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See detailThe prospects of detecting exo-planets with the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE)
den Hartog, R.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Gondoin, P. et al

in Aime, C.; Vakili, F. (Eds.) Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques (2006)

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like ... [more ▼]

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like planets around nearby stars and to characterize their atmospheres. Darwin and TPF-I are currently conceived as nulling interferometers with free-flying telescopes. Within the frame of the Darwin program, the ESA and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), supported by European industries and scientific institutes, have performed two parallel Phase A studies of a ground-based nulling interferometry experiment (GENIE) at the site of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in Paranal, Chile. GENIE will demonstrate several key technologies required for the Darwin mission. Its science objectives include the detection and characterization of dust disks and low-mass companions around nearby stars. These studies have established detailed instrumental designs, in which GENIE will operate in the L' band around 3.8 microns as a single Bracewell nulling or constructive interferometer, using either two Auxiliary or two Unit Telescopes. The studies were supported by detailed numerical simulations which indicated the possibility of detection and low-resolution spectroscopy in nulling mode of extra-solar giant planets (EGPs) with atmospheric temperatures down to 700 K, provided that a proper calibration of instrumental effects is applied. Detection of circumstellar exo-zodiacal (EZ) dust clouds is possible down to 0.5 mJy, with interesting prospects for the characterization of planet-forming disks. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeography of the Southeast Asian sundaicus complex inferred by differential evolution markers
Dusfour, Isabelle; Michaux, Johan ULg; Manguin, Sylvie

in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (The) (2006), 75(5), 590

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See detailDirect experimental evidence for atomic tunneling of europium in crystalline Eu8Ga16Ge30
Hermann, Raphaël ULg; Keppens, Veerle; Bonville, Pierre et al

in Physical Review Letters (2006), 97(1),

Mossbauer-effect and microwave absorption experimental evidence unambiguously demonstrates the presence of slow, similar to 450 MHz, tunneling of magnetic europium between four equivalent sites in ... [more ▼]

Mossbauer-effect and microwave absorption experimental evidence unambiguously demonstrates the presence of slow, similar to 450 MHz, tunneling of magnetic europium between four equivalent sites in Eu8Ga16Ge30, a stoichiometric clathrate. Remarkably, six of the eight europium atoms, or 11% of the constituents in this solid, tunnel between these four sites separated by 0.55 angstrom. The off centering of the atoms or ions in crystalline clathrates appears to be a promising route for producing Rabi oscillators in solid-state materials. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique industrielle sous les tirs croisés de la mondialisation et du droit communautaire de la concurrence
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in Mondialisation politique industrielle et droit comm de la concurrence (2006)

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See detailManagement of soils polluted by heavy metals in cultivated areas : which kind of bioremediation ?
Schvartz, Christian; Zu, Yanqun; Douay, Francis et al

Conference (2006)

Within the periurban areas of big cities, soils are often contaminated by heavy metals spread by human activity: atmospheric fallouts due to industry and traffic, recycling of urban wastes (directly or ... [more ▼]

Within the periurban areas of big cities, soils are often contaminated by heavy metals spread by human activity: atmospheric fallouts due to industry and traffic, recycling of urban wastes (directly or after water treatment), fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture… This is, among others, verified in the surroundings of Kunming (Yunnan, PR China) and Lille (Nord-Pas de Calais, France), areas with high density of population and traditional metallurgical industries. These areas have also intensive agricultural activities characterized by important vegetable productions, and are generally known as the "green belts" of the cities. These cultures, with short vegetative period, need high biodisponibility of nutrients, biodisponibility which may also occur for other unwanted elements existing in the soil, such as heavy metals. For evident human health reasons the quality of the crops must be ensured and their heavy metal content kept as low as possible, at least under the values of relevant legal thresholds. Thus, vegetables are particularly sensitive to the presence of heavy metals in the soils where they are growing. It is therefore necessary to manage these soils in order to preserve public health or, more basically, the income of the farmers, as contaminated vegetables would not be marketable. Thus, for these large areas contaminated by diffuse pollution, bioremediation looks to be appropriate. But the kind of the bioremediation which will be applied has to be adapted to the severity of the soil pollution and to the intended land use. In this project, we have assessed the contents of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu of soils and vegetables within the Chenggong county (near Kunming), and compared the results to the already known situation of the surroundings of two lead and zinc smelters located close to Lille. Then goals and ways of bioremediation have been discussed and the first steps of implementation experimented. [less ▲]

