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See detailTowards a more versatile alpha-glucan biosynthesis in plants
Jacon, Géraldine ULg

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2003)

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways ... [more ▼]

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways. The knowledge generated in these investigations was subsequently used to produce tailor-made starches in higher plants using recombinant DNA technology. Examples of starches with new functionalities are those with a modified degree of branching (Schwall et al. 2000, Shewma- ker et al. 1994, Kortstee et al. 1996) and the amylose-free starch (Visser et al. 1991a, Kuipers et al.1994), some of which hold potential for applications in the paper-, textile-, plastics-, food and pharmaceutical industry. The accumulation of more starch has also been an objective, but this will not be dis- cussed further here, (see: Slattery et al. 2000). In our laboratory, we have embarked on two generic tech- nologies with a very wide range of applicability: (i) introduction of new linkages types and structural elements using glu- cansucrases, and (ii) engineering granule-boundness by using microbial starch-binding domains (SBDs). It is expected that these technologies will contribute substantially to the biosynthesis of more versatile α-glucans in the near future, leading to starches with altered functionalities that cannot be obtained by conventional breeding. In this study recent developments in starch modification using heterologous expression of microbial genes will be reviewed, with emphasis on the potato plant. [less ▲]

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See detailHistometric assessment of psoriatic plaques treated by vitamin D3 derivatives.
Uhoda, Isabelle; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2003), 206(4), 366-9

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immunogenetic disorder. Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes (DD) are part of the pathobiological changes in the plaque type of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immunogenetic disorder. Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes (DD) are part of the pathobiological changes in the plaque type of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at comparing the effect of 3 vitamin D(3) derivatives on the epidermis, microvasculature and DD in psoriasis. METHOD: Twenty men suffering from chronic plaques of psoriasis on the trunk were enrolled in this study. They applied twice a day for 3 weeks calcipotriol, tacalcitol and calcitriol, each to one plaque. Another similar lesion received petrolatum as a placebo treatment. Skin biopsies were taken at entry and at completion of the 3-week treatment phase. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the lectin of Ulex europaeus and an antibody to factor XIIIa. Computerized image analysis served to measure the stratum Malpighii area, the microvasculature area and the DD numerical density in the papillary dermis. RESULTS: At entry in the study, the 4 test sites were indistinguishable with regard to the stratum Malpighii area, the papillary microvasculature area and the papillary DD density. The 3 histometric parameters appeared correlated with each other. At completion of the 3-week treatment phase, the 3 vitamin D derivatives had decreased the size of the stratum Malpighii. In addition, calcitriol had also reduced the DD density in the papillary dermis. No other significant changes were yielded. CONCLUSION: As assessed by histometry, the psoriatic epidermis responded to a short treatment using the 3 vitamin D derivatives. The better result compared to the control site was achieved by calcitriol. DD appeared to be most controlled by the same drug. The microvasculature did not appear to be decreased at the 3-week time point in treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation du K-ABC ; vers une identification des dysharmonies développementales dans la trisomie 21
Frenkel, Stéphanie ULg; Bourdin, Béatrice; Vandromme, Luc

Conference (2003)

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See detailDroes
Verwilghen, Denis ULg

Master's dissertation (2003)

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See detailLa servitude légale d'enclave : un tour d'horizon
Boufflette, Sophie ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2003)

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See detailA New Version of the Moment Method, Optimized for Mode Identification in Multiperiodic Stars
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Aerts, C.

in Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram (2003)

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See detailCarbon dioxide daily variations and atmospheric fluxes over the Great Bahama Bank using a novel autonomous measuring system
Frankignoulle, Michel; Biondo, Renzo ULg; Théate, Jean-Marie et al

in Caribbean Journal of Sience (2003), 39(3), 257-264

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was ... [more ▼]

