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See detailAnalyse inverse en géotechnique : développement d’une méthode à base d’algorithmes génétiques
Levasseur, Séverine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2007)

La plupart des essais géotechniques in situ ne permettent pas d’identifier directement les paramètres constitutifs des couches de sol. L’utilisation de calculs par éléments finis pour dimensionner les ... [more ▼]

La plupart des essais géotechniques in situ ne permettent pas d’identifier directement les paramètres constitutifs des couches de sol. L’utilisation de calculs par éléments finis pour dimensionner les ouvrages est ainsi limitée par une mauvaise connaissance des propriétés mécaniques des sols. C’est dans ce contexte que se pose la problématique d’analyse inverse en géotechnique : quelles informations concernant les paramètres constitutifs du sol est-il possible d’obtenir à partir de mesures in situ? Ce travail concerne l’identification des paramètres de modèles constitutifs de sols par analyse inverse. Afin d’avoir une méthode d’identification adaptable à tout type de mesures (essais in situ ou ouvrages instrumentés), une méthode directe de résolution du problème inverse est développée. Des valeurs a priori sont données aux paramètres inconnus pour simuler le problème direct associé, à l’aide du code de calcul par éléments finis jusqu’à ce que l’écart entre les résultats du calcul numérique et les mesures in situ soit minimal. Les principales approches utilisées dans la littérature pour résoudre des problèmes d’optimisa- tion sont basées sur des méthodes de gradient. Ces méthodes supposent l’unicité de la solution du problème inverse. Or, les erreurs de modélisation et les incertitudes de mesures sont importantes en géotechnique. Il n’existe donc pas de solution exacte pour le problème inverse mais plutôt une infinité de solutions approchées. L’objectif de ce travail est de développer une méthode d’analyse inverse permettant d’identifier l’ensemble de ces solutions. Pour cela, nous avons choisi de baser la procédure d’analyse inverse sur un processus d’optimisation par algorithme génétique. Cette méthode, robuste et efficace, est connue pour sa capacité à résoudre des problèmes complexes. Nous montrons dans cette étude que l’analyse des solutions estimées par l’algorithme informe également sur la sensibilité des paramètres d’un modèle et sur l’existence possible de relations mathématiques entre ces paramètres. Suite à cela, nous proposons de décrire mathématiquement l’ensemble des solutions identifiées par l’algorithme génétique grâce à une étude statistique de type analyse en composantes principales. Cette étude montre que même si toutes les solutions d’un problème ne sont pas identifiées directement par l’algorithme génétique, leur exploitation par une analyse en composantes principales permet d’estimer l’ensemble des solutions du problème inverse. Cette méthode est développée à partir de quelques résultats obtenus sur des exemples synthétiques d’ouvrages de soutènement et d’essais pressiométriques. Puis, différentes applications réelles sur ces types d’essais et d’ouvrages géotechniques illustrent la pertinence de la méthode. [less ▲]

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See detailHans de Winiwarter (1875-1949) : un collectionneur d’art japonais en Belgique
Bawin, Julie ULg

in 7e congrès de l’Association des cercles francophones d’histoire et d’archéologie de Belgique, LIVe congrès de la fédération des cercles d’archéologie et d’histoire de Belgique (2007)

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See detailThe global modal parameterization for non-linear model-order reduction in flexible multibody dynamics
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2007), 69(5), 948-977

In flexible multibody dynamics, advanced modelling methods lead to high-order non-linear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The development of model reduction techniques is motivated by control ... [more ▼]

