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See detailLes enjeux politiques des élections communales et provinciales d’octobre 2006
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2006)

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See detailLes angles corniculaires et l'infiniment petit
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Sup (2006), 31(mai-juin), 4-7

Nous mettons en évidence le fait que des angles entre un demi-cercle et une droite tangente mène au concept d'infiniment petit.

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See detailSensitivity analysis of programmed cell death and implications for crosstalk phenomena during tumor necrosis factor stimulation
Eissing, Thomas; Waldherr, Steffen; Gondro, Cedric et al

in Proc. of the 2006 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (2006)

Different methods for analyzing the sensitivity of the direct signal transduction pathway of receptor-induced apoptosis to parameter changes are presented. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death ... [more ▼]

Different methods for analyzing the sensitivity of the direct signal transduction pathway of receptor-induced apoptosis to parameter changes are presented. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, removing unwanted cells within multicellular organisms to maintain a proper balance between cell reproduction and death. The results indicate the importance of controlling activated caspases by direct inhibition to prevent apoptosis. A misregulation of IAP molecules, one of the main inhibitors, appears to be especially critical. The results indicate how an increased production of this molecule promotes survival and might promote cancer progression, while a reduced degradation might not, thereby providing insight of potential pharmaceutical relevance and also stimulating experimental verification. The different engineering methods applied, nicely complement each other to provide valuable insight into this important process. Because IAPs, among others, are also an important connection to other signaling pathways, the results will enable a more efficient extension of the current model. This is outlined at the example of tumor necrosis factor induced signaling pathways [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling cell cycle exit, neuronal differentiation and migration in cortical neurogenesis.
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Besson, Arnaud; Roberts, James M et al

in Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (2006), 5(20), 2314-8

The generation of new neurons in the cerebral cortex requires that progenitor cells leave the cell cycle and activate specific programs of differentiation and migration. Genetic studies have identified ... [more ▼]

The generation of new neurons in the cerebral cortex requires that progenitor cells leave the cell cycle and activate specific programs of differentiation and migration. Genetic studies have identified some of the molecules controlling these cellular events, but how the different aspects of neurogenesis are integrated into a coherent developmental program remains unclear. One possible mechanism implicates multifunctional proteins that regulate, both cell cycle exit and cell differentiation.(1) A prime example is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), which has recently been shown to function beyond cell cycle regulation and promote both neuronal differentiation and migration of newborn cortical neurons, through distinct and separable mechanisms. p27(Kip1) is therefore part of a machinery that couples the multiple events of neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailMapped fields of surface geostrophic currents based on altimetry, and fields of sea surface winds, cloud-free sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration using monovariate OI and a multivariate EOF technique
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Helber, R. W. et al

Conference (2006)

There is an increasing demand for regional oceanic models capable of simulating the regional ocean circulation. Accurate surface forcing functions are necessary to achieve this goal. Here we present ... [more ▼]

There is an increasing demand for regional oceanic models capable of simulating the regional ocean circulation. Accurate surface forcing functions are necessary to achieve this goal. Here we present analyses of several data sets covering the contiguous eastern Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic: a) Wind fields resulting from the blending by optimal interpolation (OI) of NCEP, in situ and QuikSCAT winds. These winds show improvements in the coastal region, where orography and coastal boundary layer effects are important and under-resolved. b) Cloud-free SST, created by merging several SST sources using OI. c) Cloud-free chlorophyll, also created using OI. d) Surface drifter trajectories, generated from geostrophic currents and used to track water masses, with application to the Mississippi River outflow subsequent to Hurricane Katrina. e) Multivariate cloud-free products, using SST and chlorophyll, and SST and QuikSCAT winds, to obtain more accurate reconstructions than the monovariate equivalents. We use an EOF-based method, called DINEOF, which has proven to give similar results to OI-based reconstruction but up to 30 times faster, making it very suitable for operational applications. These data sets, originally created for the West Florida Shelf, have been expanded for the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) and for broader environmental applications. [less ▲]

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See detailCompaction of granular materials: experiments and contact dynamics simulations
Lumay, Geoffroy ULg; Ludewig, François ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2006), 40

