References of "2004"
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See detailEnvironmental dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane or hexachlorobenzene exposure and breast cancer: is there a risk?
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pitance, François ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2004), 42(2), 222-227

The carcinogenic potential of environmental xenoestrogens (i.e., organochlorines) is a matter of controversy. Their pathogenic role as promoters in breast cancer has been previously suggested. In Europe ... [more ▼]

The carcinogenic potential of environmental xenoestrogens (i.e., organochlorines) is a matter of controversy. Their pathogenic role as promoters in breast cancer has been previously suggested. In Europe, despite their prohibition since the '70s, residues persist in soil and rivers resulting in a widespread contamination of the general population. In this study, we have compared the serum levels of p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in 231 women at the time of breast cancer discovery and in 290 agematched healthy controls. p,p'-DDE was found in 76.2% of cases and in 71.1% of controls but HCB was present only in 12.6% of cases (29 from 231) and in 8.9% of controls (26 from 290). Even if taking all undetectable results (recorded as "0") into consideration, mean values were significantly different in cases when compared to controls. The serum level of p,p'-DDE was 3.46+/-3.48 ppb (0.58+/-0.58 mug/g lipid) in patients and 1.85+/-2.09 ppb (0.31+/-0.35 mug/g lipid) in controls (p<0.0001). The HCB serum level was 0.66+/-1.25 ppb (0.11+/-0.21 mug/g lipid) in patients and 0.20+/-1.02 ppb (0.03+/-0.17 mug/g lipid) in controls (p<0.0001). When considering p,p'-DDE and HCB as binary variables (1 if higher than the limit of quantification, 0 if lower), the presence of both residues was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.41-3.48 for p,p'-DDE and OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.95-8.43 for HCB). No excess was observed among parous women or when familial history of breast cancer was considered. In the cancer group, no differences in serum levels of p,p'-DDE or HCB were found in relation with estrogenreceptor (ER) status, Bloom stage or lymph node metastasis, but the HCB level was moderately correlated with tumor size (p=0.026). [less ▲]

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See detailJacques Ochs et l’Action wallonne (1933-1940)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Jacques Ochs (1883-1971) (2004)

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See detailLes trésors de la postérité ou les fastes des proches parents du Prophète (Kitāb Ḏaḫā’ir al-‘uqbā fī manāqib ḏawī al-qurbā)
Muḥibb al-dīn al-Ṭabarī, Aḥmad ibn ‘Abdallāh ibn Muḥammad al-Makkī; Bauden, Frédéric ULg

Book published by Institut français d'archéologie orientale (2004)

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See detailPart 1: Physiopathology of obstructive respiratory disorders
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Dunlop, Robert H; Malbert, Charles-Henri (Eds.) Veterinary Pathophysiology (2004)

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See detailDes jambes lourdes à la grosse jambe rouge.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Vaisseaux, Coeur, Poumons (2004), 9

Venous insufficiency of the legs is a frequent and insidious disorder which, through its consequences’ cascade, lead to some cutaneous microangiopathy with relative ischemia. Chronic leg ulcer is the late ... [more ▼]

Venous insufficiency of the legs is a frequent and insidious disorder which, through its consequences’ cascade, lead to some cutaneous microangiopathy with relative ischemia. Chronic leg ulcer is the late issue of the process accompanied by varied medical and socio-economic aspects. The pathogeny of the cutaneous lesions is directly related to alterations in hemorrheology and leukocyte adhesion inside capillaries. Elastic contention and some venotropic drugs exert preventive effects on the development of leg ulcers. They also bring some therapeutic improvement of the symptoms of leg heaviness. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Complete Nano Engineering Geological Spectrum to Assess the Performance of Clay Barriers
Schmitz, Robrecht; Schroeder, Christian ULg; Thorez, Jacques ULg et al

in Hack, Robert; Azzam, Rafig; Charlier, Robert (Eds.) Engineering Geology for Infrastructure Planning in Europe (2004)

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See detailResponders to glucosamine sulfate in knee osteoarthritis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Pavelka, K.; Richy, F. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2004), 12(SB), 76

