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See detailThe stringent response mediator Rsh is required for Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis virulence, and for expression of the type IV secretion system virB.
Dozot, Marie; Boigegrain, Rose*-Anne; Delrue, Rose*-May et al

in Cellular Microbiology (2006), 8(11), 1791-802

Physiological adaptation of intracellular bacteria is critical for timely interaction with eukaryotic host cells. One mechanism of adaptation, the stringent response, is induced by nutrient stress via its ... [more ▼]

Physiological adaptation of intracellular bacteria is critical for timely interaction with eukaryotic host cells. One mechanism of adaptation, the stringent response, is induced by nutrient stress via its effector molecule (p)ppGpp, synthesized by the action of RelA/SpoT homologues. The intracellular pathogen Brucella spp., causative agent of brucellosis, possesses a gene homologous to relA/spoT, named rsh, encoding a (p)ppGpp synthetase as confirmed by heterologous complementation of a relA mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti. The Rsh deletion mutants in Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis were characterized by altered morphology, and by reduced survival under starvation conditions and in cellular and murine models of infection. Most interestingly, we evidenced that expression of virB, encoding the type IV secretion system, a major virulence factor of Brucella, was Rsh-dependent. All mutant phenotypes, including lack of VirB proteins, were complemented with the rsh gene of Brucella. In addition, RelA of S. meliloti functionally replaced Brucella Rsh, describing the capacity of a gene from a plant symbiont to restore virulence in a mammalian pathogen. We therefore concluded that in the intramacrophagic environment encountered by Brucella, Rsh might participate in the adaptation of the pathogen to low-nutrient environments, and indirectly in the VirB-mediated formation of the final replicative niche. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotography as diagnosis of contemporaneity
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Baetens, Jan; Van Gelder, Hilde (Eds.) Critical Realism in Contemporary Art. Around Allan Sekula’s Photography (2006)

Cet article porte sur l’efficacité politique d’une série photographique qui problématise des questions socioculturelles contemporaines telles l’immigration, l’exploitation et l’éthique du travail. L’image ... [more ▼]

Cet article porte sur l’efficacité politique d’une série photographique qui problématise des questions socioculturelles contemporaines telles l’immigration, l’exploitation et l’éthique du travail. L’image photographique devient une ressource dans les mains des acteurs sociaux et fait fonction de diagnostic des tensions du contemporain. La photographie permet de «reconnaître à travers» (c’est-à-dire « diagnostiquer ») et de formuler des jugements. Le potentiel sémantique du diagnostic engendré par cette série et la force illocutoire des jugements qui y sont inscrits fonctionnent comme une sorte d’« argumentation par images ». L’analyse de cette série photographique, réalisée par le photographe et théoricien Allan Sekula, nous a amené à nous interroger sur la relation entre image, corpus, genres d’afférence et statuts (documentaire et artistique). [less ▲]

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See detailThe FLC-dependent vernalization pathway in Sinapis alba.
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Physiology (2006), 143A

In many plants, flowering is promoted by a long exposure to cold, a process known as ‘vernalisation’. In Arabidopsis, the vernalisation pathway was shown to promote flowering via the repression of the ... [more ▼]

In many plants, flowering is promoted by a long exposure to cold, a process known as ‘vernalisation’. In Arabidopsis, the vernalisation pathway was shown to promote flowering via the repression of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene, which encodes a repressor of flowering. As far as we know, the genetical control of flowering is conserved among Brassicaceae, and we reported elsewhere cloning of flowering times genes of the photoperiodic pathway in Sinapis alba, based on sequence similarity with Arabidopsis. However, little is known about vernalisation in Sinapis. We therefore undertook a physiological and molecular study of this process. Plants of Sinapis were grown in non inductive short days and vernalised at 7°C, at the seedling stage. Vernalisation was found to accelerate flowering and an increasing effect was observed for vernalisation treatments longer than 2 weeks. We cloned an FLC-like sequence (SaFLC) by screening a cDNA library, and used it as a probe to perform expression analyses. We observed that SaFLC was almost completely repressed after 1 week of vernalisation, but repression was stable only after 2 weeks, which is consistent with the fact that 2-week is the minimal duration of vernalisation that promotes flowering. Hence the molecular mechanisms of vernalisation seem to be conserved in Sinapis and Arabidopsis. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting natural canopy gaps in Amazonian rainforest.
Colson, F; Gond, V; Freycon, V et al

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2006), 289(3), 69-79

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See detailQuel avenir pour les quotas laitiers européens ?
Burny, Philippe ULg

Poster (2006)

