References of "2006"
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See detailCost estimates of brain disorders in Belgium
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gianni, F.; Schretlen, L. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106(4), 208-214

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and ... [more ▼]

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and performed by Stockholm Health Economics. The disorders selected were : addiction, depression, anxiety disorders, brain tumours, dementia, epilepsy, migraine and other headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, psychotic disorders, stroke and trauma. Figures for prevalence of disorders and direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs are based on data coming from available electronic data bases, or when missing for Belgium, best possible estimates or extrapolated data were used. All economic data were transformed to E's for 2004 and adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The results show that the total number of people with any brain disorder in Belgium amounts to 2,9 million in 2004, the most prevalent being anxiety disorders 1.1 million, migraine 860 000, addiction (any) 800.000 and depression 500.000 cases. The total cost of all included brain disorders in Belgium was estimated at 10.6 billion Euros. Most costly per case are brain tumours, multiple sclerosis, stroke and dementia. Because of their higher prevalence, however, depression, dementia, addiction, anxiety disorders and migraine have the highest total costs. Taken together, brain disorders consume 4% of the gross national product and cost each citizen of Belgium E 1029 per year The drug costs for brain disorders constitute only 10% of the total drug market in Belgium, and only 4% of the total cost of brain disorders in Belgium. This should be compared to the cost estimates and to a previous study which showed that brain disorders are responsible for 35% of the total burden of all disorders in Europe. This study suggests therefore that the direct healthcare resources, including expenses for drug therapies, allocated to brain disorders in Belgium are not leveled to the indirect costs and burden of these disorders. A comparison with data available from a direct prospective study in demented Belgian patients suggests that the mathematical estimates presented here reflect quite accurately the real average cost for dementia, although there are large variations depending on disease severity. As, in addition, subjects with brain disorders face collateral costs which have not been taken into account and may vary between countries, it seems worthwhile to conduct, in cooperation with patients associations, a complementary survey in the Belgian ecosystem to establish the cost profile of representative patients for the major brain disorders. Such a survey is being organized by a task force of the Belgian Brain Council. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming and efficacy of transmitter release at mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampal network
Bischofberger, J; Engel, Dominique ULg; Frotscher, M et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2006), 453(3), 361-72

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See detailSound field modeling in architectural acoustics using a diffusion equation
Picaut, Judicaël; Valeau, Vincent; Billon, Alexis ULg et al

Conference (2006, December)

A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy ... [more ▼]

A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy within a room, unlike the statistical theory. The proposed method allows to take into account most of complex phenomena encountered in room acoustics, like mixed reflections on walls (diffuse and specular), low and high absorption on walls, atmospheric attenuation, fitted zones. Moreover, the model can be applied to complex geometries, like multiple coupled rooms of different sizes. In this paper, the model and its numerical implementation are first detailed. Then, an application is proposed for a complex geometry defined by multiple coupled rooms with fitting objects, including low and high absorption on walls, in terms of sound level and reverberation times. The main interest of the model is that such approach requires less computational time in comparison with common approaches like ray-tracing simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailLectotypification of the Famennian pre-ovule Condrusia rumex Stockmans, 1948
Prestianni, Cyrille ULg; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2006), 142(3-4), 161-164

Condrusia rumex Stockmans 1948 occurs in several localities of the Belgian Evieux Formation (late Famennian, Upper Devonian). It consists of a hastate organ borne at the tip of "slender, dichotomizing ... [more ▼]

Condrusia rumex Stockmans 1948 occurs in several localities of the Belgian Evieux Formation (late Famennian, Upper Devonian). It consists of a hastate organ borne at the tip of "slender, dichotomizing" axes. Various interpretations have been given to this intriguing structure, ranging from a spore-bearing organ to a fern prothallus but recent investigations consider Condrusia to be an ovulate structures produced by early seed plants. The genus Condrusia includes 3 species: C rumex Stockmans, C. minor Stockmans and C. brevis Petrosjan. C rumex was described by Stockmans in 1948, who provided a diagnosis and illustrations, but failed to designate a holotype. We are currently reinvestigating the genus and we here designate and illustrate a lectotype for the genus and species C. rumex. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestions de didactique du français langue seconde (cycle de conf.)
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2006, December)