We present an original experimental study of the slow compaction dynamics for two- dimensional isotropic granular systems. Compaction dynamics is measured at three different scales : the macroscopic scale ... [more ▼]

We present an original experimental study of the slow compaction dynamics for two- dimensional isotropic granular systems. Compaction dynamics is measured at three different scales : the macroscopic scale through the normalized packing fraction ˜ ρ, the mesoscopic scale through the normalized fraction ˜ φ of domains ideally ordered in the system, and the microscopic scale through the grain mobility μ. The domains ideally ordered are found to obey a growth process dominated by the displacement of domain boundaries. We present also preliminary results of three-dimensional simulations with a model of contact dynamics. These results allow to discuss the difference between the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLa BREFA, Batterie Rapide d’Evaluation des Fonctions Attentionnelles chez l’enfant : données préliminaires.
Catale, Corinne ULg; Hogge, Michaël; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2006)

En neuropsychologie de l’enfant, les troubles attentionnels et exécutifs sont rapportés dans un grand nombre de pathologies développementales (autisme, trouble de l’attention avec hyperactivité… ; voir ... [more ▼]

En neuropsychologie de l’enfant, les troubles attentionnels et exécutifs sont rapportés dans un grand nombre de pathologies développementales (autisme, trouble de l’attention avec hyperactivité… ; voir Pennington & Ozonoff, 1996) et de pathologies acquises (par exemple, le traumatisme crânien [TC]). Et pourtant, le neuropsychologue se trouve encore souvent démuni pour l’évaluation clinique et psychométrique des fonctions attentionnelles et exécutives chez l’enfant. Les quelques épreuves disponibles sont pour la plupart issues de la neuropsychologie de l’adulte et sont de ce fait peu adaptées à l’enfant. Outre le manque d’attractivité qui les caractérise, ces épreuves sont souvent peu pertinentes dans une perspective développementale, en particulier parce qu’elles ne peuvent être administrées que si l’enfant a déjà acquis, au préalable, certaines habiletés cognitives (par exemple, la lecture pour l’épreuve du Stroop ou la connaissance de la chaîne alphabétique pour le Trail Making Test). L’objectif du présent travail consiste à développer une batterie d’évaluation du fonctionnement attentionnel et exécutif (BREFA) adaptée à l’enfant et qui prend en considération les écueils théoriques et cliniques évoqués ci-dessus. Basée sur le modèle de Posner et Petersen (1990), cette batterie a été administrée à 109 enfants âgés de 5 à 11 ans sans antécédents neurologiques. Les épreuves incluses dans la batterie se veulent attractives pour l’enfant (stimuli colorés et familiers) et permettent d’évaluer les capacités d’attention sélective, d’attention soutenue, de flexibilité et d’inhibition cognitive. Des analyses de variance ont été réalisées pour chaque épreuve, avec le groupe d’âge (5 ans - 6 ans - 7 ans - 8 ans - 9 ans - 10 ans - 11 ans) comme variable indépendante. Outre un effet développemental pour l’ensemble des épreuves administrées (p < .001), les analyses post-hoc montrent une amélioration des performances particulièrement marquée pour la tranche 5-8 ans aux épreuves d’inhibition et de flexibilité (p < .05), résultat compatible avec les données issues la littérature (Klenberg, Korkman, & Lahti-Nuutila, 2001). Par ailleurs, des données préliminaires obtenues auprès d’un groupe de 10 enfants atteints d’un TC léger suggèrent que les épreuves de flexibilité et d’inhibition proposées dans la BREFA sont sensibles aux difficultés attentionnelles et exécutives que peuvent présenter ces enfants. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetical metabolomics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Populus: a case study.
Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Storme, Veronique et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2006), 47(2), 224-37

Genetical metabolomics [metabolite profiling combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis] has been proposed as a new tool to identify loci that control metabolite abundances. This concept was ... [more ▼]

