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See detailInfluence of thermal treatment on YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by electrophoretic deposition on Ni and Ag substrates
Dusoulier, Laurent; Denis, Samuel; Dirickx, Michel et al

in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (2007), 1001E

We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ~ 930°C due to partial ... [more ▼]

We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ~ 930°C due to partial melting and chemical contamination for Ag and Ni substrates respectively. Increasing the sintering duration does not improve significantly the densification. When Ar sintering atmosphere is used, the coating density is strongly increased on Ag substrates while adhesion is poor on Ni substrates. The Ar-sintered YBCO coating deposited on planar Ag substrate displays a significant magnetic shielding effect for low frequency applied magnetic induction. [less ▲]

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See detailLes indicateurs de l'enseignement
Abdelkhaled, A.; Baye, Ariane ULg; Defourny, V. et al

Book published by Ministère de la Communauté française - Etnic - 1re éd. (2007)

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See detailCharge de la preuve et théorie du contrôle en droit communautaire de la concurrence : pour un changement de perspective
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Barbier de La Serre, Eric

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2007), (2), 205-252

Many authors have pointed to a lack of clarity in the existing case law of EC courts in the field of competition law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof, as well as the determination of the ... [more ▼]

Many authors have pointed to a lack of clarity in the existing case law of EC courts in the field of competition law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof, as well as the determination of the standard of proof. This article attempts to clarify the concepts underlying these questions, bearing in mind that the Court reasons in more than one language. It consists in three sections. The first section is of a theoretical nature. It shows how questions regarding the allocation of the burden of proof and judicial control are conceptualised differently in different legal traditions. It also attempts to clarify the notions of burden of proof, standard of proof and standard of control. With regard to these notions, as is often the case, EC case law appears to be a melting pot of different legal traditions. It is thus shown that notions originating both in the common law and in the civil law tradition are useful to understand EC case law in relation to the issues of proof and control. The second section is more descriptive. It states the current law and illustrates with examples from court cases the usefulness of the various notions defined in the first section. It leads to the conclusion that the common law notions of standard of proof and standard of control are not sufficient to understand the intensity of control applied by Community courts over Commission’s decisions. The third section proposes another description of judicial control, based on the notions of “scenario” (depicting the economic story line adduced by the Commission to account for anticompetitive effect) and “economic normality”, as perceived by judges. [less ▲]

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See detailAmputation in diabetic patients.
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Clinics in Podiatric Medicine & Surgery (2007), 24(3), 569-82

In diabetes-related amputations, the risk of nonhealing or infection of a wound and the need for revision are increased. Medical treatment before amputation should optimize general and local conditions ... [more ▼]

In diabetes-related amputations, the risk of nonhealing or infection of a wound and the need for revision are increased. Medical treatment before amputation should optimize general and local conditions including the regression of edema, the control of infection, and the optimization of glucoregulation. A major argument for foot-sparing surgery is the poor functional recovery after major limb amputation. Diabetic patients are frail, with an increased postoperative morbidity and mortality after major amputation. Factors detrimental to functional outcome are advanced age, end-stage renal disease, dementia, and above-knee amputation. A multidisciplinary approach is required to optimize the results of diabetes-related amputations. The authors discuss medical and technical aspects that may reduce the failure of minor or major diabetes-related amputations. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and quantification of sources of major solutes in a sandy, phreatic aquifer in Central Belgium through ionic ratios and geochemical mass-balance modelling
Peeters, Luk; Batelaan, Okke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Groundwater and Ecosystems, Proc. of the XXXV IAH Congress (2007)

In this study the processes affecting groundwater chemistry in the Eocene Brussels sands aquifer in Central Belgium are identified based on evaluation of ionic ratios of major solutes. Based on these ... [more ▼]