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See detailThe in vitro influences of neurotensin on the motility characteristics of human U373 glioblastoma cells
Servotte, S.; Camby, I.; Debeir, O. et al

in Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology (2006), 32(6), 575-584

Astrocytic tumours are associated with dismal prognoses due to their pronounced ability to diffusely invade the brain parenchyma. Various neuropeptides, including gastrin, are able to modulate tumour ... [more ▼]

Astrocytic tumours are associated with dismal prognoses due to their pronounced ability to diffusely invade the brain parenchyma. Various neuropeptides, including gastrin, are able to modulate tumour astrocyte migration. While neurotensin has been shown to influence the proliferation of glioma cells and the migratory ability of a large set of other cell types, its role in glioma cell migration has never been investigated. Neurotensin-induced modifications to the motility features of human U373 glioblastoma cells therefore constitute the topic of the present study. We evidenced that three subtypes of neurotensin receptors (NTR1, NTR2 and NTR3) are expressed in U373 glioblastoma cells, at least as far as their mRNAs are concerned. Treating U373 tumour cells with 10 nM neurotensin markedly modified the morphological patterns of these cells and also profoundly altered the organization of their actin cytoskeletons. Pull-down assays revealed that neurotensin induced the activation in U373 cells of both Rac1 and Cdc42 but not RhoA. Scratch wound assays evidenced that neurotensin (0.1 and 10 nM) very significantly inhibited wound colonization by U373 cells cultured in the absence of serum. In addition, quantitative phase-contrast videomicroscopy analyses showed that neurotensin decreases the motility levels of U373 glioblastoma cells when these cells are cultured on plastic. In sharp contrast, neurotensin stimulates the motility of U373 cells when they are cultured on laminin, which is a pro-adhesive extracellular matrix component ubiquitously secreted by glioma cells. Our data thus strongly suggest that, in addition to gastrin, neurotensin is a neuropeptide capable of modulating tumour astrocyte migration into the brain parenchyma. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of 2D and 3D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Gaudissart, Quentin; Cadière, Guy-Bernard et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106(6), 662-664

Purpose of the study : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3D and 2D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system. Methods : 224 nurses without any surgical ... [more ▼]

Purpose of the study : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3D and 2D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system. Methods : 224 nurses without any surgical experience were divided into two groups and executed a motor task with the robotic system in 2D for one group and with the robotic system in 3D for the other group. Time to perform the task was recorded. Results : Our data showed significant better time performance in 3D view (24.67 +/- 11.2) than in 2D view (40.26 +/- 17.49, P < 0.001). Conclusions : Our findings emphasized the advantage of 3D vision over 2D view in performing surgical task, encouraging the development of efficient and less expensive 3D systems in order to improve the accuracy of surgical gesture, the resident training and the operating time. [less ▲]

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See detailSurgical treatment of thoraco-abdominal and low thoracic aneurysms of the aorta. One single center experience over ten years
El Arid, J.-M.; CREEMERS, Etienne ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106(6), 669-674

This work presents the results of surgery in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) and thoracic descending aortic aneurysms (TDA) in one single center between January 1rst, 1996 and December 31, 2005 ... [more ▼]