Genetical metabolomics [metabolite profiling combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis] has been proposed as a new tool to identify loci that control metabolite abundances. This concept was evaluated in a case study with the model tree Populus. Using HPLC, the peak abundances were analyzed of 15 closely related flavonoids present in apical tissues of two full-sib poplar families, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24, and correlation and QTL analysis were used to detect flux control points in flavonoid biosynthesis. Four robust metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL), associated with rate-limiting steps in flavonoid biosynthesis, were mapped. Each mQTL was involved in the flux control to one or two flavonoids. Based on the identities of the affected metabolites and the flavonoid pathway structure, a tentative function was assigned to three of these mQTL, and the corresponding candidate genes were mapped. The data indicate that the combination of metabolite profiling with QTL analysis is a valuable tool to identify control points in a complex metabolic pathway of closely related compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques actives d’emploi et professionnels de l’employabilité : critique et clinique
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Travail Emploi Formation (2006), 6/2006

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See detail« Beau comme l’antique ». Pausanias et « l’archaïque »
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Ktema : Civilisations de l'Orient, de la Grèce et de Rome Antiques (2006), 31

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See detailFactors affecting the three-dimensional distribution of exogenous zinc in a sandy Luvisol subjected to intensive irrigation with raw wastewaters.
Dere, Christelle ULg; Cornu, Sophie; Lamy, Isabelle

in Soil Use and Management (2006), 22

Massive volumes of raw wastewater have been spread on sandy Luvisols in the Paris region since 1899, causing major soil contamination with metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the factors ... [more ▼]

Massive volumes of raw wastewater have been spread on sandy Luvisols in the Paris region since 1899, causing major soil contamination with metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the factors influencing the vertical and horizontal redistribution of MTE at the plot scale, a study was carried out of the three-dimensional distribution of zinc. The background and exogenous fractions of zinc in the contaminated soil were discriminated using correlations between zinc and iron defined from unpolluted soils of the area. At the surface, the spatial distribution of zinc is determined by the geometry of the irrigation system and the terrain topography. The highest concentrations are observed near the irrigation outlets and in areas of very slight slope. The exogenous zinc has migrated down to the base of the studied solums (1 m depth), and its subsurface distribution depends upon the physico-chemical properties of the horizons. In the E horizon, the trapping of exogenous zinc is governed by the number of available reactive sites, whereas in the Bt horizon it is a function of the vertical and lateral behaviour of the drainage. Moreover, lateral transfer of exogenous zinc occurs in the C horizon. In the case of soil contaminated with raw wastewater, the organization of water flow on the surface and in the subsurface is a determining factor in the redistribution of zinc within a plot. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestion à Françoise Dastur
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Dewalque, Arnaud (Ed.) Alter - Revue de phénoménologie 14 (2006), p.265 sq. (2006)

J'adresse ici à Françoise Dastur une question d’ordre très général qui touche aux principes de la méthode phénoménologique et, conjointement, au statut – critique, théorique ou scientifique – du discours ... [more ▼]

J'adresse ici à Françoise Dastur une question d’ordre très général qui touche aux principes de la méthode phénoménologique et, conjointement, au statut – critique, théorique ou scientifique – du discours philosophique. Cette question concerne plus exactement ce que Husserl a nommé, au § 7 du deuxième tome des Recherches logiques, « le principe de l’absence de présupposition en théorie de la connaissance ». [less ▲]

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See detailUn prisme ou une rose des vents des finalités et caractéristiques d'un Dispositif d'Evaluation (DEA)
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

Learning material (2006)

According to the prism through which performances are observed (measured and judged), the resulting (numerical or qualitative) pictures that reflect them may vary greatly. A prism has several dimensions ... [more ▼]

According to the prism through which performances are observed (measured and judged), the resulting (numerical or qualitative) pictures that reflect them may vary greatly. A prism has several dimensions. It can also be spoken of a compass of several bipolar dimensions (directions) represnted by nails. A dozen of them are presented and illustrated. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of impacts of dams on the annual maximum flow characteristics in three regulated hydrological regimes in Quebec (Canada).
Assani, A. A.; Stichelbout, E.; Roy, A. G. et al

in Hydrological Processes (2006)

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See detailReal attacks on virtual networks: Vivaldi out of tune
Kaafar, M. A.; Mathy, Laurent ULg; Turletti, T. et al

in Proceedings of the 2006 SIGCOMM workshop on Large-scale attack defense (2006)

