separate processing of auditory and visual speech stimuli. In conclusion, our data suggest the occurrence of a specific, audio-visual integration deficit in AD, which might be the consequence of a connectivity breakdown and corroborate the observation from other studies of crossmodal deficits between the auditory and visual modalities in this population. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEnfer et Paradis : la toxicité de l'oxygène chez les organismes abyssaux
Rees, J. F.; Zal, F.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Océanis (2007), 30.3

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See detailSYNOVIOCYTES, NOT CHONDROCYTES, RELEASE FREE RADICALS AFTER CYCLES OF ANOXIA/RE-OXYGENATION
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2007)

Introduction : An oxidant activity has been implicated in the onset of equine osteoarthritis. Most of the studies have been done on articular chondrocytes, but little is known about the role of ... [more ▼]

Introduction : An oxidant activity has been implicated in the onset of equine osteoarthritis. Most of the studies have been done on articular chondrocytes, but little is known about the role of synoviocytes. Objective : Our aim was to investigate if equine articular chondrocytes, primary synoviocytes or synoviocytes of a continuous cell line are able to produce free radicals after exposure to anoxia and re-oxygenation. Methods : By oxymetry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we investigated the effects of repeated anoxia/re-oxygenation (A/R) periods on the respiration and production of free radicals by synoviocytes (rabbit HIG-82 cell line and primary equine synoviocytes) and equine articular chondrocytes. Three periods of 20 min anoxia followed by re-oxygenation were applied to 10exp7 cells; O2 consumption was measured before anoxia and after each re-oxygenation. After the last A/R, cellular free radical formation was investigated by EPR spectroscopy with spin trapping technique (n = 3 for each cell line). Results : Both types of synoviocytes showed a high O2 consumption, which was slower after anoxia. By EPR with the spin trap POBN, we proved a free radical formation. Results were similar for equine and rabbit synoviocytes. For chondrocytes, we observed a low O2 consumption, unchanged by anoxia, and no free radical production. Conclusion : These observations suggest an oxidant activity of synoviocytes, potentially important for the onset of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailp27Kip1 independently promotes neuronal differentiation and migration in the cerebral cortex.
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Besson, A.; Heng, J Ik-Tsen et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2007), 162(5-6), 310-4

The generation of glutamatergic neurons by stem and progenitor cells is a complex process involving the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of ... [more ▼]

The generation of glutamatergic neurons by stem and progenitor cells is a complex process involving the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of neuronal differentiation and cell migration. The mechanisms that integrate these different events into a coherent program are not well understood. Here we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 plays an important role in neurogenesis in the mouse cerebral cortex, by promoting the differentiation and radial migration of cortical projection neurons. Importantly, p27Kip1 promotes neuronal differentiation and neuronal migration via two distinct mechanisms, which are themselves independent of the cell cycle regulatory function of p27Kip1. p27Kip1 inactivation by gene targeting or RNA interference results in neuronal differentiation and radial migration defects, demonstrating that p27Kip1 regulates cell migration in vivo. The differentiation defect, but not the migration defect, is rescued by overexpression of the proneural gene Neurogenin 2. p27Kip1 acts by stabilizing Neurogenin 2 protein, an activity carried by the N-terminal half of the protein. The migration defect resulting from p27Kp1 inactivation is rescued by blocking RhoA signalling, an activity that resides in the c-terminal half of p27Kip1. Thus, p27Kip1 plays a key role in cortical development, acting as a modular protein that independently regulates and couples multiple cellular pathways contributing to neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailA pilot study on seborrheic dermatitis using pramiconazole as a potent oral anti-Malassezia agent.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Ausma, Jannie; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 214(2), 162-9