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See detailLa capacité. Notions générales.
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg

Book published by Larcier (2004)

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See detailBistability analyses of a caspase activation model for receptor-induced apoptosis
Eissing, Thomas; Conzelmann, Holger; Gilles, Ernst Dieter et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(35), 36892-36897

Apoptosis is an important physiological process crucially involved in development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Although the major signaling pathways have been unraveled, a detailed ... [more ▼]

Apoptosis is an important physiological process crucially involved in development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Although the major signaling pathways have been unraveled, a detailed mechanistic understanding of the complex underlying network remains elusive. We have translated here the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the death-receptor-activated caspase cascade into a mathematical model. A reduction down to the apoptotic core machinery enables the application of analytical mathematical methods to evaluate the system behavior within a wide range of parameters. Using parameter values from the literature, the model reveals an unstable status of survival indicating the need for further control. Based on recent publications we tested one additional regulatory mechanism at the level of initiator caspase activation and demonstrated that the resulting system displays desired characteristics such as bistability. In addition, the results from our model studies allowed us to reconcile the fast kinetics of caspase 3 activation observed at the single cell level with the much slower kinetics found at the level of a cell population. [less ▲]

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See detailProcollagen III N-endopeptidase.
Colige, Alain ULg

in Barrett, Alan J; Rawlings, Neil D.; Woessner, Fred J. (Eds.) Handbook of proteolytic enzymes, 2nd Edition. - Volume 1 - (2004)

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See detailYaken detachment fold, Southern Tianshan, China
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Suppe, J.; Wang, X. et al

in American Association of Petroleum Geologists Atlas (2004)

Yakeng anticline illustrates the importance of working in the thickness domain when interpreting detachment folds. Measure- ments in the thickness domain show that Yakeng has 1.2 km shorten- ing above a ... [more ▼]

Yakeng anticline illustrates the importance of working in the thickness domain when interpreting detachment folds. Measure- ments in the thickness domain show that Yakeng has 1.2 km shorten- ing above a basal two levels of major detachment, basal diapirism, basement folding, and a 2.4-km-thick growth sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailSpécificités cardiorespiratoires des ânes
Delvaux, Véronique ULg; Kirschvink, N.; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Proceedings: Congrès de l'Association Vétérinaire Equine Française (AVEF) (2004)

A group of 22 donkeys underwent a series of non-invasive cardiorespiratory tests in order to establish the reference standards for this species and compare the results with those for horses. For ... [more ▼]

A group of 22 donkeys underwent a series of non-invasive cardiorespiratory tests in order to establish the reference standards for this species and compare the results with those for horses. For particular tests (haematology, measurement of arterial blood gases, electrocardiogram width phonocardiogram, thoracic radiographs, cardiac echocardiography), no major différences were found. However, the mechanical ventilation parameters differed from those for horses and were similar to those for food-producing animals (cattle). The conformation of the pharynx and larynx is slightly différent to that of horses making it more difficult to pass an endoscope through this area. The differencial leukocyte count from tracheal lavage includes a number of epithelial cells, and a higher percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils for donkeys compared to horses. These similarities and différences between donkeys and horses should be taken into account when performing ancillary tests. [less ▲]

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See detailDe prosodie van het Frans en van het Nederlands: een contrastieve blik
Rasier, Laurent ULg

in Handelingen van de Koninklijke Zuid-Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal-, Letterkunde en Geschiedenis (2004)

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See detailL'immigration marocaine en Belgique : du travailleur immigré au citoyen transnational
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Bousetta, Hassan ULg

in Khader, Bichara; Roosens, Claude (Eds.) Belges et Arabes : voisins distants, partenaires nécessaires (2004)

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See detailAnalyse critique des techniques d'estimation du nombre d'unites motrices.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; Gerard, Pascale ULg; Bouquiaux, Olivier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59 Suppl 1

It is now 30 years since the first motor unit number estimation (MUNE) technique was introduced by Allan McComas as a way of providing an objective, sensitive and reproducible means of measuring the ... [more ▼]

