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See detailAn introduction to robotics - mechanical aspects
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Géradin, Michel ULg

Learning material (2006)

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See detailImpact of 2D and 3D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Gaudissart, Quentin; Cadière, Guy-Bernard et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106(6), 662-664

Purpose of the study : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3D and 2D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system. Methods : 224 nurses without any surgical ... [more ▼]

Purpose of the study : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3D and 2D vision on performance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system. Methods : 224 nurses without any surgical experience were divided into two groups and executed a motor task with the robotic system in 2D for one group and with the robotic system in 3D for the other group. Time to perform the task was recorded. Results : Our data showed significant better time performance in 3D view (24.67 +/- 11.2) than in 2D view (40.26 +/- 17.49, P < 0.001). Conclusions : Our findings emphasized the advantage of 3D vision over 2D view in performing surgical task, encouraging the development of efficient and less expensive 3D systems in order to improve the accuracy of surgical gesture, the resident training and the operating time. [less ▲]

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See detailLa radiothérapie du cancer du sein
Meyns, Mia ULg

in AIDS Patient Care (2006), 4

Le traitement du cancer du sein est un des exemples les plus probants de l'approche multidisciplinaire oncologique. Dans ce contexte, la radiothérapie a renforcé sa place et son importance, même si ... [more ▼]

Le traitement du cancer du sein est un des exemples les plus probants de l'approche multidisciplinaire oncologique. Dans ce contexte, la radiothérapie a renforcé sa place et son importance, même si certaines incertitudes persistent, comme la prise en charge du creux axillaire, de la chaîne mammaire interne et de la paroi thoracique. La tendance constatée depuis plusieurs années est celle d'une approche moins agressive. [less ▲]

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See detailRetouched Bloom Filters: Allowing Networked Applications to Flexibly Trade Off False Positives Against False Negatives
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Baynat, Bruno; Friedman, Timur

in ACM CoNEXT (2006, December)

Where distributed agents must share voluminous set mem- bership information, Bloom filters provide a compact, though lossy, way for them to do so. Numerous recent networking papers have examined the trade ... [more ▼]

Where distributed agents must share voluminous set mem- bership information, Bloom filters provide a compact, though lossy, way for them to do so. Numerous recent networking papers have examined the trade-offs between the bandwidth consumed by the transmission of Bloom filters, and the er- ror rate, which takes the form of false positives, and which rises the more the filters are compressed. In this paper, we introduce the retouched Bloom filter (RBF), an extension that makes the Bloom filter more flexible by permitting the removal of selected false positives at the expense of gen- erating random false negatives. We analytically show that RBFs created through a random process maintain an overall error rate, expressed as a combination of the false positive rate and the false negative rate, that is equal to the false positive rate of the corresponding Bloom filters. We further provide some simple heuristics that decrease the false posi- tive rate more than than the corresponding increase in the false negative rate, when creating RBFs. Finally, we demon- strate the advantages of an RBF over a Bloom filter in a dis- tributed network topology measurement application, where information about large stop sets must be shared among route tracing monitors. [less ▲]

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See detailResults towards identifiability properties of biochemical reaction networks
Farina, Marcello; Findeisen, Rolf; Bullinger, Eric ULg et al

in Proc. of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, San Diego, USA (2006, December)

In this paper we consider the question of parameter identifiability for biochemical reaction networks, as typically encountered in systems biology. Specifically, we are interested in deriving conditions ... [more ▼]

In this paper we consider the question of parameter identifiability for biochemical reaction networks, as typically encountered in systems biology. Specifically, we are interested in deriving conditions on the biochemical reaction network and on the measured outputs that guarantee identifiability of the parameters. Taking the specific system structure of biochemical reaction networks into account, we derive sufficient conditions for local parameter identifiability based on a suitable system expansion which does not any more directly depend on the parameters. Rather, as shown, the problem of identifiability can be recast as the question of observability of the (parameter free) expanded system. The conditions derived are exemplified considering a simple example [less ▲]

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See detailThe in vitro influences of neurotensin on the motility characteristics of human U373 glioblastoma cells
Servotte, S.; Camby, I.; Debeir, O. et al

in Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology (2006), 32(6), 575-584

Astrocytic tumours are associated with dismal prognoses due to their pronounced ability to diffusely invade the brain parenchyma. Various neuropeptides, including gastrin, are able to modulate tumour ... [more ▼]