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See detailBiogeographic trends in Antarctic lake communities
Gibson, John; Wilmotte, Annick ULg; Taton, Arnaud et al

in Bergstrom, Dana; Convey, Peter; Huiskes, Ad HL (Eds.) Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems (2006)

The basic biogeographic zones proposed many years ago – the Subantarctic islands, Maritime Antarctica and Continental Antarctica – continue to hold up, though they cannot be seen as absolute dividers of ... [more ▼]

The basic biogeographic zones proposed many years ago – the Subantarctic islands, Maritime Antarctica and Continental Antarctica – continue to hold up, though they cannot be seen as absolute dividers of biodiversity. For example, subantarctic Macquarie Island appears to be biogeographically separate from the islands of the Kerguelen Province, and on the continent there are species that are present in lakes of more than one zone. Furthermore, there are numerous lake environments that have yet to be investigated, and it is probable that some of these lakes could turn up surprises that will bring into question these basic divisions. An important question to be answered is whether these biogeographic zones reflect climate attributes, or whether they were moulded long ago by barriers to dispersal. Again, our imperfect knowledge of Antarctic lacustrine biogeography means that this question cannot at present be answered. However, as discussed elsewhere in this volume (Chown and Convey), there are indications of a strong biogeographical boundary for terrestrial species between the Maritime and Continental Antarctic zones. A palaeolimnological approach will assist in answering this question: understanding how Antarctic biogeography has developed through time will provide necessary insights into current distributions. A prime example is the occurrence of the copepod Boeckella poppei in Beaver Lake. Pugh et al. (2002) initially concluded that this species was an anthropogenic introduction, then Bayly et al. (2003) provided morphological evidence for long habitation in the area of Beaver Lake. Recent palaeolimnological work has shown that the species has been present in nearby Lake Terrasovoje for at least 9000 yrs (L. Cromer, A. Bissett, J. Gibson and K. Swadling, unpublished data). Even though this lake has only existed in the Holocene, cosmogenic exposure dates in the same area of exposed rock can exceed 106 years (D. Gore and D. White, personal communication). From these observations it can be concluded that Boeckella poppei has been associated with the Beaver Lake area for at least the entire Holocene and probably well back into the Pleistocene, and that its occurrence outside its ‘preferred’ biogeographical zone (Maritime Antarctica) is not a reflection of current climate, rather of history. The majority of our knowledge regarding Antarctic lacustrine biodiversity and biogeography has come from classic taxonomic studies, where the morphology (or biochemistry for bacteria) has been of greatest importance. In many cases this has led to questionable identification, correct identification of species is paramount if the true biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctica is to be deduced. It is only in the last few years that the more objective approach of molecular genetics has been applied to Antarctic lacustrine organisms, and then only for more cryptic groups, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. As more samples and organisms are studied by these methods it is likely that new relationships between species distributions will be found. Due to the limited number of species in Antarctica (compared to more temperate zones), it may be possible in the future to record the make-up of selected genes of most, if not all, of the biota, which will allow more precise analysis. There is increasing evidence for endemism amongst the inhabitants of lakes both on the Antarctic continent and the subantarctic islands, from bacteria to crustacea. Use of molecular genetic techniques to identify more cryptic species will most likely add to the list of putative endemics. It is clear, however, that recent colonisation and current climate also play important roles in the distribution of the biota, as most of the lakes in Antarctica are of relatively recent (Holocene) origin. Colonising species have to be adapted to transport from source areas, which can either involve inter- or intra-continental movement, as well as survival on arrival at potential habitat. Flexibility in nutritional and habitat requirements is an important factor in determining whether a species will be a successful coloniser. The buffering to environmental extremes provided by the liquid water habitat means that conditions further south will not be as harsh as those experienced by their terrestrial counterparts. As the climate changes in the future, it will be interesting to note the effects of these changes on the lacustrine biota. Will new species colonise the Antarctic Peninsula where temperatures are warming? In the longer term, the biogeography of Antarctic lakes will continue to be dynamic. New species will arrive, others will become extinct. The biogeographic zones long-proposed may continue to hold, though more precise knowledge of current distributions and responses to climate change may refine our view. [less ▲]

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