In flexible multibody dynamics, advanced modelling methods lead to high-order non-linear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The development of model reduction techniques is motivated by control design problems, for which compact ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in closed-form are desirable. In a linear framework, reduction techniques classically rely on a projection of the dynamics onto a linear subspace. In flexible multibody dynamics, we propose to project the dynamics onto a submanifold of the configuration space, which allows to eliminate the non-linear holonomic constraints and to preserve the Lagrangian structure. The construction of this submanifold follows from the definition of a global modal parameterization (GMP): the motion of the assembled mechanism is described in terms of rigid and flexible modes, which are configuration-dependent. The numerical reduction procedure is presented, and an approximation strategy is also implemented in order to build a closed-form expression of the reduced model in the configuration space. Numerical and experimental results illustrate the relevance of this approach. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion
Otte, Marcel ULg; Chirica, Vasile; Haesaerts, Paul et al

in Otte, Marcel; Chirica, Vasile; Haesaerts, Paul (Eds.) L'Aurignacien et le Gravettien de Mitoc-Malu Galben (Moldavie roumaine) (2007)

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See detailDétection de QTL influençant l’aptitude à la transformation fromagère des laits dans un croisement Holstein Normande
Larroque, H.; Gallard, Y.; Delacroix-Buchet, A. et al

in Renc. Rech. Ruminants, 2007, 14 (2007)

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See detailAnalysis of alpha-synuclein, dopamine and parkin pathways in neuropathologically confirmed parkinsonian nigra.
Moran, L. B.; Croisier, E.; Duke, D. C. et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2007), 113(3), 253-63

The identification of mutations that cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a framework for studies into pathways that may be perturbed also in the far more common, non-familial form of the ... [more ▼]

The identification of mutations that cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a framework for studies into pathways that may be perturbed also in the far more common, non-familial form of the disorder. Following this hypothesis, we have examined the gene regulatory network that links alpha-synuclein and parkin pathways with dopamine metabolism in neuropathologically verified cases of sporadic PD. By means of an in silico approach using a database of eukaryotic molecular interactions and a whole genome transcriptome dataset validated by qRT-PCR and histological methods, we found parkin and functionally associated genes to be up-regulated in the lateral substantia nigra (SN). In contrast, alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene expression levels were significantly reduced in both the lateral and medial SN in PD. Gene expression for Septin 4, a member of the GTP-binding protein family involved in alpha-synuclein metabolism was elevated in the lateral parkinsonian SN. Additionally, catalase and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family member 1 (PARP1) known to function in DNA repair and cell death induction, all members of the dopamine synthesis pathway, were up-regulated in the lateral SN. In contrast, two additional PD-linked genes, glucocerebrosidase and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 (NR4A2) showed reduced expression. We show that in sporadic PD, parkin, alpha-synuclein and dopamine pathways are co-deregulated. Alpha-synuclein is a member of all three gene regulatory networks. Our analysis results support the view that alpha-synuclein has a central role in the familial as well as the non-familial form of the disease and provide steps towards a pathway definition of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas.
Takaya, Shigetoshi; Hashikawa, Kazuo; Turkheimer, Federico E et al

in Journal of neuro-oncology (2007), 85(1), 95-103

The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a 18 kDa molecule mainly involved in cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane. In microglia, PBR is expressed from the earliest stages of ... [more ▼]

The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a 18 kDa molecule mainly involved in cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane. In microglia, PBR is expressed from the earliest stages of activation and appears to exert a pro-inflammatory function. This molecule is commonly up-regulated in inflammatory, degenerative, infective and ischaemic lesions of the central nervous system but it has never been reported in glioma-infiltrating microglia. We examined two anaplastic astrocytomas showing minimal contrast-enhancement and therefore little damage of the blood brain barrier to minimise the presence of blood borne macrophages within tumour tissue. The two lesions were studied in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) with the specific PBR ligand [(11)C](R)-PK11195 and the corresponding tumour tissue was investigated with an anti-PBR antibody. Glioma-infiltrating microglia were characterised for molecules involved in antigen presentation and cytotoxic activity. As comparison, PBR was investigated in three brains with multiple sclerosis (MS) and three with Parkinson's disease (PD). The expression profile of four anaplastic astrocytomas was also exploited and results were compared to the profile of eleven samples of normal temporal lobe and nine cases of PD. PET studies showed that [(11)C](R)-PK11195 binding was markedly lower in tumours than in the contralateral grey matter. Pathological investigation revealed that glioma-infiltrating microglia failed to express PBR and cytotoxic molecules although some cells still expressed antigen presenting molecules. PBR and cytotoxic molecules were highly represented in MS and PD. Evaluation of microarray datasets confirmed these differences. Our results demonstrated PBR suppression in glioma-infiltrating microglia and suggested that PBR may have a relevant role in modulating the anti-tumour inflammatory response in astrocytic tumours. [less ▲]

