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See detailApplication of the X-FEM to the fracture of piezoelectric materials
Béchet, Eric ULg; Scherzer, Matthias; Kuna, Meinhard

Scientific conference (2006)

Materials exhibiting a strong piezoelectric effect may be used in many applications, where they serve as sensors, actuators or transducers. These applications range from for sub-millimeter length scales ... [more ▼]

Materials exhibiting a strong piezoelectric effect may be used in many applications, where they serve as sensors, actuators or transducers. These applications range from for sub-millimeter length scales in MEMs (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) up to large scales in the the design of smart wings in the aerospace industry. As for regular materials subjected to high mechanical stresses, the knowledge of fracture behavior for these smart materials is often crucial within the design of parts under high electrical and mechanical loading. The Extended Finite Element Method [1] has been originally designed for crack growth analysis in isotropic elastic materials. In association with level-sets [2] as a mean for representing the crack geometry, it is a powerful way to get rid of the costly constrained remeshing needed with conventional techniques. Under certain circumstances, this method is also able to achieve regular convergence rates in the energy error even for a cracked domain [3]. Piezoelectric materials exhibit an transversely isotropic mechanical characteristic, as well as a coupling between mechanical and electrical variables. This leads to different near-crack tip mechanical fields and the presence of singularities in the electrical variables [4][5]. To treat this new problem in the X-FEM, specific crack analysis tools and changes in the enrichment functions are needed which allows to represent the crack- both in the mechanical and electrical functional spaces. In this work, we will present these techniques and perform a convergence analysis to ensure that the crack tip behavior is accurately taken into account. Finally, we suggest a simple propagation model for crack growth. [less ▲]

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See detailThe platelet ATP and ADP receptors.
Oury, Cécile ULg; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Vermylen, Jos et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006)

This review focuses on recent findings on the physiology of these platelet ADP and ATP receptors, their distinct downstream intracellular signaling pathways as well as on the available agonists ... [more ▼]

This review focuses on recent findings on the physiology of these platelet ADP and ATP receptors, their distinct downstream intracellular signaling pathways as well as on the available agonists, antagonists and inhibitors that allow their pharmacological discrimination. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Corps en abîme. Sur la figurine et le cinéma d'animation
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Book published by Rouge Profond (2006)

Le cinéma d’animation est le résultat toujours surprenant du mélange des techniques graphiques et de l’invention animée ; il est aussi un assemblage de pratiques culturelles diverses : bande dessinée ... [more ▼]

Le cinéma d’animation est le résultat toujours surprenant du mélange des techniques graphiques et de l’invention animée ; il est aussi un assemblage de pratiques culturelles diverses : bande dessinée, spectacle de prestidigitation, danse... Cette hybridité fondamentale se manifeste sur le corps animé et fait de la figurine un corps inédit, sur lequel vient s’inscrire une série de paramètres relevant des imageries collectives contemporaines. Dans nombre de cas, des premiers films d’animation aux plus récents, des cartoons aux images de synthèse, il apparaît que cette figurine se trouve au centre d’un système complexe et paradoxal basé sur des jeux de défigurations. Des Silly Symphonies (les contes musicaux de Walt Disney) aux animations en pâte à modeler des studios Aardman (Wallace & Gromit, Chicken Run), de la miniature de King Kong aux poupées surréalistes de Jan Svankmajer, de Bip-bip et Coyote de Chuck Jones aux personnages de Tim Burton (L’Étrange Noël de Monsieur Jack, Les Noces funèbres), le corps de la figurine cristallise les fantasmes les plus troublants du vingtième siècle. Prenant en compte les grands noms de l’animation (Norman McLaren, Ladislas Starewitch, les frères Fleischer) et des artistes plus récents (Manuel Gomez, Pjotr Sapegin, Michel Ocelot), le livre montre à quel point l’animation est le lieu rêvé de l’évocation des liens inextricables entre vie et mort. L’originalité de l’ouvrage tient entre autres à la convocation de films et d’exemples tirés de périodes différentes, rarement rapprochés et qui acquièrent, ici, de nouvelles valeurs. Dialoguent ainsi l’Alice et le Pinocchio de Walt Disney avec Roger Rabbit, King Kong avec Méliès, Popeye avec Superman, Tex Avery avec les studios Aardman… [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a better use of the rabbit as an experimental model: review and perspectives
Dewree, R.; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(3), 153-162