In this study the processes affecting groundwater chemistry in the Eocene Brussels sands aquifer in Central Belgium are identified based on evaluation of ionic ratios of major solutes. Based on these results, in combination with mineralogical and hydrogeological information of the aquifer, a geochemical mass-balance model is created to quantify the contribution of each of the processes to the observed composition of groundwater. After a rigorous validation process, a dataset of 99 groundwater samples is obtained from observation and pumping wells in the Eocene Brussels sands aquifer, which is one of the main aquifers for drinking water production in Belgium. The aquifer consists of heterogeneous alteration of calcified and silicified coarse sands, with local presence of clay drapes and glauconite-rich zones (Laga et al. 2001). The entire aquifer is overlain by Quaternary eolian deposits, mainly consisting of loam with the exception of the north east, where the Quaternary deposits are sandy loam. The groundwater in this aquifer is of Ca-Mg-HCO3-type with locally elevated nitrate concentrations. Based on the evaluation of ionic ratios and the mineralogy of the aquifer, a conceptual geochemical model is developed for mass-balance modeling, including (1) concentration of precipitation by a factor 1 to 5 due to evaporation, (2) dissolution of a pure calcite phase and a calcite phase containing 25 % magnesium by both carbonic acid and sulfuric acid, (3) anthropogenic inputs for all major cations and anions except bicarbonate, (4) dissolution of glauconite, (5) cation exchange of sodium and potassium for calcium and magnesium. The two calcite phases can be thought of as end-members of a solid solution of magnesium in calcite. The mass-balance modeling consists of a mole-balance equation for each considered element according to: [Obs] = p[Prec] + p1[Phase 1] + ... + pi[Phase i] + a [Anthropogenic] +/- c[Cation Exchange] This set of linear equations is additionally constrained by (1) defining a range for concentration factors p based on measured and calculated evaporation rates, (2) charge balance for the anthropogenic sources and (3) pi being positive or negative according to whether the phase dissolves or precipitates. The set of linear equations with the given constraints is solved using a least squares optimization. Based on the possible processes and reactions several geochemical models are tested for each sample and a model is considered adequate if the root mean squared error (RMSE) between observed and calculated concentrations is less than 10-10 mol/L and the charge balance of the calculated composition is less than 5 %. If several models are able to explain the observed concentrations, the RMSE provides an objective measure to compare the quality of the models. The best model for each sample is selected and the spatial distribution of these models is compared to the spatial variations in lithology and land-use to asses the feasibility of the proposed models. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of extraction of phenolics and antioxidants from black currant leaves and buds and of stability during storage
Tabart, Jessica ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Sipel, Arnaud ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2007), 105(3), 1268-1275

Health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables are attributed in part to their contents of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this research, the extraction of phenolics and antioxidant ... [more ▼]

Health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables are attributed in part to their contents of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this research, the extraction of phenolics and antioxidant compounds from black currant was optimised for different plant organs. The extraction solvent affected yield: aqueous acetone was better than methanol and acetate or glycine buffer. In aqueous buffer, maximum yields of total phenolics and antioxidant activities were obtained at pH 3. Extraction from lyophilised materials yielded extracts with higher phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Stability of extracts made with acetate or glycine buffer was limited while the use of a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water for extraction allowed a high phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in dry extract to be maintained for several months. This type of extract could be incorporated in functional food, beverage or dietary supplement. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy approximation for convergent model-based reinforcement learning
Busoniu, Lucian; Ernst, Damien ULg; Babuska, Robert et al

in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE-07) (2007)

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a learning control paradigm that provides well-understood algorithms with good convergence and consistency properties. Unfortunately, these algorithms require that process ... [more ▼]

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a learning control paradigm that provides well-understood algorithms with good convergence and consistency properties. Unfortunately, these algorithms require that process states and control actions take only discrete values. Approximate solutions using fuzzy representations have been proposed in the literature for the case when the states and possibly the actions are continuous. However, the link between these mainly heuristic solutions and the larger body of work on approximate RL, including convergence results, has not been made explicit. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy approximation structure for the Q-value iteration algorithm, and show that the resulting algorithm is convergent. The proof is based on an extension of previous results in approximate RL. We then propose a modi ed, serial version of the algorithm that is guaranteed to converge at least as fast as the original algorithm. An illustrative simulation example is also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailLes industries aurignaciennes et "aurignacoïdes" en Moldavie après 30.000 BP
Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Annales de l'Université "Valahia" Târgoviste, Section d'Archéologie et d'Histoire (2007), IX

The lithic inventories from several sites excavated in Romania and in the Moldovan Republic suggest the existence of a Late Aurignacien around 27,500 BP, then of an Epi-Aurignacian, more recent, since 21 ... [more ▼]