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to be a Malassezia-driven disease. Little objective information is available so far from biometrological quantitative assessments of this skin condition ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to be a Malassezia-driven disease. Little objective information is available so far from biometrological quantitative assessments of this skin condition. Pramiconazole is a novel triazole with potent in vitro antifungal activity, especially against Malassezia spp. OBJECTIVE: To study the sequential effects of pramiconazole on Malassezia, inflammation and epidermal changes. METHOD:This study was performed in 2 groups of subjects suffering from seborrheic dermatitis. The first group (n = 17) remained untreated and was used as control. Clinical, mycological and biometrological assessments were performed at inclusion and during the following 2 weeks. The second group of subjects (n = 10) received a single 200-mg oral dose of pramiconazole at inclusion. Clinical, mycological and biometrological evaluations were performed before and during 1 month following the single antifungal intake. For both parts of the study, several parameters were assessed including yeast density, desquamation, erythema, itching and sebum excretion. RESULTS: In the control group, no significant changes were observed in any of the parameters during the observation period. The findings were markedly different in the pramiconazole-treated subjects. The yeast density was significantly improved on days 3, 7 and 28. Desquamation, erythema, itching, and the global clinical evaluation as assessed by the patients and investigators became significantly improved on days 7 and 28. A trend in decrease of scaliness was noted. No effect on sebum excretion was evidenced. In conclusion, a single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole exhibitsin vivo efficacy in controlling some important clinical aspects of seborrheic dermatitis. Following a reduction in the number of yeasts on day 3, a decrease in the severity of clinical signs and symptoms occurred from day 7 onwards. Sebum excretion appeared uninvolved in the clearing process of seborrheic dermatitis. CONCLUSION: A single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole appears to abate seborrheic dermatitis. The density in Malassezia present on lesional skin is first decreased, followed by clearing of the clinical signs. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disruptors in food: potential impact on human health
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151(1), 44-54

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens ... [more ▼]

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens), or as substances of anthropogenic origin (for example, Several observations concerning both the wild fauna and humans indicate that these products with hormonal activity are endocrine disruptors. Numerous ecotoxicological studies evidenced important disturbances of the fertility of the wild fauna in zones contaminated by pesticides. In humans, epidemiological studies revealed a significant increase of certain cancers (among others, that of the testicles) and a decrease of the male fertility. Substances with estrogenic activity are often considered, but other hormonal effects are more and more frequently discovered (i.e. anti-androgenic). Numerous worries appear concerning the long-term effects on human health linked to a chronic exposure to these substances by food ingestion. It is urgent to review, not only on the actual contamination of our food by endocrine disruptors (in terms of identification and quantification of every individual chemical), but also the potentially toxic activity of food containing a mixture of contaminants present at levels below their individual toxicity threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailThe challenge of disentangling reportability and phenomenal consciousness in post-comatose states
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg et al

in Behavioral And Brain Sciences (2007), 30(5-6), 529-530

Determining whether or not noncommunicative patients are phenomenally conscious is a major clinical and ethical challenge. Clinical assessment is usually limited to the observation of these patients ... [more ▼]

Determining whether or not noncommunicative patients are phenomenally conscious is a major clinical and ethical challenge. Clinical assessment is usually limited to the observation of these patients' motor responses. Recent neuroimaging technology and brain computer interfaces help clinicians to assess whether patients are conscious or not, and to avoid diagnostic errors. [less ▲]

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See detailHypogonadisme par déficience de LH.
Beckers, Albert ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2007), 162(5-6), 291-7298

A 30-year-old man was investigated for delayed puberty and infertility. These investigations showed a complete absence of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). Genetic studies revealed a missense mutation ... [more ▼]

A 30-year-old man was investigated for delayed puberty and infertility. These investigations showed a complete absence of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). Genetic studies revealed a missense mutation in the LHbeta gene (G36D). This mutation disrupts a vital cystine knot motif and abrogates the heterodimerization and secretion of LH. Treatment with hCG was instituted, which led to arise in testosterone and improvement in spermatogenesis. After in vitro fertilization the patient had a son who was heterozygous for the G36D mutation. A second patient with similar clinical and biological presentation has been explored. A non-frame shift deletion of 3 base-pairs was discovered at position 20 which led to the deletion of a lysine residue. The proband and his prepubescent brother were homozygotic for this mutation. These cases illustrate the important physiological role of LH in male sexual maturation and fertility. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of progesterone concentrations on secretory functions of trophoblast and pituitary during the first trimester of pregnancy in dairy cattle
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2007), 67(9), 1503-1511