The rabbit is an essential model in scientific research, particularly in the study of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis and for the investigation of the osteoarticular ... [more ▼]

The rabbit is an essential model in scientific research, particularly in the study of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis and for the investigation of the osteoarticular system. Due to the fact that various factors (environmental, microbial, stress, pain.) can influence data obtained from experiments, special care must be given to housing conditions. Sensory enrichment (olfactive, auditive, visual or tactile stimuli) and physical enrichment (nutritional and social stimuli) allow rabbits to express specific behaviours and reduce stereotypies. This synthesis reminds of the importance of these factors and gives to the researcher some ways to control them. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations of Comet 73P/SW3 close to its closest approach to the Earth.
Tozzi, G. P.; Bagnulo, S.; Boehnhardt, H. et al

in European Planetary Science Congress 2006 (2006)

In May 2006 comet 73P/SW3 passed at less than 0.1 AU from Earth providing us an unique opportunity for high spatial resolution study of its coma. This event was expected to be particularly interesting ... [more ▼]

In May 2006 comet 73P/SW3 passed at less than 0.1 AU from Earth providing us an unique opportunity for high spatial resolution study of its coma. This event was expected to be particularly interesting because the comet had broken apart in 3-4 fragments in 1996. The 2006 apparition has been even more interesting because the fragments produced in 1996, when approaching the Sun, were continuously breaking apart. This process resulted in many small sub-fragments and in the injection in the coma of fresh material, coming from the interior of the nuclei, giving the possibility to study this uncontaminated material. The breaking fragments have been observed at ESO in the visible and near-IR with the aim of analyzing this fresh solid component of the coma in search of possible presence of organic solids. In the presentation we will report preliminary results of this campaign. [less ▲]

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See detailLes méthodes diagnostiques en dentisterie restauratrice et prophylactique: Evolution des outils de détection des lésions carieuses pour un diagnostic précoce
Gueders, Audrey ULg; Geerts, Sabine ULg

in Journal du dentiste (2006), 338

La mise sur le marché de nouveaux outils de diagnostic permet la détection plus précoce du processus carieux de déminéralisation. Ce présent article fait le point sur le diagnostic de la carie et sur les ... [more ▼]

La mise sur le marché de nouveaux outils de diagnostic permet la détection plus précoce du processus carieux de déminéralisation. Ce présent article fait le point sur le diagnostic de la carie et sur les outils actuellement disponibles pour améliorer nos diagnostics et intercepter plus tôt le phénomène de déminéralisation. [less ▲]

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See detailEfecto del derivado de la lactosa sobre la población microbiana de muestras fecales de cerdos posdestete.
Rosero, Olga Lucia; Leterme, Pascal; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in Acta Agronomica (2006), 55

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See detailLe Technology Assessment en question. Une analyse comparative
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Brunet, Sébastien ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2006), n° 1909-1910

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See detailLessons from Principal-Agent Theory for Public Expenditure Management in Pacific Island Countries
Paul, Elisabeth ULg

in Pacific Economic Bulletin (2006), 21(2),

The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific island economies [less ▲]

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See detailRoof Framing from 11th to 19th Century: Typology and evolution in Northern France and Belgium
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Drdacky, Milosk (Ed.) European research on Cultural Heritage, Historic roof timber frames (2006)

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See detailRevue de la Faculté de droit de l'Université de Liège : Tables décennales 1996-2005
Bruyère, Aurélie ULg; Thys, Laurence ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de droit de l'Université de Liège (2006)

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See detailSEE-COAST: The Super-Earth Explorer
Schneider, J.; Riaud, P.; Tinetti, G. et al

in Barret, D.; Casoli, F.; Lagache, G. (Eds.) et al SF2A-2006: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006)

The Super-Earth Explorer Coronagraphic Off Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) is a space mission concept to be submitted to ESA call for proposals. It is devoted to the direct imaging, in the visible, of ... [more ▼]

