References of "2006"
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See detailFlux closure during a substorm observed by Cluster, Double Star, IMAGE FUV, SuperDARN, and Greenland magnetometers
Milan, S. E.; Wild, J. A.; Hubert, Benoît ULg et al

in Annales Geophysicae (2006), 24(2), 751-767

We examine magnetic flux closure during an extended substorm interval on 29 August 2004 involving a two-stage onset and subsequent re-intensifications. Cluster and Double Star provide observations of ... [more ▼]

We examine magnetic flux closure during an extended substorm interval on 29 August 2004 involving a two-stage onset and subsequent re-intensifications. Cluster and Double Star provide observations of magnetotail dynamics, while the corresponding auroral evolution, convection response, and substorm current wedge development are monitored by IMAGE FUV, SuperDARN, and the Greenland magnetometer chain, respectively. The first stage of onset is associated with the reconnection of closed flux in the plasma sheet; this is accompanied by a short-lived auroral intensification, a modest substorm current wedge magnetic bay, but no significant ionospheric convection enhancement. The second stage follows the progression of reconnection to the open field lines of the lobes; accompanied by prolonged auroral bulge and westward-travelling surge development, enhanced magnetic bays and convection. We find that the tail dynamics are highly influenced by ongoing dayside creation of open flux, leading to flux pile-up in the near-tail and a step-wise down-tail motion of the tail reconnection site. In all, 5 dipolarizations are observed, each associated with the closure of similar to 0.1 GWb of flux. Very simple calculations indicate that the X-line should progress down-tail at a speed of 20 km s(-1) or 6 R-E between each dipolarization. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid testosterone-induced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus of male Japanese quail.
Van Der Linden, Annemie; De Groof, Geert; Charlier, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2006)

Testosterone (T) influences the volume and cellular characteristics of a variety of steroid-dependent brain nuclei in many vertebrates. In castrated quail, the volume of the sexually dimorphic (males ... [more ▼]

Testosterone (T) influences the volume and cellular characteristics of a variety of steroid-dependent brain nuclei in many vertebrates. In castrated quail, the volume of the sexually dimorphic (males > females) medial preoptic nucleus (POM), a key area in the control of male sexual behavior, is markedly increased by T but previous studies always assessed this effect after a period of 8-14 days and its specific time-course was unknown. We recently found that following treatment with T, the POM volume increases in a time-dependent fashion: a significant increase was already detected after only one day and the response reached it maximum (volume doubling) after 14 days of treatment. This however raised the question of the cellular mechanism underlying such a rapid brain plasticity (increase in cell size, neuropil volume, dendritic branching, extracellular space?). To research whether a change in extra- vs. intra-cellular space could be responsible for the rapid T-induced increase in POM volume, we repeatedly analyzed by in vivo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) the brain of castrated male quail before as well as after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days of T implantation. MRI was performed on a 7T-system (Bruker) using a multislice diffusion weighted-spin echo sequence. Coronal slices with an image resolution of 100*100*500µm³ were obtained covering the whole telencephalon. Images were accurately coregistered allowing voxel-wise paired comparisons of the ADC data between the different time periods. The ADC significantly increased after one day of T treatment (696±16 vs 758±30 µm²/s, p=0.011, N=5) in POM and this effect apparently persisted during the whole experiment. By contrast, T insensitive regions like the nucleus rotundus (586±170 vs 511±26 µm²/s, p-value=0.24) and nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis (934±107 vs 911±64 µm²/s, p=0.68) were not affected after the first day nor later in the experiment. These data indicate that T increases the extracellular water volume in POM specifically, either as a result of cell shrinkage or of an increase in the space between cells, and that changes in the ratio of extra- to intra-cellular water mediate, at least in part, the fast plasticity of the POM volume observed after exposure to T. [less ▲]

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See detailLes "Ménines" de Vélasquez : une posture didactique
Heins, Pascal ULg

in Cramer, Evelyn; Ricker, Marie-Emilie; Souveryns, Patrick (Eds.) Didactiques de l'histoire et de l'histoire de l'art : divergences, convergences et complémentarités. 3e Journée interuniversitaire des Didactiques d'Histoire de l'Art (2006)

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See detailEffect of surface preparation techniques on the cohesion of superficial concrete: comparison between jack-hammering and water-jetting
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît; Belair, Normand

in Beushausen, H.; Dehn, F.; Alexander, M. G. (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (2006)

The aim of concrete surface preparation is to obtain a surface with properties similar to those of the bulk concrete. Superficial concrete must be sound, dry, cohesive and contaminant-free. Particularly ... [more ▼]