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was tested in field conditions for the first time in the Great Bahama Bank, in December 2000. We successfully carried out two 24 h cycles in Norman’s Pond, one in front of the Caribbean Marine Research Centre (CMRC) and another one near Bock Cay. Over-saturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium was observed systematically at the three sites, although significantly more marked at Norman’s Pond. The higher values of pCO2 and atmospheric CO2 fluxes obtained at Norman’s Pond, than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank, suggest a comparatively stronger heterotrophy at Norman’s Pond. This is most likely related to the organic carbon inputs to the water column and sediments from the dense mangrove forest surrounding Norman’s Pond. The larger amplitude of pCO2 daily variations observed, during the Norman’s Pond 24 h cycles, is probably due to higher biological activity than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. This is corroborated by a tentative estimation of Gross Primary Production based on simple computations. We speculate that calcification could also contribute to some extent to different amplitude of the pCO2 daily variations between the mangrove pond and the open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies on microbial protein synthesis in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls.
Valkeners, Damien; Beckers, Yves ULg; Piron, Fabien ULg et al

in Proceeding of the British Society of Animal Science 2003 (2003)

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See detailRecognising the usual orientation of one's own face : the role of asymmetrically located details
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2003), 32(7), 805-811

Our ability to recognise the usual horizontal orientation Of Our own face (mirror orientation) as compared with another very familiar face (normal orientation) was examined in experiment 1. Participants ... [more ▼]

Our ability to recognise the usual horizontal orientation Of Our own face (mirror orientation) as compared with another very familiar face (normal orientation) was examined in experiment 1. Participants did not use the same kind of information in determining the orientation of their own face as in determining the orientation of the other familiar face. The proportion of participants who reported having based their judgment on the location of an asymmetric feature (eg a mole) was higher when determining the orientation of their own face than when determining that of the other familiar face. In experiment 2, participants were presented with pairs of manipulated images of their own face and of another familiar face showing conflicting asymmetric features and configural information. Each pair consisted of one picture showing asymmetric features of a given face in a mirror-reversed position, while the facial configuration was left unchanged; and one picture in which the location of the asymmetric features was left unchanged, while the facial configuration was mirror-reversed. As expected from the hypothesis that asymmetric local features are more frequently used for the judgment of one's own face, participants chose the picture showing mirror-reversed asymmetric features when determining the usual orientation of their own face significantly more often than they chose the picture showing normally oriented asymmetric features when determining the orientation of the other face. These results are explained in terms of competing forward and mirror-reversed representations of one's own face. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitat social
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Van Loo, Anne (Ed.) Dictionnaire de l'architecture en Belgique (2003)

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See detailMycotoxins in stored Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in Tibet Autonomous Region (People’s Republic of China.
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Chasseur, Camille

in Mountain Research & Development (2003), 23

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See detailDevelopment path and capital structure of belgian biotechnology firms
Bastin, Veronique; Corhay, Albert ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg et al

in Butzen, Paul (Ed.) Firms' investment and finance decisions: Theory and empirical methodology (2003)

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel en cas de présomption de myopathie atypique des équidés : illustration au travers de cas référés à la Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège au cours du printemps 2003
Votion, Dominique ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147

Atypical myopathy is a frequently fatal disease inducing extensive and severe muscular damage, occurring during autumn and spring in grazing horses. The main features of the syndrome are the sudden onset ... [more ▼]

Atypical myopathy is a frequently fatal disease inducing extensive and severe muscular damage, occurring during autumn and spring in grazing horses. The main features of the syndrome are the sudden onset of non pathognomonic symptoms such as weakness, stiffness, sudation, recumbency and when observed, emission of dark urine. Confirmation of the diagnosis is of paramount importance since the disease can be recurrent on limited geographic area. This paper discusses the methodology applied on 7 clinical cases referred with a symptomatology suggestive of atypical myopathy to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Liege University during the spring 2003. Two of those cases were confirmed for atypical myopathy. A presumption of atypical myopathy may be drawn on history and clinical signs. On living animals, the serum concentration of the creatinine phosphokinase enzyme is the most useful biochemical tests as an aid to diagnosis because it confirms the presence of muscle damage. Nevertheless, the definitive diagnosis requires the histological examination of specific muscular samples obtained post-mortem. [less ▲]

