References of "2006"
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See detailModelling weathering processes at the catchment scale: The WITCH numerical model
Godderis, Y.; François, Louis ULg; Probst, A. et al

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2006), 70(5), 1128-1147

A numerical model of chemical weathering in soil horizons and underlying bedrock (WITCH) has been coupled to a numerical model of water and carbon cycles in forest ecosystems (ASPECTS) to simulate the ... [more ▼]

A numerical model of chemical weathering in soil horizons and underlying bedrock (WITCH) has been coupled to a numerical model of water and carbon cycles in forest ecosystems (ASPECTS) to simulate the concentration of major species within the soil horizons and the stream of the Strengbach granitic watershed, located in the Vosges Mountains (France). For the first time, simulations of solute concentrations in soil layers and in the catchment river have been performed on a seasonal basis. The model is able to reproduce the concentrations of most major species within the soil horizons, as well as catching the first-order seasonal fluctuations of aqueous calcium, magnesium and silica concentrations. However, the WITCH model underestimates concentrations of Mg2+ and silica at the spring of the catchment stream, and significantly underestimates Ca2+ concentration. The deficit in calculated calcium can be compensated for by dissolution of trace apatite disseminated in the bedrock. However, the resulting increased Ca2+ release yields important smectite precipitation in the deepest model layer (in contact with the bedrock) and subsequent removal of large amount of silica and magnesium from solution. In contrast, the model accurately accounts for the concentrations of major species (Ca, Mg and silica) measured in the catchment stream when precipitation of clay minerals is not allowed. The model underestimation of Mg2+ and H4SiO4 concentrations when precipitation of well crystallized smectites is allowed strongly suggests that precipitation of well crystallized clay minerals is overestimated and that more soluble poorly crystallized and amorphous materials may be forming. In agreement with observations on other watersheds draining granitic rocks, this study indicates that highly soluble trace calcic phases control the aqueous calcium budget in the Strengbach watershed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynchronization of validation and estimation strategies of doubt associated as part of the accreditation in trial laboratories
Hubert, Philippe ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg; Boulanger, Bruno ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2006), 61(Suppl. 1), 54-56

In order to achieve the harmonization of validation strategies, the interpretation of several validation criteria is proposed. Furthermore, a simple and visual decision tool to assess the validity of an ... [more ▼]

In order to achieve the harmonization of validation strategies, the interpretation of several validation criteria is proposed. Furthermore, a simple and visual decision tool to assess the validity of an analytical procedure is described: the accuracy profile based on the estimation of the total error of the measurements. This profile build with beta-expectation tolerance intervals can also compute with efficiency the uncertainty related to the results of a laboratory, which is an essential parameter for the accreditation of laboratories under ISO 17025. [less ▲]

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See detailBespreking HvJ 18 november 2004
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Rechtskundig Weekblad (2006)

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See detailEffets symptomatiques de la glucosamine dans l’arthrose
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg

in Pharma-Sphère (2006), 110

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See detailColl2-1, Coll2-1 NO2 and myeloperoxydase in OA patients before and after hip or knee replacement
Deberg, M; Labasse, A; Quettier, E et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006)

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See detailA Survey of the Theoretical Economic Literature on Foreign Aid
Paul, Elisabeth ULg

in Asian-Pacific Economic Literature (2006), 20(1), 1-17

This paper surveys the theoretical economic literature on foreign aid -- in particular, the aid donor–recipient relationship. Economic theory, especially new institutional economics, can be very helpful ... [more ▼]

This paper surveys the theoretical economic literature on foreign aid -- in particular, the aid donor–recipient relationship. Economic theory, especially new institutional economics, can be very helpful in understanding foreign aid relationships -- especially the incentive problems involved -- and in designing institutions to improve aid effectiveness. In particular, it helps in understanding the chain of principal–agent relations inherent in the aid delivery system and the resulting potential for agency problems. The survey shows that economic theory can improve the design of cooperation modalities by aligning the incentives of donors and recipients for poverty reduction, but that, in order to address the problems, policy analysis must take into account the constraints faced by stakeholders in the aid relationship. The aid 'contract' should thus seek to improve the agents' incentives to use aid effectively, given the circumstances of the developing country [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis of osteoporosis without prevalent fractures: are we missing our main target?
Richy, F.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoporosis Action (2006), 1