This work presents the results of surgery in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) and thoracic descending aortic aneurysms (TDA) in one single center between January 1rst, 1996 and December 31, 2005. It concerns open surgery in 42 and endovascular procedures in ten patients. Forty two patients (11 TDA and 31 TAA (4 type I, 12 type II, 6 type III and 9 type IV)) define the open surgery series. Twenty six patients were operated on elective basis and 16 patients in emergency condition. Surgical correction was made under partial cardio-pulmonary bypass (PCPB) in 70% of cases via femoral vessels; most significant intercostal arteries were reimplanted and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) drainage used in half of the cases. Operative mortality was zero in the elective group (0/26) and attained 19% in the emergent group (3/16). Mortality was linked to cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in two cases and post-pump left lung hemorrhagic intarction in one case. The paraplegia accounts 2/26 in the elective group and one in the emergent group (1/16). That is 7.1% in both groups. At the end of five years, survival is 66% in elective group and 74% in the emergency group. Ten patients (5 TDA and 5 TAA (2 type I, 3 type III)) were treated endovascularly. Operative mortality and postoperative paraplegia were nil. [less ▲]

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See detailLe portrait dans Daguerréotypes d'Agnès Varda
Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

Conference (2006, December)

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See detailDeployment of an Algorithm for Large-Scale Topology Discovery
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Raoult, Philippe; Friedman, Timur et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2006), 24(12), 2210--2220

Topology discovery systems are starting to be in- troduced in the form of easily and widely deployed software. Unfortunately, the research community has not examined the problem of how to perform such ... [more ▼]

Topology discovery systems are starting to be in- troduced in the form of easily and widely deployed software. Unfortunately, the research community has not examined the problem of how to perform such measurements efficiently and in a network-friendly manner. This paper describes several contributions towards that end. These were first presented in the proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS 2005. We show that standard topology discovery methods (e.g., skitter) are quite inefficient, repeatedly probing the same interfaces. This is a concern, because when scaled up, such methods will generate so much traffic that they will begin to resemble DDoS attacks. We propose two metrics focusing on redundancy in probing and show that both are important. We also propose and evaluate Doubletree, an algorithm that strongly reduces redundancy while maintaining nearly the same level of node and link coverage. The key ideas are to exploit the tree-like structure of routes to and from a single point in order to guide when to stop probing, and to probe each path by starting near its midpoint. Following the SIGMETRICS work, we implemented Doubletree, and deployed it in a real network environment. This paper describes that implementation, as well as preliminary favorable results. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Shape And Topology Optimization: Recent Developments And Application Perspectives To Automotive Structures
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Van Miegroet, Laurent ULg; Remouchamps, Alain et al

in New Advances in Body Engineering - Lightweight design, passive safety, pedestrian protection, and numerical optimization (2006, December)

More than 15 years after the seminal work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi, topology optimization of structures has taken advantage of my research efforts and has now become a commercial available tool (e.g ... [more ▼]

More than 15 years after the seminal work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi, topology optimization of structures has taken advantage of my research efforts and has now become a commercial available tool (e.g. OptiStruct by Altair, Topol by Samtech, etc.). These software tools are daily used in automotive industry and provide engineers with a rational tool for preliminary design of efficient structural components. This paper presents the status of available topology optimization tools and introduces the recent developments that extend their capabilities in order to handle stress constraints, manufacturing constraints, etc. The communication also presents a novel approach of generalized shape optimization that has been introduced to circumvent the difficulties of parametric shape optimization and to complement topology optimization. The approach is based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the Level Set Description of the geometry. The Level Set description introduces smooth curve descriptions and allows modifying the connectivity of the wholes. The XFEM works with a fixed mesh as in topology optimization, which makes the method very convenient for engineers. Thus the novel approach is likely to bring the next future evolution of structural optimization. Impressive capabilities of this new generation approach will be demonstrated. Application examples from automotive and aerospace engineering will illustrate the different possibilities offered by two approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictable disruption tolerant networks and delivery guarantees
François, Jean-Marc; Leduc, Guy ULg

Report (2006)

This article studies disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) where each node knows the probabilistic distribution of contacts with other nodes. It proposes a framework that allows one to formalize the ... [more ▼]