The essential role played by progesterone in the maintenance of pregnancy is unequivocal; however, the effects of progesterone on the secretory patterns of placental and pituitary molecules during the ... [more ▼]

The essential role played by progesterone in the maintenance of pregnancy is unequivocal; however, the effects of progesterone on the secretory patterns of placental and pituitary molecules during the gestation period are not well defined. The objective of this study was to describe pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations (measured by RIA-497 and RIA-Pool) in pregnant females with progesterone concentrations lower (low-P4 group, n = 20) or higher (high-P4 group, n = 17) than the mean of 8.74 ng/mL on Day 21 (AI = Day 0). Luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin concentrations were also measured in both groups. Throughout the study period, blood samples were collected on Days 0, 21, 45, 60, and 80 from 37 females that were confirmed to be pregnant. PAG concentrations measured by both RIA-497 and RIA-Pool tended to be higher in high-P4 group than in low-P4 group from Day 30 until Day 80. On Day 80, plasma PAG concentrations that were measured using RIA-497 were observed to be higher (P < 0.05) in the high-P4 group than in the low-P4 group (10.2 +/- 8.7 ng/mL versus 6.9 +/- 13.8 ng/mL). Concentrations of LH on Day 60 and prolactin on Day 80 were observed to be significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the high-P4 group. There was a tendency for the concentrations of LH (Days 45 and 80) and prolactin (Days 30, 45, and 60) to be lower in cows in the high-P4 group than in the low-P4 group. Our results suggest the existence of a relationship among the concentration levels of progesterone, PAG, LH, and prolactin during early pregnancy. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRésumé C.E. n°170.233, du 19 avril 2007, Hollander et csrts
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2007), 4

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See detailThe development of extended type noun uses : a comparison between English sort/kind and French sorte/espèce
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; Willemse, Peter; Davidse, Kristin

Conference (2007)

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See detailDépérissement de nos abeilles?
Nguyen, Bach Kim ULg; Widart, Joëlle ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

Article for general public (2007)

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See detailLes principales formations végétales
Ouédraogo, M.; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Cornélis, D.

in Delvingt, W.; Vermeulen, Cédric (Eds.) Nazinga (2007)

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See detailMeiotic segregation analysis in cow heterozygotes for the t(1;29) Robertsonian translocation
Bonnet-Garnier, A; Lacaze, S; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Chromosome Research : An International Journal on the Molecular, Supramolecular and Evolutionary Aspects of Chromosome Biology (2007), 15(2), 87

Heterozygotes for Robertsonian translocations have usually a normal phenotype but show variable decrease in fertility. In humans, meiotic segregation studies carried out in male carriers reveal a majority ... [more ▼]

Heterozygotes for Robertsonian translocations have usually a normal phenotype but show variable decrease in fertility. In humans, meiotic segregation studies carried out in male carriers reveal a majority of balanced spermatozoa. The rate of unbalanced segregation products appears higher in females than in males, but the number of human oocytes analysed so far remains limited (about 100). The occurrence of the t(1;29) translocation in several cattle breeds makes bovines an interesting animal model to study the meiotic segregation in female carrier of Robertsonian translocations. The aim of our project is thus to assess the rates of unbalanced oocytes produced by four cows and to compare these values with those obtained in bulls carriers of the same translocation. The superstimulated cows were subjected to twenty um pick up (OPU) sessions. Dual colour whole chromosome painting probes for BTA1 and 29 were hybridized on oocytes preparations. To date, 649 oocytes have been matured in vitro and 500 successfully spread. Among the 266 oocytes analysed by FISH so far: 201 (75,5%) are balanced, including 105 translocated and 96 normal, 55 are diploid (20.7%), and 10 unbalanced (3.8%). The proportion of balanced oocytes is lower than the average proportion of balanced spermatozoa estimated for two heterozygous bulls (97.1%). This difference is essentially due to a higher rate of diploid oocytes (20.7% vs 0.04% diploid spermatozoa). The origin of observed differences in the segregation profiles of the two sexes, as well as the practical implications of these results for genetic counselling and cattle breeding are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding properties of high-temperature superconducting tubes subjected to axial fields
Denis, Samuel ULg; Dusoulier, Laurent; Dirickx, Michel ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2007), 20(3), 192-201