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See detailCross-calibration functions for soil CO2 efflux measurement systems
Ngao, Jerome; Longdoz, Bernard; Perrin, Dominique ULg et al

in Annals of Forest Science : a Multidisciplinary and International Journal (2006), 63(5), 477-484

Different soil CO2 efflux measurement systems and methodologies were used to estimate the annual soil respiration of different forest sites. To allow comparison between these annual values, this study ... [more ▼]

Different soil CO2 efflux measurement systems and methodologies were used to estimate the annual soil respiration of different forest sites. To allow comparison between these annual values, this study aimed to cross-calibrate five soil CO2 efflux (RS) closed dynamic chamber systems, and compare the in situ measurement methodologies. We first assessed the impact of the measurement methodology on RS by studying the effects of three parameters: record duration, time lag before starting to record and the mode of chamber-soil contact (use of collars or insertion of the chambers into the soil). Secondly, we directly compared systems with identical methodology during field measurements on three forest sites. We observed a significant influence of the chamber-soil contact mode (no impact of the record duration and duration before starting to record). Measurements obtained by insertion led to significantly higher estimates of RS than those obtained using collars (up to 28%). Our inter-comparison showed that deviations existing between in situ measurements performed with the different systems were partly systematic and could be corrected using simple linear equations. Measurements of pressure difference between the inside and the outside of soil chambers allowed explaining a part of the observed deviations between systems. Finally, we assessed the influence of the cross-calibration equations on annual respiration of two beech forest soils. [less ▲]

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See detailExistence domains for nonlinear structures in complex two-ion-temperature plasmas
Hellberg, M. A.; Verheest, F.; Cattaert, Tom ULg

in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (2006), 39(12), 3137-3146

The existence domains for one-dimensional acoustic solitons and double layers in complex (dusty) plasmas with two ion temperatures are obtained, using the fluid dynamic paradigm with a general polytropic ... [more ▼]

The existence domains for one-dimensional acoustic solitons and double layers in complex (dusty) plasmas with two ion temperatures are obtained, using the fluid dynamic paradigm with a general polytropic equation of state. Dust-acoustic solitons are considered in a four-component plasma of negative dust grains, cool and very hot ions, and very hot electrons. Whereas in a dust-ion-electron plasma only negative potential solitons are supported, the presence of a second ion component allows positive potential solitons to occur as well. The existence domain in parameter space is delineated, in particular, also for the reduced three-component case in which there are no free electrons, all electrons being adsorbed onto the dust grains. Next, the ion-acoustic regime is considered. Both positive and negative potential dust-ion acoustic solitons and double layers are found, and their existence conditions in the parameter space of cool ion density and Mach number derived. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in Amphiprion clarkii (Teleostei: Pomacentridae)
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2006)

In the family Pomacentridae, six genera were reported as sound producers: Amphiprion, Dascyllus, Stegastes, Chromis, Abudefduf and Plectroglyphidodon. The anemonefishes (Amphiprioninae) live in social ... [more ▼]

In the family Pomacentridae, six genera were reported as sound producers: Amphiprion, Dascyllus, Stegastes, Chromis, Abudefduf and Plectroglyphidodon. The anemonefishes (Amphiprioninae) live in social group in association with sea anemones, which protect them from predators. Their sound emissions seem involved in courtship and territorial defense, contributing to both survival and reproductive success. However, the mechanism of sound production is unresolved. It has been hypothesized that it involves swimbladder or the action of the pharyngeal jaws amplified by swimbladder. The aim of this study was to understand the sonic mechanism involved in the agonistic sounds in Amphiprion clarkii. The approach consists in high-speed cineradiography and functional morphology. During agonistic sounds (pops), fishes perform different movements such as skull elevation, pectoral girdle retraction, hyoid lowering and mouth closing. Pops are produced when the hyoid is completely lowered and the mouth closed. The simultaneous realization of these movements was never observed in teleost. In Amphiprion sp., it is possible due to an additional ligament inserted on the hyoid bar and on the inner lower jaw. The hyoid lowering combined to the closing (and thus the elevation) of the mandible could generate a tension of the ligament, provoking its vibration [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques actives d’emploi et professionnels de l’employabilité : critique et clinique
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Travail Emploi Formation (2006), 6/2006

