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See detailA prominent role for amygdaloid complexes in the Variability in Heart Rate (VHR) during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep relative to wakefulness.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2006), 32(3), 1008-1015

Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is associated with intense neuronal activity, rapid eye movements, muscular atonia and dreaming. Another important feature in REMS is the instability in autonomic ... [more ▼]

Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is associated with intense neuronal activity, rapid eye movements, muscular atonia and dreaming. Another important feature in REMS is the instability in autonomic, especially in cardiovascular regulation. The neural mechanisms underpinning the variability in heart rate (VHR) during REMS are not known in detail, especially in humans. During wakefulness, the right insula has frequently been reported as involved in cardiovascular regulation but this might not be the case during REMS. We aimed at characterizing the neural correlates of VHR during REMS as compared to wakefulness and to slow wave sleep (SWS), the other main component of human sleep, in normal young adults, based on the statistical analysis of a set of (H2O)-O-15 positron emission tomography (PET) sleep data acquired during SWS, REMS and wakefulness. The results showed that VHR correlated more tightly during REMS than during wakefulness with the rCBF in the right amygdaloid complex. Moreover, we assessed whether functional relationships between amygdala and any brain area changed depending the state of vigilance. Only the activity within in the insula was found to covary with the amygdala, significantly more tightly during wakefulness than during REMS in relation to the VHR. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and the insular cortex, two brain areas involved in cardiovascular regulation, differs significantly in REMS as compared to wakefulness. This suggests a functional reorganization of central cardiovascular regulation during REMS. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of inspired gas density on pulmonary artery transmural pressure and exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage
Deaton, C. M.; Brown-Feltner, H.; Henley, W. E. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2006), 36(Suppl), 490-94

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Pulmonary capillary stress failure, largely as a result of high pulmonary vascular pressures, has been implicated in the aetiology of EIPH. However, the role of the ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Pulmonary capillary stress failure, largely as a result of high pulmonary vascular pressures, has been implicated in the aetiology of EIPH. However, the role of the respiratory system in determining the magnitude of EIPH has received little attention. HYPOTHESIS: Horses breathing a gas of greater density than air will exhibit greater transmural pulmonary arterial pressures (TPAP) and more severe EIPH, and horses breathing a gas of lower density than air will exhibit lower TPAP and less severe EIPH, both compared with horses breathing air. METHODS: Following a warm-up, 8 Thoroughbred horses were exercised for 1 min at 10, 11 and 12 m/sec (5 degrees incline) breathing air or 21% oxygen/79% helium or 21% oxygen/79% argon in a randomised order. Heart rate, respiratory rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and oesophageal pressure were measured during exercise. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the dorsocaudal regions of the left and right lungs 40 min post exercise and red blood cell (RBC) counts were performed. RESULTS: The exercise tests induced mild EIPH. Maximum changes in oesophageal pressure were lower on helium-oxygen compared to argon-oxygen (P<0.001). TPAP and median RBC counts did not differ between gas mixtures. BALF RBC counts from the left lung correlated with counts from the right lung (P<0.0001). However BALF RBC counts from the left lung were higher than those from the right lung (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: As alterations in pulmonary arterial and oesophageal pressure caused by changes in inspired gas density were of similar magnitude, TPAP remained unchanged and there was no significant effect on EIPH severity. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Manipulations that decrease swings in intrapleural pressure may only decrease the degree of EIPH in horses severely affected by the condition [less ▲]

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See detailForce feedback linearization for higher-order electromechanical sigma--delta modulators
Dong, Yufeng; Kraft, Michael ULg; Redman-White, William

in Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (2006), 16(6), 54-60

A higher-order electromechanical sigma–delta modulator can greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio compared with a second-order loop that only uses the sensing element as a loop filter. However, the ... [more ▼]

A higher-order electromechanical sigma–delta modulator can greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio compared with a second-order loop that only uses the sensing element as a loop filter. However, the electrostatic force feedback on the proof mass is inherently nonlinear, which will produce harmonics in the output spectrum and limits the total signal-to-noise and distortion ratio. High performance inertial sensors, which use sigma–delta modulators as a closed-loop control system, have strict requirements on the output signal distortion. In this paper, nonlinear effects from the force feedback and pick-off circuits are analysed and a strategy for force feedback linearization is put forward which can considerably improve the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio. A PCB prototype of a fifth-order electromechanical modulator with a bulk micromachined accelerometer was used to demonstrate the concept. [less ▲]

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See detailIon beam induced luminescence of minerals
Calvo Del Castillo, Helena ULg; Ruvalcaba Sil, Jose Luis; Calderón, Tomás

Poster (2006)

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See detailp27kip1 independently promotes neuronal differentiation and migration in the cerebral cortex.
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Besson, Arnaud; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen et al

in Genes & Development (2006), 20(11), 1511-24

The generation of neurons by progenitor cells involves the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of neuronal differentiation, and cell migration. The ... [more ▼]