We have experimentally studied the magnetic shielding properties of a cylindrical shell of BiPbSrCaCuO subjected to low frequency AC axial magnetic fields. The magnetic response has been investigated as a ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally studied the magnetic shielding properties of a cylindrical shell of BiPbSrCaCuO subjected to low frequency AC axial magnetic fields. The magnetic response has been investigated as a function of the dimensions of the tube, the magnitude of the applied field and the frequency. These results are explained quantitatively by employing the method of Brandt ( 1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 6506) with a Jc( B) law appropriate for a polycrystalline material. Specifically, we observe that the applied field can sweep into the central region either through the thickness of the shield or through the opening ends, the latter mechanism being suppressed for long tubes. For the first time, we systematically detail the spatial variation of the shielding factor ( the ratio of the applied field over the internal magnetic field) along the axis of a high-temperature superconducting tube. The shielding factor is shown to be constant in a region around the centre of the tube, and to decrease as an exponential in the vicinity of the ends. This spatial dependence comes from the competition between two mechanisms of field penetration. The frequency dependence of the shielding factor is also discussed and shown to follow a power law arising from the finite creep exponent n. [less ▲]

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See detailField penetration into hard type-II superconducting tubes: effects of a cap, a non-superconducting joint, and non-uniform superconducting properties
Denis, Samuel ULg; Dirickx, Michel ULg; Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2007), 20(5), 418-427

Using the numerical method of Brandt (1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 6506), we study the penetration of a uniform magnetic field that is gradually applied parallel to the axis of finite type-II superconducting ... [more ▼]

Using the numerical method of Brandt (1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 6506), we study the penetration of a uniform magnetic field that is gradually applied parallel to the axis of finite type-II superconducting tubular samples with strong pinning. This study is carried out in view of designing low-frequency magnetic shields by exploiting the diamagnetic properties of type-II superconductors. First, we compare the field penetration into open and closed tubes. For long tubes (length larger than three times the outer diameter), we show that a cap weakly affects the maximum magnetic induction that can be shielded, but greatly increases the region over which the field is nearly uniform. When the length of the tube is shorter, both the maximum shieldable magnetic induction and the uniformity of the field attenuation are enhanced by closing the tube. We also show that making a hole in the cap, which is often necessary for applications, does not greatly affect the shielding properties provided the diameter of the hole is small compared to that of the tube (hole diameter smaller than a quarter of the outer tube diameter). In view of designing large size magnetic shields, superconducting tubes of finite size need to be joined together. We therefore examine in a second part how the presence of a non-superconducting joint between the tubes affects the shielding efficiency. It is shown that the effect of a joint depends upon its position along the tube axis and strongly increases with its size. Third, we study how non-uniform superconducting properties affect the shielding capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical constitutive framework for thermal effects on unsaturated soils.
François, Bertrand ULg; Nuth, Mathieu; Laloui, Lyesse

in Proceeding of the 10th Int. Symp. on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, NUMOG X (2007)

Research interest in the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils is growing as a result of an increasing number of geomechanical problems involving both thermal and suction effects. The ... [more ▼]

Research interest in the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils is growing as a result of an increasing number of geomechanical problems involving both thermal and suction effects. The underground waste disposal is one such critical problem. Until now, these two environmental loadings have often been considered independently. This paper proposes a new unified thermo-mechanical framework for unsaturated soils based on thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) experimental evidence on cohesive soils. The Bishop effective stress framework is adopted to represent the stress state in the soil in a unified fashion. This constitutive context based on the evolution of two key parameters (the preconsolidation pressure and the suction air-entry value) makes it possible to represent the main features of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils. [less ▲]

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