The aim of concrete surface preparation is to obtain a surface with properties similar to those of the bulk concrete. Superficial concrete must be sound, dry, cohesive and contaminant-free. Particularly, the preparation must be performed in such a way that sound and homogeneous concrete is reached. The most widespread surface preparation techniques are sandblasting, jack-hammering, milling and other water hydro-jetting. Evaluation of the effect of surface preparation is often based upon surface roughness or specific sur-face. It is necessary however to investigate further within the first few centimetres from the surface to verify the concrete homogeneity and soundness. Pull-off test is a destructive method that can be useful for such evaluation, but it only gives an indication; the observation of the failure mode is more instructive. This paper summarizes the results of a microscopy investigation performed to quantify the number and length of cracks. The analysis leads to the comparison of jack-hammering and water-jetting techniques in terms of their poten-tial effect on superficial cohesion of concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the Mycobacterium fortuitum class A beta-lactamase: structural basis for broad substrate specificity.
Sauvage, Eric ULg; Fonze, Eveline; Quinting, Birgit et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2006), 50(7), 2516-21

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. Class A beta-lactamases, the largest group of beta-lactamases, have been found in many bacterial strains ... [more ▼]

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. Class A beta-lactamases, the largest group of beta-lactamases, have been found in many bacterial strains, including mycobacteria, for which no beta-lactamase structure has been previously reported. The crystal structure of the class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum (MFO) has been solved at 2.13-A resolution. The enzyme is a chromosomally encoded broad-spectrum beta-lactamase with low specific activity on cefotaxime. Specific features of the active site of the class A beta-lactamase from M. fortuitum are consistent with its specificity profile. Arg278 and Ser237 favor cephalosporinase activity and could explain its broad substrate activity. The MFO active site presents similarities with the CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases but lacks a specific feature of these enzymes, the VNYN motif (residues 103 to 106), which confers on CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases a more efficient cefotaximase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Castelnau's fish collection and watercolour notebooks
Loneux, Michèle ULg

in Segers, Hendrik; Desmet, P.; Baus, Erika (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd GBIF Science Symposium - Tropical Biodiversity: Science, Data, Conservation (2006)

In 1865, Jean-Theodore Lacordaire (professor of natural sciences at the University of Liège) purchased more than thousand specimens collected by the famous explorer ‘Comte de Castelnau’. Castelnau (London ... [more ▼]

In 1865, Jean-Theodore Lacordaire (professor of natural sciences at the University of Liège) purchased more than thousand specimens collected by the famous explorer ‘Comte de Castelnau’. Castelnau (London 1812 – Melbourne 1880) travelled around the world being both explorer and diplomat. His most famous trip was the crossing of South America from Mato Gross to Peru, coming back by the Amazon. He discovered and described several species. The specimens collected by Castelnau present at the Museum of Zoology include mainly birds and fishes. One of the fish specimens is labelled as Chrysophrys nasutus type and is probably the (holo)type specimen for Cymatoceps nasutus. The fish specimens were accompanied by five original watercolour notebooks, showing coloured fish-drawings made by the collector at the catch moment. Despite the fact that some of the paintings were used in the past to restore the colours of the naturalised fishes, further research on the relations between the collection and the notebooks should be made. [less ▲]

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See detailThixoforging of 7075 aluminium alloys at high solid fraction
Vaneetveld, Grégory ULg; Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Solid State Phenomena (2006), 116-117

Thixoforging is a type of semi-solid metal processing at high solid fraction (0.5 < f(s) < 1), which involves the processing of alloys in the semi-solid state. 7075 alloy has been used as a feedstock for ... [more ▼]

Thixoforging is a type of semi-solid metal processing at high solid fraction (0.5 < f(s) < 1), which involves the processing of alloys in the semi-solid state. 7075 alloy has been used as a feedstock for thixoforming in order to investigate thixoformability of a high performance aluminium alloy at high solid fraction. The microstructure in semi-solid state consists of fine spheroidal solid grains surrounded by liquid. Thixo behaviour allows laminar flow that avoids macro-porosity and other casting defects and gives better mechanical properties; so we can reduce the weight of functional parts. Higher solid fraction of 7075 alloy is less sensitive to temperature, avoids metal splash at high speed, allows laminar flow at high speed and gives a good smooth surface without stick-slip phenomenon. The process is quicker with less energy and so the production rate increases and the tool has longer life. However, high solid fraction promotes freezing flow because of faster solidification and the lack of liquid phase. This freezing flow creates solid/liquid segregation and increases the forming force. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la séroprévalence de l'infection à herpèsvirus caprin 1 dans le sud-ouest de l'Europe
Thiry, Julien ULg; Keuser, Véronique; Schynts, Frédéric et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2006), 49