Astrocytic tumours are associated with dismal prognoses due to their pronounced ability to diffusely invade the brain parenchyma. Various neuropeptides, including gastrin, are able to modulate tumour astrocyte migration. While neurotensin has been shown to influence the proliferation of glioma cells and the migratory ability of a large set of other cell types, its role in glioma cell migration has never been investigated. Neurotensin-induced modifications to the motility features of human U373 glioblastoma cells therefore constitute the topic of the present study. We evidenced that three subtypes of neurotensin receptors (NTR1, NTR2 and NTR3) are expressed in U373 glioblastoma cells, at least as far as their mRNAs are concerned. Treating U373 tumour cells with 10 nM neurotensin markedly modified the morphological patterns of these cells and also profoundly altered the organization of their actin cytoskeletons. Pull-down assays revealed that neurotensin induced the activation in U373 cells of both Rac1 and Cdc42 but not RhoA. Scratch wound assays evidenced that neurotensin (0.1 and 10 nM) very significantly inhibited wound colonization by U373 cells cultured in the absence of serum. In addition, quantitative phase-contrast videomicroscopy analyses showed that neurotensin decreases the motility levels of U373 glioblastoma cells when these cells are cultured on plastic. In sharp contrast, neurotensin stimulates the motility of U373 cells when they are cultured on laminin, which is a pro-adhesive extracellular matrix component ubiquitously secreted by glioma cells. Our data thus strongly suggest that, in addition to gastrin, neurotensin is a neuropeptide capable of modulating tumour astrocyte migration into the brain parenchyma. [less ▲]

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See detailDeployment of an Algorithm for Large-Scale Topology Discovery
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Raoult, Philippe; Friedman, Timur et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2006), 24(12), 2210--2220

Topology discovery systems are starting to be in- troduced in the form of easily and widely deployed software. Unfortunately, the research community has not examined the problem of how to perform such ... [more ▼]

Topology discovery systems are starting to be in- troduced in the form of easily and widely deployed software. Unfortunately, the research community has not examined the problem of how to perform such measurements efficiently and in a network-friendly manner. This paper describes several contributions towards that end. These were first presented in the proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS 2005. We show that standard topology discovery methods (e.g., skitter) are quite inefficient, repeatedly probing the same interfaces. This is a concern, because when scaled up, such methods will generate so much traffic that they will begin to resemble DDoS attacks. We propose two metrics focusing on redundancy in probing and show that both are important. We also propose and evaluate Doubletree, an algorithm that strongly reduces redundancy while maintaining nearly the same level of node and link coverage. The key ideas are to exploit the tree-like structure of routes to and from a single point in order to guide when to stop probing, and to probe each path by starting near its midpoint. Following the SIGMETRICS work, we implemented Doubletree, and deployed it in a real network environment. This paper describes that implementation, as well as preliminary favorable results. [less ▲]

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See detailSound field modeling in architectural acoustics using a diffusion equation
Picaut, Judicaël; Valeau, Vincent; Billon, Alexis ULg et al

Conference (2006, December)

A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy ... [more ▼]

A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy within a room, unlike the statistical theory. The proposed method allows to take into account most of complex phenomena encountered in room acoustics, like mixed reflections on walls (diffuse and specular), low and high absorption on walls, atmospheric attenuation, fitted zones. Moreover, the model can be applied to complex geometries, like multiple coupled rooms of different sizes. In this paper, the model and its numerical implementation are first detailed. Then, an application is proposed for a complex geometry defined by multiple coupled rooms with fitting objects, including low and high absorption on walls, in terms of sound level and reverberation times. The main interest of the model is that such approach requires less computational time in comparison with common approaches like ray-tracing simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailPromotion de la santé à l'école ... Les modifications tant attendues de deux décrets
Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Education Santé (2006), (218), 7-8

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See detailFunctional morphology of the sonic apparatus in Ophidion barbatum (Teleostei, Ophidiidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fontenelle, N.; Fine, M. L. et al

in Journal of Morphology (2006), 267(12), 1461-1468

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder ... [more ▼]

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder resulting in sound production. Here we describe the sonic mechanism for Ophidion barbatum, which includes three pairs of sonic muscles, highly transformed vertebral centra and ribs, a neural arch that pivots and a swimbladder whose anterior end is modified into a bony structure, the rocker bone. The ventral and intermediate muscles cause the rocker bone to swivel inward, compressing the swimbladder, and this action is antagonized by the dorsal muscle. Unlike other sonic systems in which the muscle contraction rate determines sound fundamental frequency, we hypothesize that slow contraction of these antagonistic muscles produces a series of cycles of swimbladder vibration. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la qualité de l’eau de surface de bassins hydrographiques pour la mise en œuvre de la Directive-cadre dans les Pays de l’Est
Everbecq, Etienne ULg; Bourouag, Mohamed ULg; Grard, Aline ULg et al

Report (2006)

Le modèle Pegase (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux) est un modèle intégré bassins hydrographiques/rivières qui permet de calculer de façon déterministe et prévisionnelle la qualité ... [more ▼]

Le modèle Pegase (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux) est un modèle intégré bassins hydrographiques/rivières qui permet de calculer de façon déterministe et prévisionnelle la qualité des eaux des rivières en fonction des rejets et apports de pollution (relation pression-impact). Développé depuis la fin des années 1980 à l’université de Liège, il permet d'orienter les choix des opérateurs publics et privés en matière de gestion des eaux de surface à l'échelle des petits et grands bassins versants. et privés en matière de gestion des eaux de surface à l'échelle des petits et grands bassins versants. Plusieurs pays de l’Est souhaitant obtenir un support pour les aspects techniques relatifs à la mise en œuvre de la Directive-cadre Eau 2000/60 (DCE), une application pilote du modèle PEGASE a été réalisée en Pologne sur le bassin de la Haute-Vistule, en collaboration avec deux agences de l’eau (« RZGW ») Polonaises. Cette application pilote avait été proposée par l’Office international de l’eau (OIEAU) dans le cadre du jumelage France-Pologne pour la mise en œuvre de la DCE Les tâches à effectuer reprenaient l’aide à la mise en œuvre du modèle ainsi que la formation du personnel chargé d’utiliser in fine le modèle. Le Ministère de l’Environnement polonais a considéré cette application comme étant entièrement réussie et couronnée de succès, malgré les difficultés rencontrées pour rassembler les données de base. Cette application du modèle Pegase en Pologne peut servir d’exemple et de référence pour des applications dans d’autres pays de l’Est (Roumanie, Slovénie, Bulgarie, etc). [less ▲]

