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See detailInventory control in a multi-supplier system
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Hennet, Jean-Claude

in International Journal of Production Economics (2006), 104

An enterprise network is analyzed from the viewpoint of an end-product manufacturer who receives customer orders and organises his production and supply policy so as to minimize the sum of his average ... [more ▼]

An enterprise network is analyzed from the viewpoint of an end-product manufacturer who receives customer orders and organises his production and supply policy so as to minimize the sum of his average holding cost and average stockout cost. For each main component to be ordered, the producer has several possible suppliers. The arrivals of customers’ orders are random and delivery times from suppliers are also supposed random. This supply system is represented as a queuing network where the producer uses a base-stock inventory control policy that keeps constant the inventory position level (current inventory level+pending replenishment orders). The decision variables are the reference inventory position level and the percentages of orders sent to the different suppliers. In the queuing network model, the percentages of orders are implemented as Bernoulli branching parameters. A close-form expression of the expected cost criterion is obtained as a complex non-linear function of decision variables. A decomposed approach is proposed for solving the optimization problem in an approximate manner. The quality of the approximate solution is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution, which can be computed numerically in some simple cases, in particular in the two-supplier case. Numerical applications show the important economic advantage for the producer of sending orders to several suppliers rather than to a single one. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the design to the clinical application of thromboxane modulators
Dogné, Jean-Michel ULg; Hanson, Julien ULg; de Leval, Xavier et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006), 12(8), 903-923

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of ... [more ▼]

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of particular importance is thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). It is produced by the action of thromboxane synthase on the prostaglandin endoperoxide H-2 (PGH(2)) which results from the enzymatic transformation of AA by the cyclooxygenases. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction, and has been involved in a series of major pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, TXA(2) receptor antagonists, thromboxane synthase inhibitors and drugs combining both properties have been developed by different laboratories since the early 1980s. Several Compounds have been launched on the market and others are tinder clinical evaluation. In the first part of this review. we will describe the physiological properties of TXA(2), thromboxane synthase and thromboxane receptors. The second part is dedicated to a description of each class of thromboxane modulators with the advantages and disadvantages they offer. In the third part. we aim to describe recent studies performed with the most interesting thromboxane modulators in major pathologies: myocardial infarction and thrombosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, pulmonary embolism, septic shock.. preeclampsia, and asthma. Each pathology will be systematically reviewed. Finally, in the last part we will highlight the latest perspectives in drug design of thromboxane modulators and in their future therapeutic applications such as cancer, metastasis and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des troubles de la mémoire et de l'attention dans le cadre de l'examen neuropsychologiques
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2006)

La formation suivra un double objectif : d'une part, les conceptions actuelles du fonctionnement mnésique et attentionnel seront présentées, en mettant particulièrement l'accent sur les données obtenues ... [more ▼]

La formation suivra un double objectif : d'une part, les conceptions actuelles du fonctionnement mnésique et attentionnel seront présentées, en mettant particulièrement l'accent sur les données obtenues auprès de patients cérébro-lésés; d'autre part, la logique générale de l'évaluation neuropsychologique des difficultés mnésiques et attentionnelles sera abordée. Notre objectif sera donc de montrer en quoi la neuropsychologie a contribué à notre compréhension des mécanismes de mémoire et d’attention. Par ailleurs, l’influence qu’ont pu avoir tous ces travaux sur les pratiques cliniques en (neuro)psychologie (et en particulier en neuropsychologie de l’enfant) sera également soulignée. La formation s’appuiera très largement sur des illustrations et sur la présentation de cas concrets. Des questions pratiques intéressant directement les psychologues de PMS seront également abordées (quelles informations sur la mémoire et l’attention peut-on tirer d’un profil de WISC ? quand faut-il envisager d’orienter un enfant vers une consultation spécialisée en neuropédiatrie ou en neuropsychologie ?, etc.). Au terme de cette formation, dont l’objectif n’est en aucun cas de procurer des « recettes » et autres ficelles applicables telles quelles dans la classe ou le milieu scolaire, le participant devrait être à même de poser un regard plus nuancé et plus averti sur les difficultés de mémoire et d’attention que peut présenter un enfant, et de disposer ainsi de meilleures bases pour décider de la nature du suivi ou de l’orientation à proposer. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of Steel Structures subjected to Fire. Background and Design Guide to Eurocode 3. 2nd édition
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Zaharia, Raul

