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See detailHigh-Resolution GC Coupled to High-Resolution MS in the Analysis of Dioxins and Related Substances, Principles and Applications
Eppe, Gauthier ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Focant, Jean-François ULg

in Niessen, W. M. A. (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, Volume 8, Hyphenated Methods (2006)

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See detailApplication of magnetic susceptibility on different carbonate platform type
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Mabille, Cédric ULg

in Abstract book 17th ISC - Fukuoka, Japan - 2006 (2006)

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See detailA cascade optimization methodology for automatic parameter identification and shape/process optimization in metal forming simulation
Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kleinermann, Jean-Pascal

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2006), 195(41-43), 5472-5508

Computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) are, today, well established. This form of simulation uses an increasing number of sophisticated geometrical and ... [more ▼]

Computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) are, today, well established. This form of simulation uses an increasing number of sophisticated geometrical and material models, relying on a certain number of input data, which are not always readily available. The aim of inverse problems, which will be considered here, is to determine one or more of the input data relating to these forming process simulations, thereby leading to a desired result. In this paper, we will focus on two categories of such inverse problems. The first category consists of parameter identification inverse problems. These involve evaluating the material parameters for material constitutive models that would lead to the most accurate results with respect to physical experiments, i.e. minimizing the difference between experimental results and FEM simulations. The second category consists of shape/process optimization inverse problems. These involve determining the initial geometry of the specimen and/or the shape of the forming tools, as well as some parameters of the process itself, in order to provide the desired final geometry after the forming process. These two categories of inverse problems can be formulated as optimization problems in a similar way, i.e. by using identical optimization algorithms. In this paper, we intend firstly to solve these two types of optimization problems by using different non-linear gradient based optimization methods and secondly to compare their efficiency and robustness in a variety of numerical applications. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailExtending postgrafting cyclosporine decreases the risk of severe graft-versus-host disease after nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation
Burroughs, Lauri; Mielcarek, Marco; Leisenring, Wendy et al

in Transplantation (2006), 81(6), 818-25

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the duration of systemic immunosuppressive treatment after allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) might influence the incidence, severity ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the duration of systemic immunosuppressive treatment after allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) might influence the incidence, severity, timing, and/or corticosteroid-responsiveness of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes among 185 patients with hematologic malignancies who were given grafts from HLA-matched related donors following conditioning with 2 Gy total body irradiation alone or in combination with fludarabine between December 1998 and March 2003. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of mycophenolate mofetil (days 0-27) in combination with 3 different cyclosporine (CSP) regimens: taper from (A) days 35 to 56 (n=107), (B) days 56 to 77 (n=35), and (C) days 56 to 180 (n=43). RESULTS: The overall incidences of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 52%, 13%, and 56%, respectively. The duration of CSP prophylaxis did not significantly influence the overall rate of acute GVHD (grade II-IV), extensive chronic GVHD, or non-relapse mortality. However, prolonged administration of CSP (group C) was associated with a significantly decreased hazard of grades III-IV acute GVHD (HR 0.2, 95% CI [0.04, 0.9]) and with an increased likelihood of discontinuing all systemic immunosuppression (HR 2.4, 95% CI [1.1, 5.2]) when compared to the shortest course of CSP (group A). CONCLUSION: Longer CSP duration decreased the risk of severe GVHD and increased the likelihood of discontinuing all systemic immunosuppression after nonmyeloablative HCT with HLA-matched related grafts. [less ▲]

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See detailLes angles corniculaires et l'infiniment petit
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Sup (2006), 31(mai-juin), 4-7

Nous mettons en évidence le fait que des angles entre un demi-cercle et une droite tangente mène au concept d'infiniment petit.

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See detailRoutes to increase the relaxivity of contrast agents for MRI
Thonon, David ULg; Vanasschen, Christian; Paris, Jérôme et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailMaintenance threonine requirement and efficiency of its use for accretion of whole-body threonine and protein in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.
Rollin, Xavier; Wauters, Jean*-Baptiste; Bodin, Noe Lie et al

in British Journal of Nutrition (2006), 95(2), 234-45

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres ... [more ▼]

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres aquaria at a temperature of 14.5+/-1 degrees C. Doses of Thr represented 1, 31, 41, 51, 62, 72, 83 and 93 % of its ideal level for optimum protein deposition. Indispensable amino acids other than Thr were included in the same proportion (on a g/16 g N basis) as in the Atlantic salmon fry whole-body carcass. Following 36 d of feeding and a 36 h fast, fry were killed for whole-body protein and amino acid analysis. Weight gain (r2 0.98), protein accretion (r2 0.97), and Thr accretion (r2 0.97) were linear (P<0.01) functions of Thr intake. Slope of the Thr accretion regression line showed that the efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance was 76 %. At zero Thr intake, fry lost 5.4 mg Thr/kg body weight0.75 per d. The Thr maintenance requirement was 7.2 mg/kg body weight0.75 per d and the Thr requirement for growth was 66 mg for 1 g protein deposition. Increasing doses of Thr resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentrations of histidine and lysine, and decreased concentrations of isoleucine in whole-body protein. The maintenance need for Thr represented 13.4 % of the total need for Thr. The data suggest that efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance is constant at all levels of Thr intake between 1 and 93 % of the level required for optimum protein deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailA Semantic Approach to the Egyptian Language : the Case of Time and Aspect. Towards a New Paradigm
Winand, Jean ULg

in Lingua Aegyptia [= LingAeg] (2006), (14), 451-472

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See detailMieux mesurer l'arthrose.
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailSensitivity analysis of programmed cell death and implications for crosstalk phenomena during tumor necrosis factor stimulation
Eissing, Thomas; Waldherr, Steffen; Gondro, Cedric et al

in Proc. of the 2006 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (2006)

