References of "2006"
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See detailCost estimates of brain disorders in Belgium
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gianni, F.; Schretlen, L. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106(4), 208-214

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and ... [more ▼]

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and performed by Stockholm Health Economics. The disorders selected were : addiction, depression, anxiety disorders, brain tumours, dementia, epilepsy, migraine and other headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, psychotic disorders, stroke and trauma. Figures for prevalence of disorders and direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs are based on data coming from available electronic data bases, or when missing for Belgium, best possible estimates or extrapolated data were used. All economic data were transformed to E's for 2004 and adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The results show that the total number of people with any brain disorder in Belgium amounts to 2,9 million in 2004, the most prevalent being anxiety disorders 1.1 million, migraine 860 000, addiction (any) 800.000 and depression 500.000 cases. The total cost of all included brain disorders in Belgium was estimated at 10.6 billion Euros. Most costly per case are brain tumours, multiple sclerosis, stroke and dementia. Because of their higher prevalence, however, depression, dementia, addiction, anxiety disorders and migraine have the highest total costs. Taken together, brain disorders consume 4% of the gross national product and cost each citizen of Belgium E 1029 per year The drug costs for brain disorders constitute only 10% of the total drug market in Belgium, and only 4% of the total cost of brain disorders in Belgium. This should be compared to the cost estimates and to a previous study which showed that brain disorders are responsible for 35% of the total burden of all disorders in Europe. This study suggests therefore that the direct healthcare resources, including expenses for drug therapies, allocated to brain disorders in Belgium are not leveled to the indirect costs and burden of these disorders. A comparison with data available from a direct prospective study in demented Belgian patients suggests that the mathematical estimates presented here reflect quite accurately the real average cost for dementia, although there are large variations depending on disease severity. As, in addition, subjects with brain disorders face collateral costs which have not been taken into account and may vary between countries, it seems worthwhile to conduct, in cooperation with patients associations, a complementary survey in the Belgian ecosystem to establish the cost profile of representative patients for the major brain disorders. Such a survey is being organized by a task force of the Belgian Brain Council. [less ▲]

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See detailLa répétibilité des frais de défense en matière pénale, oui mais....
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Monville, Pierre ULg

in Michiels, Olivier; Monville, Pierre (Eds.) Actualités de droit pénal et de procédure pénale (2006)

L'article envisage la question de la répétibilité des honoraires et frais d'avocat en procédure pénale, à la suite des arrêts prononcés par la Cour de cassation le 2 septembre 2004 et par la Cour ... [more ▼]

L'article envisage la question de la répétibilité des honoraires et frais d'avocat en procédure pénale, à la suite des arrêts prononcés par la Cour de cassation le 2 septembre 2004 et par la Cour constitutionnelle le 19 avril 2006. [less ▲]

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See detailEnCOrE : Encyclopédie de Chimie Organique Electronique
Colaux, Catherine ULg; krief, Alain

Poster (2006, December)

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See detailCorrélation entre l'augmentation de la densité minérale osseuse et la réduction du risque fracturaire lors d'un traitement par ranélate de strontium
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cormier, C.; Fardellone, Patrice et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2006, December), 73

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See detailInferring Groups of Correlated Failures
Lepropre, Jean; Leduc, Guy ULg

Poster (2006, December)

We compare and evaluate different methods to infer groups of correlated failures. These methods try to group failure events occurring nearly simultaneously in clusters. Indeed if several failures occur ... [more ▼]

We compare and evaluate different methods to infer groups of correlated failures. These methods try to group failure events occurring nearly simultaneously in clusters. Indeed if several failures occur nearly at the same moment in a network, it is possible that these failures have the same root cause. The input data of our algorithms are IP failure notifications that can be provided by several sources. We consider two sources: IS-IS Link State Packets (LSPs) and Syslog messages. Our first results on the Abilene and GÉANT networks show that the inference methods behave differently and that using IS-IS LSPs provides more accurate results than using Syslog messages. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping uncertainty and phylogenetic uncertainty in ancestral character state reconstruction: An example in the moss genus Brachytheciastrum
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Goffinet, B.

in Systematic Biology (2006), 55(6), 957-971

The evolution of species traits along a phylogeny can be examined through an increasing number of possible, but not necessarily complementary, approaches. In this paper, we assess whether deriving ... [more ▼]