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See detailComment concilier exploitation forestière et gestion durable des forêts denses humides ?
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2007)

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See detailThe analysis of crude and purified locust bean gum: A comparison of samples from different carob tree populations in Tunisia
Bouzouita, Nabiha; Khaldi, A.; Zgoulli, S. et al

in Food Chemistry (2007), 101(4), 1508-1515

The crude and purified locust bean gum (LBG) from seven areas of the north and centre of Tunisia (Bouarada, Bargou, Kessra, Haffouz, Borj Toumi, Ben Arous and INRGREF) were analyzed for moisture, ash ... [more ▼]

The crude and purified locust bean gum (LBG) from seven areas of the north and centre of Tunisia (Bouarada, Bargou, Kessra, Haffouz, Borj Toumi, Ben Arous and INRGREF) were analyzed for moisture, ash, protein, acid-insoluble matter and mannose/galactose ratio. The purified samples exhibited higher mannose/galactose ratios and lower amounts of ash, protein and acid-insoluble matter than the crude gum. The purified LBG from different regions had 3.43-6.99% moisture, 0.87-2.06% ash, 0.61-2.46% protein, 0.00-1.20% acid-insoluble matter and 3.55-4.32 mannose/galactose ratios. Statistical analysis revealed that purification significantly affected (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, protein, insoluble matter contents and mannose/galactose ratios of the crude LBG and purified LBG for all samples from different areas. The rheological properties of the different carob gum samples were determined, the best rheological properties are those of spontaneous carob trees of Bargou, Bouarada and Kessra areas. The climatic and geographic origin of carob and the cultivation mode influence the chemical and rheological properties. The purification of crude galactomannan samples by precipitation with isopropanol gave a clear and more stable solution, due to the elimination of impurities and endogenous enzymes. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene precursors bearing biphenyl units and their use in ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization
Maj, Anna M.; Delaude, Lionel ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in Journal of Organometallic Chemistry (2007), 692(14), 3048-3056

A range of new imidazolium and imidazolinium chlorides bearing biphenyl units on their nitrogen atoms was synthesized. They differed by the electron-withdrawing or -donating nature and the steric bulk of ... [more ▼]

A range of new imidazolium and imidazolinium chlorides bearing biphenyl units on their nitrogen atoms was synthesized. They differed by the electron-withdrawing or -donating nature and the steric bulk of the substituents on their aromatic rings. These various N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors were combined with the [RuCl2(p-cymene)](2) dimer and potassium tert-butoxide to generate the corresponding ruthenium-arene complexes [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC)] in situ. The catalytic activity of these species was investigated in the photoinduced ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene. The results obtained confirmed the necessity of blocking the ortho-positions of the phenyl rings in the vicinity of the metal center in order to attain high catalytic efficiencies. They also showed that changing the steric and electronic properties of the substituents on the remote phenyl rings of the biphenyl units had no significant influence on the outcome of the polymerization. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBlanc-Bleu Mixte: Spécificités des Elevages
Bastin, Catherine ULg; Mayeres, Patrick

Article for general public (2007)

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See detailVocabulari: Dret Romà
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg; Casinos Mora, Francisco Javier; Saccoccio, Antonio et al

Book published by Xarxa Vives d'Universitats (2007)

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See detailActualité législative: la loi du 3 juin 2007 relative au cautionnement à titre gratuit
Biquet, Christine ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri (Ed.) Chroniques Notariales (2007)

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See detailLa forêt dense humide africaine : quelles perspectives de gestion durable ?
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2007)