This article studies disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) where each node knows the probabilistic distribution of contacts with other nodes. It proposes a framework that allows one to formalize the behaviour of such a network. It generalizes extreme cases that have been studied before where (a) either nodes only know their contact frequency with each other or (b) they have a perfect knowledge of who meets who and when. This paper then gives an example of how this framework can be used; it shows how one can find a packet forwarding algorithm optimized to meet the 'delay/bandwidth consumption' trade-off: packets are duplicated so as to (statistically) guarantee a given delay or delivery probability, but not too much so as to reduce the bandwidth, energy, and memory consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailTreating gliomas with glucocorticoids: from bedside to bench
Piette, Caroline ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2006), 112(6), 651-664

Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of gliomas to decrease tumour-associated oedema and to reduce the risk of acute encephalopathy associated with radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms by which ... [more ▼]

Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of gliomas to decrease tumour-associated oedema and to reduce the risk of acute encephalopathy associated with radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids work are still largely unknown. In this paper, we survey the experimental and clinical evidence for the effects of glucocorticoids on tumour cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy, angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We then review current guidelines on the choice of molecule, dose and duration of glucocorticoid treatment for gliomas. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional morphology of the sonic apparatus in Ophidion barbatum (Teleostei, Ophidiidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fontenelle, N.; Fine, M. L. et al

in Journal of Morphology (2006), 267(12), 1461-1468

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder ... [more ▼]

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder resulting in sound production. Here we describe the sonic mechanism for Ophidion barbatum, which includes three pairs of sonic muscles, highly transformed vertebral centra and ribs, a neural arch that pivots and a swimbladder whose anterior end is modified into a bony structure, the rocker bone. The ventral and intermediate muscles cause the rocker bone to swivel inward, compressing the swimbladder, and this action is antagonized by the dorsal muscle. Unlike other sonic systems in which the muscle contraction rate determines sound fundamental frequency, we hypothesize that slow contraction of these antagonistic muscles produces a series of cycles of swimbladder vibration. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome malin des neuroleptiques et paralysie generale
Foatelli, F. M.; gernay, p; Lievens, Isabelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(12), 807-11

Described in 1960 by Jean Delay in relation to the use of haloperidol, neuroleptic malignant syndrome remains relatively rare, and poorly known by the medical profession. The emergence of the atypical ... [more ▼]

Described in 1960 by Jean Delay in relation to the use of haloperidol, neuroleptic malignant syndrome remains relatively rare, and poorly known by the medical profession. The emergence of the atypical antipsychotic agents and preventive measures which have become general in recent years in hospital departments using dopamine receptor antagonists has not altered the prognosis, which remains potentially fatal in approximately a quarter of cases. This article proposes a descriptive summary of this syndrome in terms of clinical and biological diagnostics as well as of evolution, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and treatment. It describes the case of a patient affected by general paralysis having developed a neuroleptic malignant syndrome, thus the hypothesis what the neuroleptic malignant syndrome preferentially arises in subjects having underlying organic or metabolic problems and provides food for thought regarding the main medical and psychiatric overlaps, the use of dopaminergic agents and the behaviour to be adopted when dealing with a patient presenting with inaugural psychiatric symptomatology. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental tests for the Babu-Zee two-loop model of Majorana neutrino masses
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Hirsch, M.

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2006), 0612

The smallness of the observed neutrino masses might have a radiative origin. Here we revisit a specific two-loop model of neutrino mass, independently proposed by Babu and Zee. We point out that current ... [more ▼]

The smallness of the observed neutrino masses might have a radiative origin. Here we revisit a specific two-loop model of neutrino mass, independently proposed by Babu and Zee. We point out that current constraints from neutrino data can be used to derive strict lower limits on the branching ratio of flavour changing charged lepton decays, such as μ→eγ. Non-observation of Br(μ→eγ) at the level of 10^(−13) would rule out singly charged scalar masses smaller than 590 GeV (5.04 TeV) in case of normal (inverse) neutrino mass hierarchy. Conversely, decay branching ratios of the non-standard scalars of the model can be fixed by the measured neutrino angles (and mass scale). Thus, if the scalars of the model are light enough to be produced at the LHC or ILC, measuring their decay properties would serve as a direct test of the model as the origin of neutrino masses. [less ▲]

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