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See detailA phenomenological model to simulate mechanical tests on ultrafine-grained aluminium produced by ECAE
Diouf, Boubakar; El Houdaigui, Fouad; Poortmans, S. et al

in Mota Soares, C. A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the III European Conference on Computational Mechanics Solids (ECCM III) (2006)

Results of FEM simulations predicting the mechanical behavior at room temperature of test specimens of ultrafine-grained aluminum produced by ECAE are presented. The constitutive law is either based on a ... [more ▼]

Results of FEM simulations predicting the mechanical behavior at room temperature of test specimens of ultrafine-grained aluminum produced by ECAE are presented. The constitutive law is either based on a Hill model or on the Minty micro-macro model and coupled with an isotropic hardening law and/or kinematic hardening law. The yield locus shape, its size and its position during tension, compression and torsion tests have been studied. Initial texture measurements allow the identification of a constitutive law based on a set of representative crystals and crystal plasticity approach using a Full- Constraint Taylor model. Finite element simulations using the previous constitutive laws are compared with experimental investigations. The results show that applying an initial back stress identified by tensile and compression tests to the yield locus predicts the initial flow stress in torsion test. The Minty micro-macro model coupled with a Voce type hardening model gives a good agreement with experimental results for the prediction of the shape at different stages of deformation of a compressed test specimen. The simulation of tensile tests underline the need of inverse modeling as, due to the test specimen shape, the test is far from being homogeneous. The link between test specimen length and the necking appearance is studied. [less ▲]

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See detailLes grandes lignes de l'interprétation heideggérienne de la monadologie
Pieron, Julien ULg

in M. S. Alves, Pedro; Santos, José Manuel; Sá, Alexandre Franco de (Eds.) Humano e Inumano. A Dignidade do Homem e os Novos Desafios (Actas do Segundo Congresso Internacional da Associação Portuguesa de Filosofia Fenomenológica) (2006)

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See detailRéseaux et bases de données
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Fréché, Bibiane

in Denis, Benoît; de Marneffe, Daphné (Eds.) Les Réseaux littéraires (2006)

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See detailLes clauses d'un contrat de vie commune d'un couple non marié
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri (Ed.) Aspects actuels de la programmation patrimoniale dans la famille (2006)

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See detailAdvanced particle characterization for improved; understanding of spray coating quality
Pirard, Eric ULg; Campana, Florent; Janssen, Jean-Pierre

in Proceedings International Thermal Spray Conference (2006)

The size and shape of individual particles are essential characteristics to control their behavior during spraying. Thanks to recently available technology in powder image analysis, this paper ... [more ▼]

The size and shape of individual particles are essential characteristics to control their behavior during spraying. Thanks to recently available technology in powder image analysis, this paper investigates the correlation between the geometric properties of several thousands of particles and their flowability (Hall flowmeter) and apparent density (Scott volumeter). Four different chromium carbide Cr3C2-NiCr 75/25 powders used for HVOF wear / oxidation resistant coatings are studied. The coating quality obtained for each powder by the HVOF spraying process is further investigated using metallographic image analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a Plackett-Burman experimental design to examine the impact of extraction parameters on yields and compositions of pectins extracted from chicory roots (Chicorium intybus L.)
Robert, Christelle; Devillers, Thierry; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2006), 54(19), 7167-7174

Chicory root pectin was isolated by acid extraction followed by alcohol precipitation. Because the extraction conditions have important effects on the features of pectins, an experimental design was used ... [more ▼]