The generation of neurons by progenitor cells involves the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of neuronal differentiation, and cell migration. The mechanisms that integrate these different events into a coherent developmental program are not well understood. Here we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) plays an important role in neurogenesis in the mouse cerebral cortex by promoting the differentiation and radial migration of cortical projection neurons. Importantly, these two functions of p27(Kip1) involve distinct activities, which are independent of its role in cell cycle regulation. p27(Kip1) promotes neuronal differentiation by stabilizing Neurogenin2 protein, an activity carried by the N-terminal half of the protein. p27(Kip1) promotes neuronal migration by blocking RhoA signaling, an activity that resides in its C-terminal half. Thus, p27(Kip1) plays a key role in cortical development, acting as a modular protein that independently regulates and couples multiple cellular pathways contributing to neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDiffuse dermal angiomatosis: A previously undescribed pattern of immunoglobulin and complement deposits in two cases.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Fumal, Isabelle; Willemaers, Valentine et al

in American Journal of Dermatopathology (2006), 28(2), 150-4

Two cases of diffuse dermal angiomatosis are reported in middle-aged women. This rare disease of unknown origin is characterized by increased dermal angiomatosis and ulceration. The clinical and ... [more ▼]

Two cases of diffuse dermal angiomatosis are reported in middle-aged women. This rare disease of unknown origin is characterized by increased dermal angiomatosis and ulceration. The clinical and histologic presentations of the presently reported lesions were typical for this disorder. Endothelial cells exhibited a normal immunophenotype. The perivascular basement membranes showed a distribution of collagen alpha chains typical for blood vessels, but not for lymphatics. Immunohistochemistry revealed other undescribed features. At the site of the clinical lesions, linear and granular deposits of immunoglobulins A and M, and complement were found around the vessels and at the dermal-epidermal junction. The same deposits were also found restricted to the dermal-epidermal junction in the peripheral clinically intact skin. No serological signs of auto-immune disorder were detected in one patient. A monoclonal gammopathy was disclosed in the other patient. A pattern of immunoreactant deposits similar to that disclosed in the two patients was not found in the control specimens, and has not been described so far in other types of vascular hyperplasia and neoplasia. A pathogenic role of these deposits is unsettled and should be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Sylvain ROUX, "La Recherche du principe chez Platon, Aristote et Plotin"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (2006), 75

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See detailRetour sur le Conseil Wallon de l'Economie Sociale: quel héritage?
Defourny, Jacques ULg

in SAW-B Analyses (2006), 7

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See detailLes « burins » de l’atelier de débitage aurignacien de Maisières-Canal (Province du Hainaut, Belgique)
Flas, Damien ULg; Miller, Rebecca ULg; Jacobs, Benjamin

in de Araujo Igreja, Marina; Bracco, Jean-Pierre; Le Brun-Ricalens, Foni (Eds.) Burins préhistoriques : formes, fonctionnements, fonctions (2006)

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See detailEffect of diazepam on the efficacy of dual-phase FDG PET imaging.
Zhuang, Hongming; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Alavi, Abass

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2006), 33(2), 228-9230

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See detailQualité nutritionnelle du lait - Etude de la variabilité intra- et inter-races du profil en acides gras du lait
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Dardenne, Pierre; Gillon, Alain ULg et al

in Le Bulletin (2006), (2), 8-10

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See detailL'influence des séries télévisées sur la perception du travail policier et judiciaire
Vanhaeren, Stéphanie ULg

Master's dissertation (2006)

Les fictions télévisées, quand elles viennent à parler de police ou de justice, répondent à des codes, des règles, des schémas qui leur sont propres : si certains aspects de ces séries sont calqués assez ... [more ▼]

Les fictions télévisées, quand elles viennent à parler de police ou de justice, répondent à des codes, des règles, des schémas qui leur sont propres : si certains aspects de ces séries sont calqués assez fidèlement sur la réalité (par exemple, les personnages sont censés obéir à un corpus juridique), d'autres prennent plus de libertés, à divers degrés (de nombreuses conceptions relatives à la hiérarchie et à la déontologie ne sont appliquées que comme véhicules scénaristiques, ou sont simplement ignorés si l'histoire l'exige). Un élément que nous pourrions qualifier de plus accidentel est que beaucoup des séries favorites des téléspectateurs belges sont des programmes d'importation américaine. Même dans le cas où un scénariste américain aurait voulu coller de très près à la réalité et aux lois de son pays, il s'écartera en de nombreux points de notre système juridique, de par les fortes différences entre notre système (dit de droit civil) et le système anglo-saxon (dit de common law ou de case law). Les traductions et doublages français, parfois approximatifs – que les traductions soient mauvaises ou que certains termes ne disposent pas d'équivalents francophones parfaits – achèvent de créer la confusion. Partant de cette double constatation – la justice et la police romancées d'un côté et les problèmes de droit comparé et de traduction de l'autre –, j'en suis venue à me demander dans quelle mesure nos concitoyens transposaient ces situations au réel et les utilisaient comme « grille de compréhension » du fonctionnement de notre système judiciaire et policier. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects récents des conditions d'exercice de la profession d'architecte
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Droit de la construction (2006)