The lithic inventories from several sites excavated in Romania and in the Moldovan Republic suggest the existence of a Late Aurignacien around 27,500 BP, then of an Epi-Aurignacian, more recent, since 21,000 BP. If the first seems to be a late expression of the Typical Aurignacian, the second corresponds only to a resurgence of some Aurignacian-like techniques, without any direct filiation. This phenomenon is, anyway, observable throughout Central and Eastern Europe and its connections with the Epigravettian are still barely known. [less ▲]

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See detailModel predictive control and reinforcement learning as two complementary frameworks
Ernst, Damien ULg; Glavic, Mevludin; Capitanescu, Florin ULg et al

in International Journal of Tomography & Statistics (2007), 6

Model predictive control (MPC) and reinforcement learning (RL) are two popular families of methods to control system dynamics. In their traditional setting, they formulate the control problem as a ... [more ▼]

Model predictive control (MPC) and reinforcement learning (RL) are two popular families of methods to control system dynamics. In their traditional setting, they formulate the control problem as a discrete-time optimal control problem and compute a suboptimal control policy. We present in this paper in a unified framework these two families of methods. We run for MPC and RL algorithms simulations on a benchmark control problem taken from the power system literature and discuss the results obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeciation of five arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, MMAAV, DMAAV and AsBet) in different kind of water by HPLC-ICP-MS
Ronkart, Sébastien ULg; Laurent, Vincent; Carbonnelle, Philippe et al

in Chemosphere (2007), 66(4), 738-745

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See detailHow does the age of hoverfly females affect their reproduction?
Almohamad, Raki; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2007), 72(3),

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See detailPublic Pension Reform: A Primer
Jousten, Alain ULg

E-print/Working paper (2007)

The present paper reviews key issues in pension design and pension reform encountered all <br />across the world. The paper heavily refers to the recent U.S. Social Security reform debate in <br />general ... [more ▼]

The present paper reviews key issues in pension design and pension reform encountered all <br />across the world. The paper heavily refers to the recent U.S. Social Security reform debate in <br />general and to the Personal Retirement Accounts proposal in particular. A particular <br />emphasis is put on annuitization and risk-taking in the economy. Our discussion signals some <br />inadequacy of the proposed measures with respect to the goals of viability of the system and <br />individual financial security during retirement. [less ▲]

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See detailNotions d'histoire de l'art et archéologie: Orient ancien
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg

Learning material (2007)

 Syllabus destiné aux étudiants de 2e et 3e année de BA. Il reprend la matière présentée dans le cadre du cours de « Notions d’histoire de l’art et d’archéologie : orient ancien », soit une sélection des ... [more ▼]

 Syllabus destiné aux étudiants de 2e et 3e année de BA. Il reprend la matière présentée dans le cadre du cours de « Notions d’histoire de l’art et d’archéologie : orient ancien », soit une sélection des artefacts et des vestiges les plus significatifs de la période comprise entre le Natoufien et le milieu du 1er millénaire av. n. è. Cette documentation archéologique est replacée dans son contexte historique et géographique. [less ▲]

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See detailUne histoire des Lumières au pays de Liège. Livre, idées, société
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

Book published by Éditions de l'Université de Liège (2007)

Voltaire n'a pas ménagé le pays de Liège. État clérical, berceau de la Fête-Dieu, la principauté était symbolisée par l'Almanach de Mathieu Laensbergh, dont les prédictions entretenaient un fatalisme ... [more ▼]