Chicory root pectin was isolated by acid extraction followed by alcohol precipitation. Because the extraction conditions have important effects on the features of pectins, an experimental design was used to study the influence of 17 different extraction parameters on yield and composition of pectin: pH, temperature, time of extraction, solid/liquid ratio, and different pretreatments of the pulps before extraction. Twenty extractions were conducted and examined for their significance on yield and sugar content using the Plackett-Burman factorial design. The acid extraction of chicory roots resulted in an average yield of 11% containing 86% of sugars. It was found that extraction temperature, time, protease pretreatment, water purity, and water washing of pulps significantly affected yield and pectin composition with an increase of yield and purity of pectin in harsher extraction conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailRodents biodiversity and associated infections in Southeast Asia
Hugot, Jean Pierre; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn et al

in Genetics in Infectious Diseases (2006), 8(4), 19

We are currently involved in a Franco-Thai program devolved to a multidisciplinary investigation of Muridae rodents (‘‘mice and rats''), their parasites and the pathogens that they may carry and/or ... [more ▼]

We are currently involved in a Franco-Thai program devolved to a multidisciplinary investigation of Muridae rodents (‘‘mice and rats''), their parasites and the pathogens that they may carry and/or transmit to human, with a better understanding of diseases emergence as an ultimate goal. In such a context, pathogens circulation in the wild is a complex but pivotal phenomenon which requires a continuum of scientific approaches to be accurately apprehended. In particular, a rigorously comparative study is mandatory in order to take into account the interactions between parasites, wild and domestic hosts (uncluding human) and their environment. This is the reason why we rely on both concepts and techniques from a wide range of disciplines including taxonomy, cytogenetics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genetics, ecology, geography as well as modeling. With the following objectives. Objective 1: To precisely identify and characterize the rodent species acting as reservoirs, and to document their ecology, geographic distribution as well as the genetic structure of their populations. To assess parasite and pathogen diversity in relation to their associated rodent hosts. To provide cophylogenies and co-phylogeographies in order to enlight the evolutionary relationships of hosts and parasites. Objective 2: To map and correlate the observed rodents distributions with their species-specific environmental landscapes in order to extrapolate their potential ‘‘real'' range and to anticipate their future distributions in relation to landscape modifications. Objective 3: Computing epidemiological databases. Crosschecking field data and GIS data. Definition and standardization of a risk-scale. Finalization of maps of risks and distributions. Atlas of Thai Muridae. Reference collection of Thai Muridae. Education and training of students. Following the listing of the objectives, we expose the first results of our studies and we sketch future projects. [less ▲]

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See detailLes industries aux pointes foliacées et la transition du Paléolithique moyen au Paléolithique supérieur dans le Nord de l'Europe
Flas, Damien ULg

in Bulletin de l'Association Scientifique Liégeoise pour la Recherche Archéologique (2006), 25

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See detailInclusion of a stress-dependent Preisach model in 2D FE calculations
Benabou, A.; Vandenbossche, L.; Gyselinck, Johan et al

in Compel-the International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (2006), 25(1), 81-90

Purpose - Mechanical stress can heavily affect the magnetic behaviour law in ferromagnetic materials. This paper, aims to take into account the effect of mechanical stress into a hystreresis model. This ... [more ▼]

Purpose - Mechanical stress can heavily affect the magnetic behaviour law in ferromagnetic materials. This paper, aims to take into account the effect of mechanical stress into a hystreresis model. This model is implemented in a finite element analysis code and tested in the case of a simple system. Design/methodology/approach - A simple extension of the classical Preisach model is proposed, in which a function linked to the Preisach density is parameterized using the mechanical stress as a supplementary parameter. The methodology is based on experimental measurements for identifying the required function. As a first approach, a linear interpolation is used between the measurements in order to have a continuous evolution of the magneto-mechanical behaviour. This model has been tested in the case of a steel sheet in which width is not constant in order to obtain a non-uniform distribution of stress and magnetic flux density. Findings - The model can predict the magneto-mechanical behaviour with a good accuracy in the case of tensile stress. Implementation of the model in finite element analysis has shown that the model can predict the behaviour of steel sheet subject to a non-uniform stress distribution. Originality/value - This paper shows that a classical hysteresis model can be extended to take into account the magneto-mechanical behaviour. This is useful for the design of electrical machines which are subject to non-negligible mechanical stress. [less ▲]

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