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See detailCTD measurements, with emphasis on Elephant Island surroundings
Dauby, Patrick ULg

in Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (2003), 470

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See detailLa filière "céréales"
Gobillon, L.; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2003)

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See detailE-projets: la conduite du changement par la traduction
Rocher, O.; Rorive, Brigitte; Durieux, Dorothée et al

Report (2003)

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See detailAvantages sélectifs d'un phénotype hétérochronique. Eco-éthologie des populations pédomorphiques du Triton alpestre, Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Book published by Cahiers d'Ethologie (2003)

Facultative paedomorphosis is a polyphenism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and habitat use variation, and has occurred in several urodele species ... [more ▼]

Facultative paedomorphosis is a polyphenism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and habitat use variation, and has occurred in several urodele species throughout the world. Several hypotheses based on life-history theory have been proposed to explain the wide range of habitats where facultative paedomorphosis occurs, suggesting multiple causes. In populations experiencing facultative paedomorphosis, some individuals metamorphose and mature (metamorphs), while others attain sexual maturity while still retaining traits of larval somatic morphology (paedomorphs). The paedomorphic process by which the development of somatic and reproductive organs is shifted between related individuals is assumed to significantly contribute to macro-evolutionary processes. Indeed, it implies large phenotypic variations in the absence of deep genetic changes. A way to explain the importance of these developmental heterochronies is to show their adaptive value in the micro-evolutive stage. The aim of this thesis is to determine the advantages gained by an individual that adopts a paedomorphic developmental pathway rather than a metamorphic one. To do this, we studied five factors: habitat use; resource partitioning; age and size structures; sexual compatibility; and the effect of environmental factors. The ecological and ethological characteristics of several mixed populations (composed of both paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals) of the Alpine newt Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Salamandridae) were investigated from 1997 to 2000. These populations were located in France, Italy and Greece. The habitats occupied by dimorphic populations of the Alpine newt are highly variable. We have found the two morphs in syntopy in deep permanent lakes, and in small shallow and temporary ponds. Aquatic habitats were surrounded by various terrestrial habitats. As a result, it was not possible to correlate any particular environment type with the maintenance of the polymorphism in natural populations. The only common trait of the paedomorphic populations was that they were located at the southern margin of the range of the species (Italy, the Balkan peninsula, and southeastern France). Such a restriction of the distributional range of paedomorphosis suggests that this trait is maintained by genes which are shared only by these populations. Such a restriction may be due to Holocene colonizations from Pleistocene refugia, in which case paedomorphosis may have appeared in these refugia during the last glaciations. Nevertheless, as long as the phylogeny of the group remains uncertain, we cannot reject the possibility of an earlier origin of paedomorphosis. The two morphs primarily differed in space use and feeding habits. These differences were particularly marked in deep alpine aquatic habitats, where the paedomorphs occupy deep waters devoid of competitors, such as fish. In such waters, the paedomorphs were more abundant on the bottom and in the water column, whereas the metamorphs mainly occupied the water surface and shore. The paedomorphs primarily ingested plankton, while the metamorphs mainly foraged on terrestrial prey that had fallen on the water surface. Although these feeding habits depend on newt habitats - plankton being more abundant in the water column, and terrestrial prey at the water surface - the trophic spectrum in each habitat still differed. While the energetic values of the prey eaten by the two morphs strongly differed, by ingesting a large number of planktonic organisms, the paedomorphs attained similar or even larger caloric intake rates than metamorphs. The paedomorphs' superior body condition suggests that they may have higher long-term success than the metamorphs. Differences in body condition may also reflect the terrestrial life habit of the metamorphs, since metamorphosed individuals are able to avoid competition with reproductive adults and larvae by leaving the water. In the paedomorphic populations, several size-structured cohorts of larvae coexist, and competition among these cohorts is lowered by size-selective predation, since