Book published by Les édtions de l'Université de Liège (2006)

The information that is necessary to perform the fire design of a structure made of a particular material, say a steel structure, is: a) The bases of design, stated in EN 1990. b) The mechanical actions ... [more ▼]

The information that is necessary to perform the fire design of a structure made of a particular material, say a steel structure, is: a) The bases of design, stated in EN 1990. b) The mechanical actions, i.e. the forces, acting on the structure in the fire situation. Some information is found in EN 1991-1-2, but explicit reference is also made to EN 1991-1-1 that is therefore also necessary. c) The thermal actions, i.e. the fire and the heat flux induced in the elements by the fire. The information is in EN 1991-1-2. d) The rules for determining the temperatures in the structure during the course of the fire. They are given in the fire part of the relevant material eurocode, e.g. EN 1993-1-2 for a steel structure. e) The rules for determining the structural stability. They are given in the fire part of the relevant material Eurocode, e.g. EN 1993-1-2 for a steel structure, but reference is often made to the cold part of the same material Eurocode, EN 1993-1-1 for a steel structure. This layout is valid in general but some exceptions do exist: the structural stability of timber elements, for example, does not necessarily require the determination of the temperatures in the element and step d) may be omitted; the same holds if the fire resistance is determined from tabulated data, for concrete elements for example. The rest of this book is organised according to this layout, see Fig. 1-2: Chapter 2 deals with bases of design and mechanical loads. Chapter 3 deals with thermal attack from the fire. Chapter 4 deals with thermal analysis by simple calculation model. Chapter 5 deals with mechanical analysis by simple calculation model. Chapter 6 deals with the design of joints. Chapter 7 deals with thermal and mechanical analysis by the advanced calculation model. Chapter 8 gives four design examples showing how a complete and sometimes complex structure can be designed using the concept of element or substructure analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de Timothy E. Gregory : A History of Byzantium
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg

in Latomus : Revue d'Etudes Latines (2006), 65(4), 1042-1044

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See detailAP 11, 15 (Ammianos): Dreifacher Schutz vor dem Tode
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg

in Eranos (2006), 104(2), 113-116

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See detailLa loi du 21 février 2005 sur la médiation
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Cahier du Juriste = Cahier van de Jurist (2006)

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See detailSeasonal variation of morph ratio in facultatively paedomorphic populations of the palmate newt Triturus helveticus
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2006), 29(2), 165-170

Facultative paedomorphosis is a polyphenism in which individuals may express one of two alternative ontogenetic pathways (metamorphosis vs. paedomorphosis) depending on environmental cues. Previous ... [more ▼]

Facultative paedomorphosis is a polyphenism in which individuals may express one of two alternative ontogenetic pathways (metamorphosis vs. paedomorphosis) depending on environmental cues. Previous laboratory experiments showed that drying can cause morph ratio change, suggesting that the maintenance of facultative paedomorphosis is highly dependent on environmental determinants. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal variation in morph ratios in eight ponds from Larzac (southern France) naturally inhabited by palmate newts and to relate it to pond drying. in some ponds, the relative proportion of paedomorphs (i.e. individuals retaining gills at the adult stage) increased after the breeding period, but it remained stable or decreased in other ponds. This seasonal variation in the abundance of the two morphs most probably reflects (1) the emigration of metamorphs leaving the pond to occupy terrestrial habitats and (2) metamorphosis of paedomorphic adults in response to drying of the ponds. This study shows that facultative paedomorphosis in palmate newts is a dynamic process that allows rapid change (i.e. within a single year) in morph ratio to fit environmental variation (i.e. risk of drying) within the aquatic habitats. Long-term studies are needed to model the evolution of the dimorphism according to environmental change. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA prominent role for amygdaloid complexes in the Variability in Heart Rate (VHR) during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep relative to wakefulness.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2006), 32(3), 1008-1015

Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is associated with intense neuronal activity, rapid eye movements, muscular atonia and dreaming. Another important feature in REMS is the instability in autonomic ... [more ▼]

Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is associated with intense neuronal activity, rapid eye movements, muscular atonia and dreaming. Another important feature in REMS is the instability in autonomic, especially in cardiovascular regulation. The neural mechanisms underpinning the variability in heart rate (VHR) during REMS are not known in detail, especially in humans. During wakefulness, the right insula has frequently been reported as involved in cardiovascular regulation but this might not be the case during REMS. We aimed at characterizing the neural correlates of VHR during REMS as compared to wakefulness and to slow wave sleep (SWS), the other main component of human sleep, in normal young adults, based on the statistical analysis of a set of (H2O)-O-15 positron emission tomography (PET) sleep data acquired during SWS, REMS and wakefulness. The results showed that VHR correlated more tightly during REMS than during wakefulness with the rCBF in the right amygdaloid complex. Moreover, we assessed whether functional relationships between amygdala and any brain area changed depending the state of vigilance. Only the activity within in the insula was found to covary with the amygdala, significantly more tightly during wakefulness than during REMS in relation to the VHR. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and the insular cortex, two brain areas involved in cardiovascular regulation, differs significantly in REMS as compared to wakefulness. This suggests a functional reorganization of central cardiovascular regulation during REMS. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state.
Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Journal of Physiology - Paris (2006), 99(4-6), 463-9

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during ... [more ▼]

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state. Hypnosis relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in "normal alertness". The hypnotic state was related to the activation of a widespread set of cortical areas involving occipital, parietal, precentral, premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. This pattern of activation shares some similarities with mental imagery, from which it mainly differs by the relative deactivation of precuneus. Second, we looked at the anti-nociceptive effects of hypnosis. Compared to the resting state, hypnosis reduced pain perception by approximately 50%. The hypnosis-induced reduction of affective and sensory responses to noxious thermal stimulation were modulated by the activity in the midcingulate cortex (area 24a'). Finally, we assessed changes in cerebral functional connectivity related to hypnosis. Compared to normal alertness (i.e., rest and mental imagery), the hypnotic state, significantly enhanced the functional modulation between midcingulate cortex and a large neural network involved in sensory, affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects of nociception. These findings show that not only pharmacological but also psychological strategies for pain control can modulate the cerebral network involved in noxious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly bifrontal brain injury: sequential neuropsychological developmental features
Bonnier, Christine; Potelle, Dominique; Buelens, M et al

in Revista de neurologia (2006)

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See detailReal-time RT-PCR quantification of mRNA encoding cytokines, CC chemokines and CCR3 in bronchial biopsies from dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneurnopathy
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Peters, I. R.; Clercx, Cécile ULg et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2006), 110(1-2), 65-77