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See detailLe portrait dans Daguerréotypes d'Agnès Varda
Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

Conference (2006, December)

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See detail18f-Fdg Pet Imaging in Assessing Exudative Pleural Effusions
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; Larock, Marie-Paule ULg; Nguyen, Delphine et al

in Nuclear Medicine Communications (2006), 27(12), 971-6

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the accuracy of [F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) imaging with semi-quantitative analysis for differentiating benign from malignant pleural ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the accuracy of [F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) imaging with semi-quantitative analysis for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates and for guiding the search for the primary tumour of pleural metastases. METHODS: Whole-body 18F-FDG PET was performed in 79 patients with exudative pleurisy. Standard uptake values were normalized for body weight, body surface area, lean body mass (SUVbw, SUVbsa, SUVlbm) with and without correction for blood glucose levels. Thoracoscopy was systematically performed to reveal pathological diagnosis. RESULTS: All SUVs were significantly higher in all malignant pleural diseases (n = 51) than in benign (n = 28) (P < 0.001). Moreover SUVs were greater in the pleural metastases from pulmonary primaries (n = 25) and in mesotheliomas (n = 8) than in extrathoracic primaries (n = 18) (P < 0.01) with no significant difference between lung cancers and mesotheliomas. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis between benign and malignant lesions showed areas under the curves that ranged from 0.803 (SUVbsa g) to 0.863 (SUVbw). The cut-off value for SUVbw which gave the best accuracy (82.3%) was 2.2. When comparing thoracic with extrathoracic primaries the highest accuracy (80.4%) was found for a cut-off value of 2.6. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FDG PET imaging helps to differentiate malignant from benign pleural exudates and to distinguish between thoracic or extrathoracic primaries. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Shape And Topology Optimization: Recent Developments And Application Perspectives To Automotive Structures
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Van Miegroet, Laurent ULg; Remouchamps, Alain et al

in New Advances in Body Engineering - Lightweight design, passive safety, pedestrian protection, and numerical optimization (2006, December)

More than 15 years after the seminal work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi, topology optimization of structures has taken advantage of my research efforts and has now become a commercial available tool (e.g ... [more ▼]

More than 15 years after the seminal work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi, topology optimization of structures has taken advantage of my research efforts and has now become a commercial available tool (e.g. OptiStruct by Altair, Topol by Samtech, etc.). These software tools are daily used in automotive industry and provide engineers with a rational tool for preliminary design of efficient structural components. This paper presents the status of available topology optimization tools and introduces the recent developments that extend their capabilities in order to handle stress constraints, manufacturing constraints, etc. The communication also presents a novel approach of generalized shape optimization that has been introduced to circumvent the difficulties of parametric shape optimization and to complement topology optimization. The approach is based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the Level Set Description of the geometry. The Level Set description introduces smooth curve descriptions and allows modifying the connectivity of the wholes. The XFEM works with a fixed mesh as in topology optimization, which makes the method very convenient for engineers. Thus the novel approach is likely to bring the next future evolution of structural optimization. Impressive capabilities of this new generation approach will be demonstrated. Application examples from automotive and aerospace engineering will illustrate the different possibilities offered by two approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome malin des neuroleptiques et paralysie generale
Foatelli, F. M.; gernay, p; Lievens, Isabelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(12), 807-11

Described in 1960 by Jean Delay in relation to the use of haloperidol, neuroleptic malignant syndrome remains relatively rare, and poorly known by the medical profession. The emergence of the atypical ... [more ▼]

Described in 1960 by Jean Delay in relation to the use of haloperidol, neuroleptic malignant syndrome remains relatively rare, and poorly known by the medical profession. The emergence of the atypical antipsychotic agents and preventive measures which have become general in recent years in hospital departments using dopamine receptor antagonists has not altered the prognosis, which remains potentially fatal in approximately a quarter of cases. This article proposes a descriptive summary of this syndrome in terms of clinical and biological diagnostics as well as of evolution, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and treatment. It describes the case of a patient affected by general paralysis having developed a neuroleptic malignant syndrome, thus the hypothesis what the neuroleptic malignant syndrome preferentially arises in subjects having underlying organic or metabolic problems and provides food for thought regarding the main medical and psychiatric overlaps, the use of dopaminergic agents and the behaviour to be adopted when dealing with a patient presenting with inaugural psychiatric symptomatology. [less ▲]

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