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See detailCalculation of the random-incidence scattering coefficients of a sine-shaped surface
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; De Geetere, L.; Vermeir, G. et al

in Acta Acustica United with Acustica (2006), 92(4, JUL-AUG), 593-603

Random-incidence scattering coefficients obtained by measurement in reverberation chambers (ISO 17497-1) for a particular sine-shaped surface are compared with theoretical results. Holford-Urusovskii's ... [more ▼]

Random-incidence scattering coefficients obtained by measurement in reverberation chambers (ISO 17497-1) for a particular sine-shaped surface are compared with theoretical results. Holford-Urusovskii's method and a hybrid plane wave decomposition - FEM method are applied to an infinite sine-shaped surface having the same profile, while the 3D BEM gives numerical results for the finite-size surface. Perfect rigidity (Neumann boundary condition) is assumed in all computations. The validity of the computations is compared and discussed with regard to the approximations involved. Finally, the measured and calculated values of the scattering coefficients are compared. A good correspondence is found, in particular concerning the overall dependence on frequency. Small deviations have however been observed, at low as well as at high frequencies. They will be explained by uncertainties in the measurements and discretisation errors in the calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet, une arme à double tranchant ?
Guillaume, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2006)

Approche critique de la notion de projet et de ses usages dans le domaine de l'intervention sociale : l'individualisation des causes et des traitements, la responsabilisation des acteurs individuels sont ... [more ▼]

Approche critique de la notion de projet et de ses usages dans le domaine de l'intervention sociale : l'individualisation des causes et des traitements, la responsabilisation des acteurs individuels sont autant d'indices de l'affirmation croissante d'un Etat social actif. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transmission familiale : s'approprier le passé entre frères et soeurs.
Favart, Evelyne ULg

in Pensée plurielle (2006), 1/11

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See detailEtat des lieux des obligations en matière de cuisine collective.
Dehon, Lydie; Goebel, Laurence; Moerman, John et al

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailQuand l'incontinentia pigmenti défie un dogme.
Willemaers, Valentine; Lizin, V. A.; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Dermatologie Actualité (2006), 95

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See detailIncomplete muscle strength recovery in injured professional football players
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Ganteaume, S.; Genty, M. et al

in Abstract book du 11th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science (ECSSA) (2006)

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See detailRegular events in travel behaviour research: setup of a longitudinal websurvey
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

Conference (2006)

One of the leading paradigms in modern travel behaviour research is the activity based approach, which considers travel as a derivative from the activities that individuals and households need or wish to ... [more ▼]

One of the leading paradigms in modern travel behaviour research is the activity based approach, which considers travel as a derivative from the activities that individuals and households need or wish to perform. Longitudinal designs provide the required framework for a better understanding of the dynamics of travel behaviour. Longitudinal data can be used to analyze behavioural adjustments some time before (response leads) or after (response lags) the occurrence of an event, or for instance to analyze routine behaviour. The questionnaire used to collect the data will be an activity diary. The respondents are asked to fill in all their activities performed that day. The diaries have to be filled in at least twice a week. These moments are randomly selected, but in weeks when a special event occurs, the days around this special event are questioned as well. Performing a longitudinal study has certain drawbacks however. The respondent burden can cause different side-effects, such as panel attrition, decreasing representativeness and, reporting errors. Thus, next to refreshing the sample regularly, trying to keep the respondents motivated is essential. A first step in lowering the respondent burden is to make the activity diaries user-friendly. An internetbased questionnaire makes interaction with respondents possible. The respondent’s current results can be graphically displayed (e.g. geographical map of activity-pattern), potentially awakening or strengthening the interest in the study. Logical rules (e.g. two activities on two different locations require a trip in between) can be formulated, and the interaction with the respondents allows the researcher to get feedback on “strange” answers, or on missing values, thus improving the data quality. This paper describes some potential paths to minimise sample attrition (e.g. internet-based interaction with respondents) and ways to refresh the sample. These findings are applied to the study of travel behaviour of Flemish households around school holidays. [less ▲]

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See detailTableau clinique et mécanismes physiopathologiques des principales maladies inflammatoires chroniques des voies respiratoires du cheval
Mesnil, Claire ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 227-240

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture ... [more ▼]

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease and the follicular pharyngitis. These diseases can have an important impact on horses’ health and on their sports performances. A good knowledge of their aetiologies and their physiopathological mechanisms would allow a better control of these affections. However, even if many studies were made on this subject, there are currently very few certainties as for the inflammatory mechanisms governing these diseases. This article aims to make an inventory of knowledge and deficiencies concerning these four chronic inflammatory diseases [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of a dozen non-CO2 greenhouse gases above Central Europe since the mid-1980s.
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)