Voltaire n'a pas ménagé le pays de Liège. État clérical, berceau de la Fête-Dieu, la principauté était symbolisée par l'Almanach de Mathieu Laensbergh, dont les prédictions entretenaient un fatalisme obscurantiste. Le présent ouvrage montre une réalité plus contrastée, où s'entrecroisent industrie de la contrefaçon littéraire, séjours d'écrivains en cavale et grandes entreprises typographiques, pour former une toile de fond sur laquelle se détache une véritable révolution des mentalités. L'impulsion fut-elle donnée par la création en 1756 du Journal encyclopédique? L'imprimeur Bassompierre avait-il auparavant ouvert la voie en publiant Diderot, l'École de la volupté du matérialiste La Mettrie ou le Code de la nature, sorte de charte pré-socialiste? Le règne de Charles d'Oultremont installe-t-il une parenthèse pieuse avant qu'apparaisse en 1772 son successeur Velbruck, franc-maçon et modèle de «prince-évêque éclairé»? Telles sont quelques-unes des questions discutées ici. Figurant parmi les capitales européennes de la contrefaçon du livre, Liège et sa filiale maastrichtoise participeront aux premières tentatives d'édition des oeuvres complètes des philosophes : Voltaire (en trente-deux volumes!), Helvétius, Montesquieu, Beaumarchais, Raynal. L'imprimeur Clément Plomteux se spécialisera dans d'ambitieux projets de totalisation du savoir, dont une refonte de l'Encyclopédie. La poésie, réveillée par le long séjour qu'effectue à Liège l'écrivain Léonard, stimulera l'idéal d'une régénération de l'homme par le retour à la nature. La Société Libre d'Émulation (1779) fournira la caisse de résonance que réclamaient un puissant souci collectif de modernité et l'avènement d'une «société des talents». S'y joignirent des revendications de justice sociale qui se lisent dans la littérature des procès opposant nobles et communautés, ou dans l'Histoire des deux Indes de Raynal et Diderot. L'«embrasement inévitable» de 1789 n'était plus loin. [less ▲]

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See detailA damage constitutive law for steel elevated temperature. Identification of the parameters
Castagne, Sylvie; Talamona, D.; Habraken, Anne ULg

in International Journal of Material Processing (2007), (1), 23-43

This paper presents a methodology of damage analysis at elevated temperature using the finite element method. Both the model and the methodology to identify parameters are summarized. The mechanical ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a methodology of damage analysis at elevated temperature using the finite element method. Both the model and the methodology to identify parameters are summarized. The mechanical properties are established using compression tests at elevated temperature. An elasto-visco-plastic model depending on temperature is identified. A metallographic analysis is used to determine the original size and morphology of the austenitic grains. The experimental damage analyses consist in acoustic tests in order to determine the apparition of the first crack during compression. Finite element simulations of these experiments allow the determination of the damage parameters using a reverse method. [less ▲]

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See detailLes titres de traités hippocratiques attestés dans la littérature médicale papyrologique
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Studi di Egittologia e di Papirologia (2007), 4

In the literary papyri, the presence of a final, initial, or noted on a label title, not only identifies certainly the contents by giving the ancient name of the work, but is often also, with other ... [more ▼]

In the literary papyri, the presence of a final, initial, or noted on a label title, not only identifies certainly the contents by giving the ancient name of the work, but is often also, with other codicologic peculiarities, the indication of a copy of library. Do the 22 Hippocratic papyri present an indication of this kind? The author tries to answer these questions by examining not only Hippocratic papyri, but also several adespota where are quoted some titles of Hippocratic treatises, sometimes accompanied with the name of their author. [less ▲]

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See detailAsian Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure
Muller, Aline ULg; Verschoor, Willem

in Journal of the Japanese & International Economies (2007), 21(1), 16-37

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See detailCrystal structure of trisodium iron diphosphate, Na2.88Fe(PO4)(2), a synthetic phosphate with hannayite-type heteropolyhedral chains
Hatert, Frédéric ULg

in Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. New Crystal Structures (2007), 222(1), 6-8

FeNa2.88O8P2, triclinic, P (1) over bar (no. 2), a 5.3141(6) b = 8.5853(9) angstrom, c = 8.7859(8) angstrom, alpha = 114.429(9)degrees, beta = 92.327(9)degrees, gamma = 106.08(1)degrees, V = 345.1 ... [more ▼]

FeNa2.88O8P2, triclinic, P (1) over bar (no. 2), a 5.3141(6) b = 8.5853(9) angstrom, c = 8.7859(8) angstrom, alpha = 114.429(9)degrees, beta = 92.327(9)degrees, gamma = 106.08(1)degrees, V = 345.1 angstrom(3),Z = 2, Rgt(F) = 0.028, wR(ref)(F-2) = 0.087, T = 293 K. [less ▲]

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