The evolution of species traits along a phylogeny can be examined through an increasing number of possible, but not necessarily complementary, approaches. In this paper, we assess whether deriving ancestral states of discrete morphological characters from a model whose parameters are (i) optimized by ML on a most likely tree; (ii) optimized by ML onto each of a Bayesian sample of trees; and (iii) sampled by a MCMC visiting the space of a Bayesian sample of trees affects the reconstruction of ancestral states in the moss genus Brachytheciastrum. In the first two methods, the choice of a single- or two-rate model and of a genetic distance (wherein branch lengths are used to determine the probabilities of change) or speciational (wherein changes are only driven by speciation events) model based upon a likelihood-ratio test strongly depended on the sampled trees. Despite these differences in model selection, reconstructions of ancestral character states were strongly correlated to each others across nodes, often at r > 0.9, for all the characters. The Bayesian approach of ancestral character state reconstruction offers, however, a series of advantages over the single-tree approach or the ML model optimization on a Bayesian sample of trees because it does not involve restricting model parameters prior to reconstructing ancestral states, but rather allows a range of model parameters and ancestral character states to be sampled according to their posterior probabilities. From the distribution of the latter, conclusions on trait evolution can be made in a more satisfactorily way than when a substantial part of the uncertainty of the results is obscured by the focus on a single set of model parameters and associated ancestral states. The reconstructions of ancestral character states in Brachytheciastrum reveal rampant parallel morphological evolution. Most species previously described based on phenetic grounds are thus resolved of polyphyletic origin. Species polyphylly has been increasingly reported among mosses, raising severe reservations regarding current species definition. [less ▲]

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See detailAn empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm(-1)
Hase, F.; Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Sauval, A. J. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2006), 102(3), 450-463

An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission ... [more ▼]

An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission and absorption features in the solar spectrum in the mid-infrared region from 700 to 5000 cm(-1). The transmittance is modelled as a function of the diameter of the field-of-view centered on the solar disk: the line broadening due to solar rotation as well as center-to-limb variations in strength and width are taken into account for stronger lines. Applications of the model presented here are in the fields of terrestrial remote sensing in the mid-infrared spectral region when the sun is used as radiation source or scattered solar radiation contributes to the measured signal and in the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms which compute the propagation of infrared solar radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of MRI for improved local control in complex radiotherapy of cervical cancer
Janaki, Hadjiev; Zsolt, Cselik; Péter Bogner et al

in Archive of Oncology (2006), 14(3-4), 95-100

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a modern medical imaging technique in radiotherapy with special emphasis on the integration of MRI and a ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a modern medical imaging technique in radiotherapy with special emphasis on the integration of MRI and a novel technique in brachytherapy to optimize treatment outcome in cervical cancer. Methods: In addition to the CT based shrinking volume conformal teletherapy in 31 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, MRI examination with a special adjustable applicator at the treatment site was performed for the brachytherapy planning. To avoid excessive doses to the healthy structures during complex cervical radiotherapy isodose curves were calculated upon the information of the MR image and dose distribution was evaluated. Results: The consecutive application of CT and MRI limited the possibility for overdosage of the critical organs and undertreatment of the advanced tumor spread in all cases. The overall response rate for the complex treatment was 74.2% with complete regression in 25.8% of the cases. Based on the exact information of the three dimensional digital data radiation doses could be optimized without increasing the possibility of acute complications rate. Conclusion: The introduction of 3D treatment planning for teletherapy pelvic and boost irradiation of cervical carcinoma as well as for the brachytherapy part of the complex treatment is to be recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailAn exceptional specimen of the early land plant Cooksonia paranensis, and a hypothesis on the life cycle of the earliest eutracheophytes
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Dilcher, D. L.; Bergamaschi, S. et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2006), 142(3-4), 123-130

An exceptionally large specimen of the early land plant Cooksonia paranensis Gerrienne et al. has been discovered from the type locality (Jackson de Figueiredo, Parana Basin, Brazil; early Lochkovian ... [more ▼]

An exceptionally large specimen of the early land plant Cooksonia paranensis Gerrienne et al. has been discovered from the type locality (Jackson de Figueiredo, Parana Basin, Brazil; early Lochkovian, Early Devonian). This nearly complete specimen consists of five dichotomous axes attached at their base to a small thalloid(?) structure. Each terminal axis segment ends in an expanded, cup-like, empty tip. Three interpretations of the specimen are proposed. (1) The whole specimen is a gametophyte of the Sciadopkyton-type, with a central area from which five axes depart; under this interpretation, the terminal cups are gametangiophores. (2) The basal structure represents the remains of a rhizome bearing five upright aerial axes, in which case the whole plant is a sporophyte. (3; our favoured hypothesis) The specimen is a cluster of five individual sporophytes still attached to the remains of a small female or bisexual gametophyte. In the latter case, this fossil is evidence that reduced thalloid gametophytes and branched axial sporophytes are plesiomorphic among the earliest eutracheophytes. We suggest that a major difference in life cycle defines a basal dichotomy in tracheophytes. Eutracheophyta, including all living vascular plants, have a heteromorphic, sporophyte dominant alternation of generations, whereas their extinct sister-group Rhymopsida (renamed here Paratracheophyta) is characterised by a more or less isomorphic alternations of generations. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFeedback Control of Impact Dynamics: the Bouncing Ball Revisited
Ronsse, Renaud; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2006, December)

We study the the design of a tracking controller for the popular bouncing ball model: the continuous-time actuation of a table is used to control the impacts of the table with a bouncing ball. The ... [more ▼]