Different methods for analyzing the sensitivity of the direct signal transduction pathway of receptor-induced apoptosis to parameter changes are presented. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death ... [more ▼]

Different methods for analyzing the sensitivity of the direct signal transduction pathway of receptor-induced apoptosis to parameter changes are presented. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, removing unwanted cells within multicellular organisms to maintain a proper balance between cell reproduction and death. The results indicate the importance of controlling activated caspases by direct inhibition to prevent apoptosis. A misregulation of IAP molecules, one of the main inhibitors, appears to be especially critical. The results indicate how an increased production of this molecule promotes survival and might promote cancer progression, while a reduced degradation might not, thereby providing insight of potential pharmaceutical relevance and also stimulating experimental verification. The different engineering methods applied, nicely complement each other to provide valuable insight into this important process. Because IAPs, among others, are also an important connection to other signaling pathways, the results will enable a more efficient extension of the current model. This is outlined at the example of tumor necrosis factor induced signaling pathways [less ▲]

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See detailL'influence des séries télévisées sur la perception du travail policier et judiciaire
Vanhaeren, Stéphanie ULg

Master's dissertation (2006)

Les fictions télévisées, quand elles viennent à parler de police ou de justice, répondent à des codes, des règles, des schémas qui leur sont propres : si certains aspects de ces séries sont calqués assez ... [more ▼]

Les fictions télévisées, quand elles viennent à parler de police ou de justice, répondent à des codes, des règles, des schémas qui leur sont propres : si certains aspects de ces séries sont calqués assez fidèlement sur la réalité (par exemple, les personnages sont censés obéir à un corpus juridique), d'autres prennent plus de libertés, à divers degrés (de nombreuses conceptions relatives à la hiérarchie et à la déontologie ne sont appliquées que comme véhicules scénaristiques, ou sont simplement ignorés si l'histoire l'exige). Un élément que nous pourrions qualifier de plus accidentel est que beaucoup des séries favorites des téléspectateurs belges sont des programmes d'importation américaine. Même dans le cas où un scénariste américain aurait voulu coller de très près à la réalité et aux lois de son pays, il s'écartera en de nombreux points de notre système juridique, de par les fortes différences entre notre système (dit de droit civil) et le système anglo-saxon (dit de common law ou de case law). Les traductions et doublages français, parfois approximatifs – que les traductions soient mauvaises ou que certains termes ne disposent pas d'équivalents francophones parfaits – achèvent de créer la confusion. Partant de cette double constatation – la justice et la police romancées d'un côté et les problèmes de droit comparé et de traduction de l'autre –, j'en suis venue à me demander dans quelle mesure nos concitoyens transposaient ces situations au réel et les utilisaient comme « grille de compréhension » du fonctionnement de notre système judiciaire et policier. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro transport studies of nifedipine nanoparticles across Caco-2/HT29- 5M21 cultures and co-cultures
Hecq, Julien; Nollevaux, Géraldine; Deleers, M. et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailProneural bHLH and Brn proteins coregulate a neurogenic program through cooperative binding to a conserved DNA motif.
Castro, Diogo S; Skowronska-Krawczyk, Dorota; Armant, Olivier et al

in Developmental Cell (2006), 11(6), 831-44

Proneural proteins play a central role in vertebrate neurogenesis, but little is known of the genes that they regulate and of the factors that interact with proneural proteins to activate a neurogenic ... [more ▼]

Proneural proteins play a central role in vertebrate neurogenesis, but little is known of the genes that they regulate and of the factors that interact with proneural proteins to activate a neurogenic program. Here, we demonstrate that the proneural protein Mash1 and the POU proteins Brn1 and Brn2 interact on the promoter of the Notch ligand Delta1 and synergistically activate Delta1 transcription, a key step in neurogenesis. Overexpression experiments in vivo indicate that Brn2, like Mash1, regulates additional aspects of neurogenesis, including the division of progenitors and the differentiation and migration of neurons. We identify by in silico screening a number of additional candidate target genes, which are recognized by Mash1 and Brn proteins through a DNA-binding motif similar to that found in the Delta1 gene and present a broad range of activities. We thus propose that Mash1 synergizes with Brn factors to regulate multiple steps of neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for proneural genes in the maturation of cortical progenitor cells.
Britz, Olivier; Mattar, Pierre; Nguyen, Laurent ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2006), 16 Suppl 1