small larvae catch smaller prey than larger larvae and paedomorphs. Although this difference in diet was in part due to gape-size limitation, the gilled individuals also size-selected prey among a range of catchable items. Resource partitioning then favoured the coexistence of the two adult morphs, and their gilled descendants, which coexist with them. The two morphs also differed in feeding performance. Whereas the paedomorphs were better predators than metamorphs on water fleas, metamorphs were more adept at capturing large terrestrial invertebrates (flies). These differences in feeding performances were caused by the morphological particularities of the two morphs. Paedomorphs had a fish-like feeding structure with a unidirectional water flow passing through the oral cavity, and then being expelled through gill slits on the posterior side of the head. In contrast, metamorphs had a smaller oral cavity and a bidirectional water flow due to closed gill slits. Although the metamorphic structure produces less suction, it allows for catching bigger prey because of a larger gape-size (biting rather than sucking). Our measures of feeding performances confirmed the data from natural populations, with each of the morphs preferentially eating their predicted prey. The particular use of micro-habitats by the two morphs is also in agreement with optimality models predicting predation in the more profitable patches. In the Alpine newt, paedomorphosis can be produced by two main processes: neoteny and progenesis. In some populations, the two morphs reached sexual maturity at the same age (neoteny); in other populations, sexual maturity was reached earlier by paedomorphs (progenesis). Progenesis was observed in unstable water habitats. Pond drying suppressed the possibility of late maturation, which is characteristic of a neotenic developmental pathway. On the other hand, the precocious sexual maturation of paedomorphs favoured the fast colonization of new habitats, owing to a high intrinsic rate of natural increase. Neoteny was typical of permanent waters with harsh constraints on growth. By forgoing metamorphosis, larvae also avoid the cost of changing of structure (decrease in body weight in our experiments). Progenetic paedomorphosis appears then as a major trait that can be selected due to the advantages of earlier maturation. The two morphs are sexually compatible; thus, metamorphs can "exchange" genes with paedomorphs at each generation. While the two morphs markedly differ in their secondary sexual characteristics, females did not show any preference related to these characteristics. The absence of sexual isolation between the morphs shows that they are not involved in a sympatric speciation process. The maintenance of the polymorphism is more advantageous than the formation of two isolated species. Paedomorphosis occurs in aquatic habitats where total drying can occur, and where the maintenance of facultative paedomorphosis is maintained by metamorphs that have paedomorphic genes but do not (permanently) express them. In such habitats, the sexual isolation of the two morphs would lead to the extinction of paedomorphosis in the event of pond drying or similar catastrophe. Because the environment can modify the ontogenetic pathway, paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt can be considered a polyphenism. Indeed, restricting the amount of water or food available induces paedomorphs to metamorphose. The marking of individual paedomorphs in a natural population proved that metamorphosis also occurs in the field. However, salamander density and progressive drying of aquaria did not have any apparent effect on paedomorph metamorphosis. When the possibility of a short migration across dry land was given, paedomorphs moved towards an available water basin and maintained their larval somatic characters during the migrations. By being able to migrate on land towards permanent water, paedomorphs are able to retain a feeding morphology that favors them in microhabitats where plankton is abundant. Facultative paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt allows populations to cope with environmental variability, and is adaptive in allowing precocious maturation or a larger use of resources in spatially heterogeneous environments. Thus, it is not surprising that paedomorphosis can evolve in such dissimilar environments as lowland temporary ponds and highland deep lakes. In such places, paedomorphosis appears to be the best solution as long as fish predation is relaxed. The introduction of fish throughout Europe is thus a serious problem, and has resulted in the extinction of several large paedomorphic populations. If this trend is not stopped rapidly, paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt - and in other species - will belong to the past. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of the continuous glucose monitoring system in inpatient and outpatient conditions
Djakouré-Platonoff, C.; RADERMECKER, Régis ULg; Reach, G. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2003), 29

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