We study the the design of a tracking controller for the popular bouncing ball model: the continuous-time actuation of a table is used to control the impacts of the table with a bouncing ball. The proposed control law uses the impact times as the sole feedback information. We show that the acceleration of the table at impact plays no role in the stability analysis but is an important parameter for the robustness of the feedback system to model uncertainty, in particular to the uncertainty on the coefficient of restitution. [less ▲]

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See detailPromotion de la santé à l'école ... Les modifications tant attendues de deux décrets
Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Education Santé (2006), (218), 7-8

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See detailSurgical treatment of thoraco-abdominal and low thoracic aneurysms of the aorta. One single center experience over ten years
El Arid, J.-M.; CREEMERS, Etienne ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106(6), 669-674

This work presents the results of surgery in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) and thoracic descending aortic aneurysms (TDA) in one single center between January 1rst, 1996 and December 31, 2005 ... [more ▼]

This work presents the results of surgery in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) and thoracic descending aortic aneurysms (TDA) in one single center between January 1rst, 1996 and December 31, 2005. It concerns open surgery in 42 and endovascular procedures in ten patients. Forty two patients (11 TDA and 31 TAA (4 type I, 12 type II, 6 type III and 9 type IV)) define the open surgery series. Twenty six patients were operated on elective basis and 16 patients in emergency condition. Surgical correction was made under partial cardio-pulmonary bypass (PCPB) in 70% of cases via femoral vessels; most significant intercostal arteries were reimplanted and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) drainage used in half of the cases. Operative mortality was zero in the elective group (0/26) and attained 19% in the emergent group (3/16). Mortality was linked to cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in two cases and post-pump left lung hemorrhagic intarction in one case. The paraplegia accounts 2/26 in the elective group and one in the emergent group (1/16). That is 7.1% in both groups. At the end of five years, survival is 66% in elective group and 74% in the emergency group. Ten patients (5 TDA and 5 TAA (2 type I, 3 type III)) were treated endovascularly. Operative mortality and postoperative paraplegia were nil. [less ▲]

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See detailFragmentation induced in atmospheric pressure photoionization of peptides
Debois, Delphine ULg; Giuliani, Alexandre; Laprévote, Olivier

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2006), 41(12), 1554-1560

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See detailMorphological and molecular characterization of planktonic cyanobacteria from Belgium and Luxembourg
Willame, R.; Boutte, C.; Grubisic, Stana ULg et al

in Journal of Phycology (2006), 42(6), 1312-1332

For the first time in Belgium and Luxembourg, the diversity and taxonomy of 95 cyanobacterial strains isolated from freshwater blooms were assessed by the comparison of phenotypes and partial 16S rRNA ... [more ▼]

For the first time in Belgium and Luxembourg, the diversity and taxonomy of 95 cyanobacterial strains isolated from freshwater blooms were assessed by the comparison of phenotypes and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed the high diversity of nanoplanktonic, picoplanktonic, and benthic-periphytic cyanobacteria accompanying the main bloom-forming taxa. Indeed, besides 15 morphotypes of bloom-forming taxa, seven non-bloom-forming planktonic morphotypes and 11 morphotypes from benthic-periphytic taxa were isolated in culture from the plankton samples of 35 water bodies. The bloom-forming strains belonged to the genera Microcystis, Woronichinia, Planktothrix, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon, whereas the other strains isolated from the same samples were assigned to the nanoplanktonic Aphanocapsa, Aphanothece, Snowella, and Pseudanabaena; to the picoplanktonic Cyanobium; and to the benthic periphytic Geitlerinema, Komvophoron, Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya, Phormidium, Calothrix, Nostoc, and Trichormus. The results supported both the polyphyletism of genera such as Aphanocapsa, Aphanothece, Leptolyngbya, Geitlerinema, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon as well as the validity of genera such as Microcystis, Planktothrix, and Pseudanabaena with gas vesicles and cells constricted at the cross wall. The results obtained showed the close relationship between Snowella and Woronichinia for which very few sequences exist. The first sequence of Komvophoron appeared poorly related to other available cyanobacterial sequences. Although in a few cases a good agreement existed between phenotypic and genotypic features, there was generally a discrepancy. Strains with identical morphotypes show small differences in the 16S rRNA sequences, which might be related to the different chemical properties of their habitats. The results showed the importance of the polyphasic approach in order to improve the taxonomy of cyanobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailLa radiothérapie du cancer du sein
Meyns, Mia ULg

in AIDS Patient Care (2006), 4

Le traitement du cancer du sein est un des exemples les plus probants de l'approche multidisciplinaire oncologique. Dans ce contexte, la radiothérapie a renforcé sa place et son importance, même si ... [more ▼]

Le traitement du cancer du sein est un des exemples les plus probants de l'approche multidisciplinaire oncologique. Dans ce contexte, la radiothérapie a renforcé sa place et son importance, même si certaines incertitudes persistent, comme la prise en charge du creux axillaire, de la chaîne mammaire interne et de la paroi thoracique. La tendance constatée depuis plusieurs années est celle d'une approche moins agressive. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin de la Société Voltaire n°12
Tilkin, Françoise ULg

E-print/Working paper (2006)

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