The Super-Earth Explorer Coronagraphic Off Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) is a space mission concept to be submitted to ESA call for proposals. It is devoted to the direct imaging, in the visible, of the stellar light reflected by its planetary companion. Here we present the type of planetary characterization we may accomplish with SEE-COAST, and we include a brief description of the spacecraft and mission strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of tumor-associated lipogenesis in the formation and composition of membrane microdomains
Timmermans, L.; Kischel, Philippe; Beckers, Albert ULg et al

Conference (2006)

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See detailPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma1 is dephosphorylated and degraded during BAY 11-7085-induced synovial fibroblast apoptosis
Relic, Biserka ULg; Benoit, Valerie; Franchimont, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2006), 281(32), 597-604

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) plays a central role in whole body metabolism by regulating adipocyte differentiation and energy storage. Recently, however, PPAR-gamma has ... [more ▼]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) plays a central role in whole body metabolism by regulating adipocyte differentiation and energy storage. Recently, however, PPAR-gamma has also been demonstrated to affect proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of different cell types. As we have previously shown that BAY 11-7085-induced synovial fibroblast apoptosis is prevented by PPAR-gamma agonist 15d-PGJ2; the expression of PPAR-gamma in these cells was studied. Both PPAR-gamma1 and PPAR-gamma2 isoforms were cloned from synovial fibroblast RNA, but only PPAR-gamma1 was detected by Western blot, showing constitutive nuclear expression. Within minutes of BAY 11-7085 treatment, a PPAR-gamma1-specific band was shifted into a form of higher mobility, suggesting dephosphorylation, as confirmed by phosphatase treatment of cell extracts. Of interest, BAY 11-7085-induced PPAR-gamma1 dephosphorylation was followed by PARP and caspase-8 cleavage as well as by PPAR-gamma1 protein degradation. PPAR-gamma1 dephosphorylation was followed by the loss of PPAR-DNA binding activity ubiquitously present in synovial fibroblast nuclear extracts. Unlike the phosphorylated form, dephosphorylated PPAR-gamma1 was found in insoluble membrane cell fraction and was not ubiquitinated before degradation. PPAR-gamma1 dephosphorylation coincided with ERK1/2 phosphorylation that accompanies BAY 11-7085-induced synovial fibroblasts apoptosis. 15d-PGJ2, PGD2, and partially UO126, down-regulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, protected cells from BAY 11-7085-induced apoptosis, and reversed both PPAR-gamma dephosphorylation and degradation. Furthermore, PPAR-gamma antagonist BADGE induced PPAR-gamma1 degradation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and synovial fibroblasts apoptosis. The results presented suggest an anti-apoptotic role for PPAR-gamma1 in synovial fibroblasts. Since apoptotic marker PARP is cleaved after PPAR-gamma1 dephosphorylation but before PPAR-gamma1 degradation, dephosphorylation event might be enough to mediate BAY 11-7085-induced apoptosis in synovial fibroblasts. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetical metabolomics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Populus: a case study.
Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Storme, Veronique et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2006), 47(2), 224-37

Genetical metabolomics [metabolite profiling combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis] has been proposed as a new tool to identify loci that control metabolite abundances. This concept was ... [more ▼]

Genetical metabolomics [metabolite profiling combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis] has been proposed as a new tool to identify loci that control metabolite abundances. This concept was evaluated in a case study with the model tree Populus. Using HPLC, the peak abundances were analyzed of 15 closely related flavonoids present in apical tissues of two full-sib poplar families, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24, and correlation and QTL analysis were used to detect flux control points in flavonoid biosynthesis. Four robust metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL), associated with rate-limiting steps in flavonoid biosynthesis, were mapped. Each mQTL was involved in the flux control to one or two flavonoids. Based on the identities of the affected metabolites and the flavonoid pathway structure, a tentative function was assigned to three of these mQTL, and the corresponding candidate genes were mapped. The data indicate that the combination of metabolite profiling with QTL analysis is a valuable tool to identify control points in a complex metabolic pathway of closely related compounds. [less ▲]

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