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See detailLa Balsamine et les Hommes
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Cristofoli, Sara ULg

Learning material (2007)

Les invasions biologiques sont actuellement considérées comme l’une des atteintes majeures à la biodiversité. Néanmoins, elles sont encore souvent mal perçues du grand public. Ce court-métrage s’inscrit ... [more ▼]

Les invasions biologiques sont actuellement considérées comme l’une des atteintes majeures à la biodiversité. Néanmoins, elles sont encore souvent mal perçues du grand public. Ce court-métrage s’inscrit dans ce contexte et présente le cas de la Balsamine géante (Impatiens glandulifera ROYLE), espèce très esthétique, mais aussi particulièrement dommageable pour la flore des berges de cours d’eau, dans son aire d’invasion. La Balsamine fut introduite en Europe il y a plus d’un siècle, depuis les hauts-plateaux indiens et l’Himalaya, pour ses qualités décoratives. Après une phase de latence, elle a commencé à se répandre dans les milieux naturels, favorisée par les perturbations anthropiques et par un engouement des jardiniers pour l’espèce. Actuellement, elle est devenue problématique dans plusieurs vallées belges comme celle de l’Ourthe, l’Amblève ou la semois. Dans ce court-métrage, sous forme de fable, la Balsamine nous conte l’histoire de son invasion, tantôt aidée, tantôt enrayée par l’Homme. Le texte, entièrement original, est basé sur les connaissances les plus actuelles de l’espèce et des mécanismes sous-jacents à l’invasion. L’objectifs des réalisateurs est d’interpeller le spectateur sur la problématique tout en lui suggérant des actions préventives. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentialités antipaludiques des alcaloïdes indoliques
Frederich, Michel ULg; Philippe, Geneviève ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Actualités de Chimie Thérapeutique (2007), 33

This paper will be mainly illustrated with references to selected antiplasmodial compounds:- indole alkaloid analogues of emetine isolated from Strychnos usambarensis and Pogonopus tubulosus-other ... [more ▼]

This paper will be mainly illustrated with references to selected antiplasmodial compounds:- indole alkaloid analogues of emetine isolated from Strychnos usambarensis and Pogonopus tubulosus-other bisindole alkaloids isolated from Loganiacea and Apocynaceae -indoloquinolines (cryptolepine and analogues) -indolo quinazoline-6,12-diones and derivatives from Strobilanthes and other sources -aminopolycyclic beta-carbolines ( manzamines) !solated from Indo-Pacific sponges. The paper will be finally also focused on the design of chemosensitizers that are capable of reversing in vitro chloroquine resistance( case of some mono-indole alkaloids). [less ▲]

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See detailA recombinant koi herpesvirus (KHV) or Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) and a vaccine for the prevention of a desease caused by KHV/CyHV-3 in Cyprinus carpio or Cyprinus carpio koi
Costes, Bérénice ULg; Lieffrig, F.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in EP 07115093.2 (2007)

The present invention refers to a recombinant koi herpesvirus (KHV) or Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which is immunogenic in fish, preferably in carps, more preferably in Cyprinus carpio, and to a ... [more ▼]

The present invention refers to a recombinant koi herpesvirus (KHV) or Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which is immunogenic in fish, preferably in carps, more preferably in Cyprinus carpio, and to a vaccine for preventive and/or therapeutic treatment of a disease caused by koi herpesvirus (KHV) or CyHV-3. The 5 recombinant herpesvirus is used to confer immunity on fish, preferably on carps, more preferably on Cyprinus carpio, against a disease caused by koi herpesvirus (KHV) or Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). [less ▲]

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See detailRole of beta 2-receptors in the anti-inflammatory effects of formoterol in rats with cadmium-induced acute pulmonary inflammation
Zhang, W.; Zhang, F.; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Proceedings: Autumn Meeting of the Belgian Society of Fundamental and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology (2007)

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See detailExperimental models/cell model: organotypic cultures
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg

Conference (2007)

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