Idiopathic canine eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the pulmonary interstitium and bronchial mucosa, a cause for which has not yet been ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic canine eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the pulmonary interstitium and bronchial mucosa, a cause for which has not yet been discovered. A recent study, examining the relative proportion of various lymphocyte cell subsets within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from dogs with EBP, has shown a selective increase in CD4(+) T-cells and a selective decrease in CD8(+) T-cells, suggesting that a similar Th2 immune response might occur in EBP. The aim of the present study was to determine the profile of cytokine, chemokine and CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in bronchial tissue from dogs with EBP. Real-time RT-PCR assays were used for the quantification of mRNA encoding for a panel of cytokines, CC chemokines and CCR3 in perendoscopic bronchial biopsies from eight dogs with EBP and seven age-matched control dogs. Messenger RNA transcribed from the housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate dehydrogenase was used for normalisation of the threshold cycle in order to determine the relative copy numbers of the transcripts. No significant difference in the expression of any cytokine, MCP-1, -2, -4 and CCR3 was found between control and EBP dogs. The expression of transcript for MCP-3, eotaxin-2 and -3 was significantly greater in bronchial biopsies from dogs with EBP than in samples from control dogs while there was significantly less mRNA encoding RANTES in the mucosa of dogs with EBP. In conclusion, the cytokine mRNA expression profile in perendoscopic bronchial biopsies is similar in dogs with EBP and dogs without respiratory disease. Further studies on the quantification of mRNA encoding cytokines in isolated T lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or bronchial biopsies are needed before any conclusion on the cytokine profile in canine EBP can be drawn. Eotaxin-2, -3 and MCP-3 appear to be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDiffuse dermal angiomatosis: A previously undescribed pattern of immunoglobulin and complement deposits in two cases.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Fumal, Isabelle; Willemaers, Valentine et al

in American Journal of Dermatopathology (2006), 28(2), 150-4

Two cases of diffuse dermal angiomatosis are reported in middle-aged women. This rare disease of unknown origin is characterized by increased dermal angiomatosis and ulceration. The clinical and ... [more ▼]

Two cases of diffuse dermal angiomatosis are reported in middle-aged women. This rare disease of unknown origin is characterized by increased dermal angiomatosis and ulceration. The clinical and histologic presentations of the presently reported lesions were typical for this disorder. Endothelial cells exhibited a normal immunophenotype. The perivascular basement membranes showed a distribution of collagen alpha chains typical for blood vessels, but not for lymphatics. Immunohistochemistry revealed other undescribed features. At the site of the clinical lesions, linear and granular deposits of immunoglobulins A and M, and complement were found around the vessels and at the dermal-epidermal junction. The same deposits were also found restricted to the dermal-epidermal junction in the peripheral clinically intact skin. No serological signs of auto-immune disorder were detected in one patient. A monoclonal gammopathy was disclosed in the other patient. A pattern of immunoreactant deposits similar to that disclosed in the two patients was not found in the control specimens, and has not been described so far in other types of vascular hyperplasia and neoplasia. A pathogenic role of these deposits is unsettled and should be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the "C-start" response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae).
Faucher, Karine ULg; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2006), 76(3-4), 278-94

Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental ... [more ▼]

Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s(-1) analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 microg l(-1), which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 +/- 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 +/- 9.79% of stimulations (chi(2) = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 microg l(-1), which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 +/- 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 +/- 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (chi(2) = 24.562, p < 0.0001). Their lateral line system neuromasts seemed to regenerate about 1 month after cadmium exposure. Associated with this regeneration, from the 21st day after cadmium exposure, their escape behaviour had recovered and was not significantly different from that recorded under control conditions (86.74 +/- 20.82%, chi(2) = 2.876, p = 0.090). This study shows that although 5 microg l(-1) cadmium is able to damage lateral line system neuromasts and causes fish behavioural alterations, fish exposed to 0.5 microg l(-1) cadmium displayed neither tissue neuromast nor behavioural modification. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of a dozen non-CO2 greenhouse gases above Central Europe since the mid-1980s.
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (2006)

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See detailTextos que se rebelan y que revelan. La rebeldía discursiva del EZLN y del Subcomandante Marcos
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Camacho Navarro, Enrique (Ed.) El rebelde contemporáneo en el circuncaribe. Imágenes y representaciones. (2006)

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See detailCapital social et résultats sociaux de l'éducation
Baye, Ariane ULg; Mainguet, Christine ULg

in Houard, Jean; Jacquemain, M. (Eds.) Capital social et dynamique régionale (2006)

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