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See detailOn the existence of ion-acoustic double layers in two-electron temperature plasmas
Verheest, F.; Cattaert, Tom ULg; Hellberg, M. A. et al

in Physics of Plasmas (2006), 13(4), 9

Earlier Sagdeev pseudopotential treatments of ion-acoustic double layers in plasmas with two electron populations were based on a model in which both electron densities were described by isothermal ... [more ▼]

Earlier Sagdeev pseudopotential treatments of ion-acoustic double layers in plasmas with two electron populations were based on a model in which both electron densities were described by isothermal Boltzmann distributions. Using a more recent fluid-dynamical approach, with polytropic equations of state indices gamma(j), one finds analytically that no double layers can be formed for gamma(j)>= 3/2, due to total rarefaction of the cooler electrons or infinite compression of the ions. For gamma(j)< 3/2, rarefactive double layers occur, but, just below 3/2, at unrealistically small cool electron densities or large Mach numbers. As gamma(j) decreases towards 1, these constraints become less restrictive and go over smoothly to those known from Boltzmann studies. Contrary to what appears in the literature, very weak compressive double layers can also be found for Boltzmann electrons, but only for soliton conditions barely above the existence threshold; i.e., marginally super-ion-acoustic. Any slight increase in the critical Mach number destroys the possibility of having positive double layers, and, within the limits of numerical accuracy, no window could be found for gamma(j)not equal 1, where compressive double layers exist.(c) 2006 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods for size classification of wood chips
Hartmann, Hans; Böhm, Thorsten; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter et al

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2006)

Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one ... [more ▼]

Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one from hog fuel. The true size distribution of these two samples (according to length, width and height) had been determined stereometrically (reference method) using a digital calliper gauge and by weighing each of the about 7000 wood particles per sample. Five different horizontal and three rotary screening devices were tested using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63 mm, round holes). These systems are compared to a commercially available continuously measuring image analysis equipment. The results show that among the devices of a measuring principle—horizontal and rotary screening—the results are quite comparable, while there is a severe incompatibility when distributions are determined by different measuring principles. Highest conformity with the reference values is given for measurements with an image analysis system, whereas for all machines with horizontal screens the median value of the size distribution only reached between one-third to half of the reference median value for the particle length distribution. These deviations can be attributed to a higher particle misplacement, which is particularly found in the larger fractions. Such differences decrease when the particle’s shape is more roundish (i.e. sphericity closer to one). The median values of length distributions from screenings with a rotary classifier are between the measurements from an image analysis and horizontal screening devices. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il brûler la gestion des compétences? Une exploration des pratiques en entreprise
Pichault, François ULg; Antoine, Mélanie ULg; Deflandre, Dimitri ULg et al

Book published by De Boeck (2006)

Ouvrage - Après plus d'une décennie de discours promotionnels sur la gestion des compétences, censée renouveler le mode de fonctionnement des organisations, l'ouvrage entend lever le voile sur les ... [more ▼]