It is now 30 years since the first motor unit number estimation (MUNE) technique was introduced by Allan McComas as a way of providing an objective, sensitive and reproducible means of measuring the number of motor axons in living human muscle or muscle group. MUNE techniques have substantially evolved over the past decade and have been applied, with increasing frequency, to the study of age effects on motoneurone population and muscle denervating disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis and different types of inherited and acquired peripheral neuropathies. In the future, one of the most important topics involving MUNE, will probably be its use in monitoring the progress of ALS patients undergoing experimental drug trials. However, among incremental, multiple point stimulation, spike-triggered averaging, F-wave analysis and statistical methods, there is no consensus about the best MUNE method. There is only a general feeling that some techniques are more valid than others. For this reason, in the present review, brief descriptions of the distinct MUNE methods are presented. In the second part of the paper, advantages and limitations (alternation, sampling errors, temporal registration etc...) of the most commonly employed procedures are considered. [less ▲]

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See detailChromophoric dissolved organic matter in experimental mesocosms maintained under different pCO(2) levels
Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Delille, Bruno ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2004), 272

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the optically active fraction of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Recent evidence pointed towards a microbial source of CDOM in the ... [more ▼]

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the optically active fraction of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Recent evidence pointed towards a microbial source of CDOM in the aquatic environment and led to the proposal that phytoplankton is not a direct source of CDOM, but that heterotrophic bacteria, through reprocessing of DOM of algal origin, are an important source of CDOM. In a recent experiment designed at looking at the effects of elevated pCO(2) on blooms of the coccolithophorid alga Emiliania huxleyi, we found that despite the 3 different pCO(2) levels tested (190, 414 and 714 ppm), no differences were observed in accumulation of CDOM over the 20 d of incubation. Unlike previous mesocosm experiments where. relationships between CDOM accumulation and bacterial abundance have been observed, none was observed here. These results provide some new insights into the apparent lack of effect of pCO(2) on CDOM accumulation in surface waters, and question the previously proposed mechanisms and rates of CDOM production in natural phytoplankton blooms. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivation in the Gym: A Qualitative Approach
Cloes, Marc ULg

in Chin, M. K.; Hensley, L. D.; Cote, P. (Eds.) et al Global Perspectives in the Integration of Physical Activity, Sports, Dance, and Exercise Science in Physical Education: From Theory to Practice (2004)

Students’ motivation is a major concern of physical education teachers as well as it interest the others educators. Understanding of that complex variable increased during the last two decades. In the ... [more ▼]

Students’ motivation is a major concern of physical education teachers as well as it interest the others educators. Understanding of that complex variable increased during the last two decades. In the physical education domain, many studies were focused on isolated variables related to motivation and on their relationship with pupils’ behaviours. More recently, qualitative researches were conducted to enter in the class specificity and to integrate the complexity and diversity of the variables that influence students’ motivations. Combining questionnaires interviews and observation, some researchers have confirmed that student’s motivation depends on a package of dispositional as well as individual and collective situational factors. They pointed out also the determining role of the teacher in the development of a motivated class climate. This paper will describe a couple of qualitative studies designed to analyse students’ motivation and will underline their contribution in the understanding of the phenomena related to the development of motivation by students. Moreover, as teachers need research directly focused to their concerns, we must now provide them more support helping them to apply research data. The action research design is proposed as an appropriate approach in that way. The description of a pilot action research focused on the improvement of the students’ motivation in a secondary school level girls class will also proposed. The main results should provide the starting point of a reflective process about the strategies that teachers could plan on the gym. As it has been underlined above, the goal of the paper was to share useful information with practitioners and researchers and to encourage them to involve themselves in personal research on students’ motivation. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a short-acting bronchodilator prevents bronchoscopy-induced airflow limitation in cats
Kirschvink, N.; Leemans, J.; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in 8th Annual Meeting de la Société Française de Pharmacologie - Strasbourg - France - Avril 2004 (2004)

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See detailTechnologie du débitage lamellaire
Flas, Damien ULg; Jacobs, Benjamin

in Miller, Rebecca; Haesaerts, Paul; Otte, Marcel (Eds.) L’atelier de taille aurignacien de Maisières-Canal (Belgique) (2004)

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