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See detailOn the application and interpretation of Keeling plots in paleo climate research - Deciphering δ 13C of atmospheric CO 2 measured in ice cores
Köhler, Peter; Fischer, Hubertus; Schmitt, Jochen et al

in Biogeosciences (2006), 3(4), 539-556

The Keeling plot analysis is an interpretation method widely used in terrestrial carbon cycle research to quantify exchange processes of carbon between terrestrial reservoirs and the atmosphere. Here, we ... [more ▼]

The Keeling plot analysis is an interpretation method widely used in terrestrial carbon cycle research to quantify exchange processes of carbon between terrestrial reservoirs and the atmosphere. Here, we analyse measured data sets and artificial time series of the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) and of delta C-13 of CO2 over industrial and glacial/interglacial time scales and investigate to what extent the Keeling plot methodology can be applied to longer time scales. The artificial time series are simulation results of the global carbon cycle box model BICYCLE. The signals recorded in ice cores caused by abrupt terrestrial carbon uptake or release loose information due to air mixing in the firn before bubble enclosure and limited sampling frequency. Carbon uptake by the ocean cannot longer be neglected for less abrupt changes as occurring during glacial cycles. We introduce an equation for the calculation of long-term changes in the isotopic signature of atmospheric CO2 caused by an injection of terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere, in which the ocean is introduced as third reservoir. This is a paleo extension of the two reservoir mass balance equations of the Keeling plot approach. It gives an explanation for the bias between the isotopic signature of the terrestrial release and the signature deduced with the Keeling plot approach for long-term processes, in which the oceanic reservoir cannot be neglected. These deduced isotopic signatures are similar (-8.6 parts per thousand) for steady state analyses of long-term changes in the terrestrial and marine biosphere which both perturb the atmospheric carbon reservoir. They are more positive than the delta C-13 signals of the sources, e.g. the terrestrial carbon pools themselves (similar to -25 parts per thousand). A distinction of specific processes acting on the global carbon cycle from the Keeling plot approach is not straightforward. In general, processes related to biogenic fixation or release of carbon have lower y-intercepts in the Keeling plot than changes in physical processes, however in many case they are indistinguishable (e.g. ocean circulation from biogenic carbon fixation). [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of longevity into the Walloon genetic evaluation system
Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Croquet, Coraline; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Interbull Bulletin (2006), 35

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See detailEstablishment of stable human fibroblast cell lines constitutively expressing active Rho-GTPases.
Servotte, S.; Zhang, Z.; Lambert, Charles ULg et al

in Protoplasma (2006), 229(2-4), 215-20

Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family (RhoA, Cdc42, Rac1) regulate the organisation and the turnover of the cell's cytoskeleton and adhesion structures. A significant function of these cellular ... [more ▼]

Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family (RhoA, Cdc42, Rac1) regulate the organisation and the turnover of the cell's cytoskeleton and adhesion structures. A significant function of these cellular structures is to translate and counterbalance forces applied to, or generated by, cells in order to maintain homeostasis and control cell movement. We therefore hypothesised that Rho-GTPases are directly involved in cellular gravity perception and may participate in the alterations induced in microgravity. To define an adequate cellular model allowing to investigate this issue, we have established stable cell lines constitutively expressing active forms of either RhoA, Cdc42, or Rac1. The three cell lines differ by morphology and by their ability to form filopodia, lamellipodia, and bundles of actin stress fibers. Overexpression of the active form of either RhoA, Cdc42, or Rac1 is compatible with cell viability and does not affect cell population doubling time. Thus, our series of mutant cells appear well suited to gain further knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of cellular gravity perception. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst chronic wasting disease surveillance of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in North part of Belgium
De Bosschere, H.; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Neukermans, A. et al

in Veterinary Quarterly (The) (2006), 28

Cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in Europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer ... [more ▼]

Cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in Europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. New foci of CWD continue to be detected in other parts of the United States. However, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of European wild cervids is yet installed in Europe. In accordance with the opinion of the European Scientific Steering Committee, a preliminary (active) surveillance scheme was installed, in order to improve the knowledge of the CWD status of wild cervids (roe deer) in the Northern part of Belgium. Spleen samples (n=206) and brain samples (n=222) of roe deer collected in the Northern part of Belgium, were examined for CWD using the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) of IDEXX. Afterwards, the EIA was systematically confirmed by immunohistochemistry using three antibodies, namely R524, 2G11 and 12F10. There were no indications on the occurrence of TSE in any of the samples. A Bayesian framework was used for the estimation of the true prevalence of CWD in the Northern part of Belgium that was estimated to have a median value of zero with a 95th percentile value of 0.0049 and 0.0045 for spleen and brain samples respectively. [less ▲]

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