We showed previously that the proneural genes Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) and Ngn2 are required to specify the phenotypes of early- and not late-born neurons in the neocortex, acting in part through repression of ... [more ▼]

We showed previously that the proneural genes Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) and Ngn2 are required to specify the phenotypes of early- and not late-born neurons in the neocortex, acting in part through repression of Mash1, a third cortically expressed proneural gene. The precise timing of Ngn1/2 specification activity was unexpected given these genes are expressed throughout cortical development, prompting us to search for a later function. Here we reveal that Ngn2 and Mash1 are expressed in a dynamic fashion, acquiring a cell cycle-biased, nonoverlapping distribution, with preferential expression in prospective basal progenitors, during mid corticogenesis. We also identified a new function for Ngn2 during this latter period, demonstrating that it is required to regulate the transit of cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone (VZ) to the subventricular zone. Notably, Ngn2 regulates progenitor maturation at least in part through repression of Mash1 as misexpression of Mash1 strongly enhanced progenitor cell exit from the VZ. Significantly, the ability of Mash1 to promote progenitor cell maturation occurred independently of its ability to respecify cortical cells and is thus a novel function for Mash1. Taken together, these data support a model whereby Ngn2 and Mash1 function together to regulate the zonal distribution of progenitors in the developing neocortex. [less ▲]

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See detailAn outreach experience
Nazé, Yaël ULg

in European Planetary Science Congress 2006 (2006)

In our technological world, Science is everywhere and to participate to the public debates, citizens will need some basic scientific notions. Raising awareness of the public in Science is thus always ... [more ▼]

In our technological world, Science is everywhere and to participate to the public debates, citizens will need some basic scientific notions. Raising awareness of the public in Science is thus always worthwhile, even though only a small fraction of the audience will envisage a career in the field. Bringing science to the layman should even be a duty for scientists: we should not forget that we are paid by taxpayers, and are part of a public service; and besides, people tend to reject things that they do not understand - to get support, scientists need to enter the public arena and confront the crowd. Relying on attractive images and a timeless fascination, astronomy is particularly suited to do that. But what should a willing astronomer do to share (his/her) knowledge? There is certainly no definitive answer for that, but a few hints can still be given. Based on personal experience, this talk will present a few tips and things to avoid in three cases: animations (for kids and grown-ups), writing, and talking. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanobiology and force transduction in scars developed in darker skin types.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg et al

in Skin Research & Technology (2006), 12(4), 279-82

BACKGROUND: Scarring is a complex process involving many cell types, cytokines and biological pathways including mechanobiology. Some subtle mechanical properties of skin can be assessed by measuring the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Scarring is a complex process involving many cell types, cytokines and biological pathways including mechanobiology. Some subtle mechanical properties of skin can be assessed by measuring the speed of ultrasound shear wave propagation. The orientation of abnormal skin tension forces can be visualized, particularly in darker skin types, using dermoscopy showing distinct patterns of rete ridges' conformation. AIM: To assess some mechanobiological features of scars in darker skin types. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Large atrophic and hypertrophic surgical scars were examined on the trunk of 35 darker skin subjects. The surrounding skin was used as a comparator. Dermoscopic aspects were recorded. Resonance running time measurements (RRTM) were performed using a shear wave propagation device (Reviscometer). They were performed in four specific directions at given angles with regard to the long axis of the scar. The minimum, maximum and mean RRTM values were recorded at each site. RESULTS: Dermoscopy revealed patterns of melanin deposits in scars distinct from the normal honeycomb network seen in the surrounding skin. Hypertrophic scars showed a patchy pattern of large macular melanoderma dispersed in a lighter background. In these cases, low RRTM values were obtained with little variations according to the orientation of the measurements. By contrast, atrophic scars showed a streaky laddering melanotic pattern under dermoscopy. Higher RRTM values were often obtained, particularly in the transversal direction of the scars. Mechanical anisotropy was greater in the atrophic scars compared with the normal skin. DISCUSSION: Darker skin types represent a model for visualizing the main orientation of the epidermal rete ridges. A correlation was found between the pattern of melanized rete ridges of scars and the main orientation of the intrinsic forces in the skin. [less ▲]

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See detailComte-rendu du 16e symposium international sur la SLA
WANG, François-Charles ULg; Salachas, François-Charles

in Correspondances en Nerf & Muscle (2006)

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See detailMotivation et volition: une distinction incontournable
Broonen, Jean-Paul ULg

in Education-Formation (2006), 284(December), 62-71

Firstly, in this paper the historical analysis of volition as a specific construct in front of motivation and conation is developed. From the middle of the eighties volition is focused in empirical ... [more ▼]

Firstly, in this paper the historical analysis of volition as a specific construct in front of motivation and conation is developed. From the middle of the eighties volition is focused in empirical literature as a central concept in goal-directed learning behaviours, especially when goals are difficult to reach. Secondly, limits of motivation (values, expectations) to explain reaching complex learning goals which imply overcoming internal or external obstacles are heightened and volition (action control strategies and implementation intentions) is proved to basically contribute to initiate goal-directed actions and bring them to a successful conclusion. [less ▲]

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