Ouvrage - Après plus d'une décennie de discours promotionnels sur la gestion des compétences, censée renouveler le mode de fonctionnement des organisations, l'ouvrage entend lever le voile sur les pratiques que l'on peut observer en la matière. Dans quelle mesure la gestion des compétences contribue-t-elle à modifier effectivement la relation de travail ? Peut-on vraiment y voir l'esquisse d'un nouveau mode de gouvernance des organisations contemporaines ? Ou faut-il au contraire la brûler sur le même bûcher que d'autres modes managériales ? A partir de l'exposé détaillé de quatre cas relevant à la fois de l'industrie et des services, l'ouvrage aboutit à montrer que la gestion des compétences peut prendre des formes concrètes très diverses. En s'écartant d'une certaine image d'Epinal véhiculée par la littérature gestionnaire, les auteurs proposent une typologie de situations parfois surprenantes qui établit l'influence prépondérante des contextes d'émergence et du processus d'introduction de la gestion des compétences. L'ouvrage s'adresse aux chercheurs, formateurs et étudiants de 2e et 3e cycles en gestion, en économie et en sociologie, désireux de découvrir la gestion des compétences par le prisme d'études de cas en entreprise et de se familiariser avec la façon dont la gestion des démarches compétences est mise en oeuvre dans les entreprises. [less ▲]

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See detailAléas climatiques versus actions anthropiques dans le développement des processus de « désertification » sur les marges sud et nord du Sahara
Taibi, Aude Nuscia; El Hannani, Mustapha; Gassani, Jean et al

in Interactions Nature-Société, analyses et modèles (2006)

Les marges sud et nord du Sahara sont soumises à des processus de dégradation anciens attestés par de nombreux travaux de terrain. Ils coïncident avec l'occurrence d'une sécheresse sévère sur les 3 sites ... [more ▼]

Les marges sud et nord du Sahara sont soumises à des processus de dégradation anciens attestés par de nombreux travaux de terrain. Ils coïncident avec l'occurrence d'une sécheresse sévère sur les 3 sites d'étude, débutée dans les années 1970 en Algérie (piémont sud de l'Atlas Saharien), au Maroc (bassin de l'oued Dadès) et en Mauritanie (lac d'Aleg, Brakna). Les suivis diachroniques par télédétection satellitaire (Landsat et SPOT) et aérienne (1954 à 2002) et des observations récentes, montrent la pérennité voire l'extension de certaines zones de dégradation localisées à proximité des agglomérations et points d'eau, malgré le retour des précipitations. Le rythme et les modalités de développement des dynamiques en œuvre, qui prennent la forme d'une dégradation qualitative et quantitative des couverts végétaux steppiques et de savane ainsi qu'une revivification des dunes d'Aleg, attestent du rôle prépondérant de certains activités humaines dans les processus de dégradation de ces milieux, en corrélation avec la crise climatique dont on peut se demander si elle n'est pas devenue un facteur secondaire. Sans ignorer les enjeux socio-économiques de développement, notre démarche vise à comprendre les logiques d'action des dynamiques complexes parfois abusivement désignées sous le terme simplificateur de «désertification». [less ▲]

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See detailBibliographie sélective
Provenzano, François ULg

in Denis, Benoît; De Marneffe, Daphné (Eds.) Les réseaux littéraires (2006)

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See detailMichael Krüger: "Die Turiner Komödie". Mit einer literarischen Speisekarte
Küpper, Achim ULg

E-print/Working paper (2006)

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See detailDirect experimental evidence for atomic tunneling of europium in crystalline Eu8Ga16Ge30
Hermann, Raphaël ULg; Keppens, Veerle; Bonville, Pierre et al

in Physical Review Letters (2006), 97(1),

Mossbauer-effect and microwave absorption experimental evidence unambiguously demonstrates the presence of slow, similar to 450 MHz, tunneling of magnetic europium between four equivalent sites in ... [more ▼]

Mossbauer-effect and microwave absorption experimental evidence unambiguously demonstrates the presence of slow, similar to 450 MHz, tunneling of magnetic europium between four equivalent sites in Eu8Ga16Ge30, a stoichiometric clathrate. Remarkably, six of the eight europium atoms, or 11% of the constituents in this solid, tunnel between these four sites separated by 0.55 angstrom. The off centering of the atoms or ions in crystalline clathrates appears to be a promising route for producing Rabi oscillators in solid-state materials. [less ▲]

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See detailInter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.
Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2006), 71(2 Pt B), 413-23

A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm ... [more ▼]

A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to integrated pest management approach. [less ▲]

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