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See detailEpicuticular Factors Involved In Host Recognition For The Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius Rhopalosiphi
Muratori, Frédéric; Le Ralec, Anne; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2006), 32(3), 579-593

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See detailL'écriture réflexive en formation initiale d'enseignants: entre réconciliation avec l'écrit et apprentissage de la rigueur conceptuelle
Vanhulle, Sabine; Deum, Mélanie ULg

in Langage & Pratiques (2006), 37

Les auteures envisagent l’écriture comme un instrument de construction de savoirs et de développement de la réflexivité chez les futurs professionnels de l’enseignement. Or, les données recueillies dans ... [more ▼]

Les auteures envisagent l’écriture comme un instrument de construction de savoirs et de développement de la réflexivité chez les futurs professionnels de l’enseignement. Or, les données recueillies dans leurs recherches relèvent des réticences à écrire chez de nombreux étudiants. Il y a lieu de comprendre ces réticences avant d’élaborer des dispositifs visant dans un premier temps la réconciliation de ces étudiants avec l’écrit, pour qu’ils puissent ensuite y recourir pour élaborer leurs savoirs professionnels et opérer des liaisons entre la théorie et la pratique. Afin que de tels dispositifs ne profitent pas seulement à ceux qui possèdent déjà une bonne maitrise du langage écrit, il importe de les intégrer dans des processus de socialisation et d’accompagnement tout en outillant la production de textes réflexifs. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of The Antibiotic Azithromycin On Thermotropic Behavior Of Dopc Or Dppc Bilayers
Fa, N.; Ronkart, Sébastien ULg; Schanck, A. et al

in Chemistry and Physics of Lipids (2006), 144(1),

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See detailEffect of the entrained air and initial droplet velocity on the release height parameter of a Gaussian spray drift model.
Stainier, C.; Destain, Marie-France ULg; Schiffers, Bruno ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2006), 71(2 Pt A),

The increased concern about environmental effect of off-target deposits of pesticides use has resulted in the development of numerous spray drift models. Statistical models based on experimental field ... [more ▼]

The increased concern about environmental effect of off-target deposits of pesticides use has resulted in the development of numerous spray drift models. Statistical models based on experimental field studies are used to estimate off-target deposits for different sprayers in various environmental conditions. Random-walk and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been used to predict the effect of operational parameters and were extensively validated in wind tunnel. A third group, Gaussian dispersion models have been used for several years for the environmental assessment of the pesticide spray drift, mainly for aerial application. When these models were used for the evaluation of boom sprayer spray drift, their predictions were found unreliable in the short range, were the initial release conditions of the droplets have a significant effect on the spray deposits. For longer ranges, the results were found consistent with the field measurements as the characteristics of the source have a reduced influence on the small droplets drift. Three major parameters must be taken into account in order to define realistic initial conditions of the droplets in a spray drift model: the spray pattern of the nozzle, the boom movements and the effect of entrained air and droplet velocities. To take theses parameters into account in a Gaussian model, the nozzle droplet size distribution measured with a Malvern laser particle analyser was used to divide the nozzle output into several size classes. The spray deposits of each diameter class was computed for each successive position of the nozzle combining the nozzle spray distribution with drift computed with a Gaussian tilting plume model. The summation of these footprints resulted in the global drift of the nozzle. For increasing droplet size, the release height used in the Gaussian model was decreased from nozzle height to ground level using an experimental law to take into account the effect of entrained air and droplet initial velocity. The experimental law was adjusted on 2m/s wind tunnel measurements and robustness was evaluated for 1 and 4 m/s. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative and quantitative evaluation of equine respiratory mechanics by impulse oscillometry
Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Votion, Dominique ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2006), 38(1), 52-58

Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new technology, such as the impulse oscillometry system (IOS). Objectives: To evaluate the potential use of the IOS as a clinical respiratory function test and compare it to the current CRT in horses suffering from common upper and lower airway dysfunctions. Methods: Six healthy horses were tested before and after induction of a unilateral nasal obstruction (UNO) or transient left laryngeal hemiplegia. (LLH). Six heaves-affected horses were tested in clinical remission and during a heaves crisis, before and after nebulisation of cumulative doses of a bronchodilator therapy (ipratropium bromide; IPB). Results: As opposed to the CRT, the IOS was able to detect partial upper airway obstruction (UAO) caused by UNO or LLH in resting horses, without differentiating both conditions. Upper airway obstruction caused an upward shift of resistance (R-rs) from 5 to 35 Hz without altering reactance (X-rs). As for the CRT, IOS respiratory parameters measured in heaves-affected horses in crisis differed significantly from values measured during remission. The difference in frequency-dependent behaviour of R-rs and X-rs allowed discrimination between upper and lower airway obstructions. Bronchodilator treatment induced significant dose-dependent changes in X-rs at 5 and 10 Hz, from the first dose. Total pulmonary resistance (R-L) and R-rs at 5 Hz were affected from the second dose and displayed similar sensitivity. Although post treatment R-L values were comparable to remission, R-rs and X-rs remained significantly different, characterising persistent peripheral obstruction. Conclusions: The IOS was more sensitive than the CRT in detecting partial UAO in resting horses and persistent post treatment peripheral dysfunction in heaves-affected horses. The IOS is a sensitive test that provides graded quantitative and qualitative information on disease-induced respiratory dysfunctions as well as on treatment efficiency in horses. Potential relevance: The IOS could represent a practical and sensitive alternative respiratory function test for routine clinical investigations of common airway obstructive diseases and therapy in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMarchés publics et paradigme concurrenciel: état du droit
Navez, Françoise ULg; Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULg

in Dossiers d'ASBL Actualités (Les) (2006), 2

Les pouvoirs adjudicateurs désirant avoir une consommation responsable, favorable au développement durable, hésitent souvent à insérer des considérations "autres que strictement économiques" dans leurs ... [more ▼]

Les pouvoirs adjudicateurs désirant avoir une consommation responsable, favorable au développement durable, hésitent souvent à insérer des considérations "autres que strictement économiques" dans leurs procédures d'achat et donc à valoriser les spécificités des entreprises d'économie sociale. Mais d'où vient cette hésitation? L'argument généralement avancé est le fait que l'insertion de considérations autres que strictement économiques va à l'encontre de la logique de marché imposée par la législation nationale, le droit communautaire ou encore l'Accord sur les marchés publics. L'exercice leur apparait dès lors difficile et périlleux. Qu'en est-il de l'état du droit aujourd'hui? [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Composition Of The Leaf Oil Of Mentha Rotundifolia (L.) From Algeria
Brada, M.; Bezzina, M.; Marlier, M. et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (2006), 18(6), 663-665

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See detailHallucinations and delusions in children and adolescents
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Goëb, Jean-Louis

in Current Psychiatry Reviews (2006), 2

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See detailDe tragiek van het dagelijks leven. De jonge Herman de Coninck als 'gematigd' nieuwrealist
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Roland, H.; Fabry, G. (Eds.) Les frontières du réalisme dans la littérature narrative du 20e siècle/ The Borders of Realism in 20th Century Narrative Literature (2006)

This article investigates the way in which the Flemish poet Herman de Coninck negotiated his position as a new realist. By presenting himself as a moderate, he was able to maintain and defend his personal ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the way in which the Flemish poet Herman de Coninck negotiated his position as a new realist. By presenting himself as a moderate, he was able to maintain and defend his personal views of literature and to present himself to the public as an acceptable representative of the newest generation, whilst riding on the ephemeral wave success enjoyed by new realism in the early 1970s. [less ▲]

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See detailBacteriocin Activity By Lactobacillus Curvatus Cwbi-B28 To Inactivate Listeria Monocytogenes In Cold-Smoked Salmon During 4 Degrees C Storage
Ghalfi, H.; Allaoui, A.; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2006), 69(5),

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See detailApplication Of The Hough Transform For Seed Row Localisation Using Machine Vision
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Biosystems Engineering (2006), 94(3),

This paper compares two methods based on machine vision to provide driver assistance in seed drill guidance in order to improve spacing accuracy during contiguous passages. The first case consisted of ... [more ▼]

This paper compares two methods based on machine vision to provide driver assistance in seed drill guidance in order to improve spacing accuracy during contiguous passages. The first case consisted of following the furrow created at the preceding passage by a special marker disc attached to the seed drill. A camera was located on the tractor and detected this furrow. In the second case, the seed rows themselves were detected by the camera without making use of the marker disc. In both cases, several video sequences were acquired in various situations, including different soil textures and various illumination conditions (375 sequences were acquired during three years). A pre-treatment of these sequences was performed and included a background subtraction in order to remove shadows and other wide unevenness. In the first case, the best results were obtained by using an image treatment based on the Hough transform coupled to a recursive filter. The search of the maximum of the Hough transform was performed using a mean shift algorithm. In the second case, where several parallel rows were simultaneously present on the images, an adapted Hough transform was proposed which took into account the a priori knowledge of the rows spacing. The trueness and precision in row detection were superior in the second case. The results are compatible with the application, since the trueness was smaller than 30 mm. This suggested that it can be possible to assist the manual guidance of a seed drill by an automatic system consisting in a camera detecting the seed rows. [less ▲]

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