References of "2001"
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See detailHST Observations of Aurora from the Magnetic Footprints of Io, Ganymede, and Europa during the Millennium Campaign
Clarke, J. T.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Connerney, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2001, November 01)

UV images of Jupiter's aurora obtained with the HST STIS instrument reveal much detail in the distribution of emissions from Io's magnetic footprint on Jupiter, including extended trails of emission in ... [more ▼]

UV images of Jupiter's aurora obtained with the HST STIS instrument reveal much detail in the distribution of emissions from Io's magnetic footprint on Jupiter, including extended trails of emission in the downstream direction. Emissions are also seen from the magnetic footprints of Ganymede and Europa, relatively much fainter and point-like in spatial extent. Knowledge of the statistical properties of these emissions, in terms of their locations and brightnesses, was greatly advanced in a comprehensive series of images obtained during the Millennium campaign in Dec. 2000 - Jan. 2001. These images provide sufficient spatial coverage to give a good indication of the auroral oval locations mapping to Io and Ganymede, and a few points mapping to Europa. The observed variations in footprint properties provide indications of the nature of the electrodynamic interactions of the satellites with Jupiter's magnetic field. These and other indicators also show the direction that magnetic field models should take to better describe Jupiter's internal magnetic field. Contributing evidence comes from the locus of footprint latitudes, and their deviations from the VIP4 model. The latitudinal distance between the Io and Ganymede footprint loci indicates variations in the local field strength, with larger separations corresponding to a weaker field. These separations, and the distance from and distortion of the main oval, indicate an anomalously weak field region in the north near 90[SUP]o[/SUP] longitude. This work has been supported by NASA in STScI grants GO-08171-97A and GO-08657-01A to the University of Michigan. [less ▲]

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See detailL'essaim des Léonides : édition 2000
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg

Article for general public (2001)

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See detailSignificance of Dobutamine-Induced Changes in Qt Dispersion Early after Acute Myocardial Infarction
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Bilge, A. R.; Mipinda, J. B. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2001), 88(9), 939-43

This study sought to examine the effects of graded dobutamine infusion on QT dispersion early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the relation of dobutamine-induced changes in QT ... [more ▼]

This study sought to examine the effects of graded dobutamine infusion on QT dispersion early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the relation of dobutamine-induced changes in QT dispersion to wall motion responses. Seventy-eight patients with a first AMI underwent dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography 5 +/- 2 days after admission. Contractile reserve was identified in 45 patients and ischemic myocardium in 40. Sixteen patients had persistent akinesia. The best cut-off value of QT dispersion on the baseline electrocardiogram for predicting myocardial viability was 65 ms (sensitivity and specificity of 68%). Dobutamine infusion increased QT dispersion only in patients with viable myocardium (61 +/- 18 to 83 +/- 19 ms, p = 0.003) and/or ischemia (72 +/- 16 to 112 +/- 25 ms, p < 0.0001). No change was observed in patients with persistent akinesia (84 +/- 10 to 87 +/- 15 ms, p = NS). QT dispersion increased by 22 +/- 12 ms with administration of low-dose dobutamine in patients who had viable myocardium and by 47 +/- 21 ms with administration of low- to high-dose dobutamine in patients with ischemic myocardium. An increase in QT dispersion of > or = 20 ms from at rest to low-dose dobutamine infusion was associated with myocardial viability with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 79%, whereas an increase in QT dispersion of > or = 10 ms from low- to high-dose dobutamine infusion predicted ischemic myocardium with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 82%. In conclusion, (1) low QT dispersion on the baseline electrocardiogram is determined by the presence of viable myocardium, (2) a dobutamine-induced increase in QT dispersion is associated with viable and jeopardized myocardium, and (3) unchanged QT dispersion during dobutamine stress is a simple marker of extensive necrosis. [less ▲]

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See detailAbdomen aigu: aspects chirurgicaux
Hamaide, Annick ULg

in Proceedings du congrès CNVSPA (2001, November)

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See detailDéveloppement d'un système de relevé numérique des documents archéologiques en trois dimensions par des procédés optoélectroniques
Laboury, Dimitri; Renotte, Yvon; Tilkens, Bernard et al

Poster (2001, November)

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See detailSpermine-Induced Alteration of Small Intestine in Suckling Rat: Involvement of Apoptosis or Zn2+ Enzymes?
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Denis, Ghislaine; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Digestive Diseases & Sciences (2001), 46(11), 2490-8

Polyamines are of great importance in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces precocious maturation of their ... [more ▼]

Polyamines are of great importance in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces precocious maturation of their small intestine. Shortly after ingestion, spermine produces cell elimination at the villous top. The origin of this exfoliation was investigated to determine whether it was due to apoptosis. Wistar rats were orally treated with spermine. Apoptosis was analyzed in their small intestine by Tdt-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling reaction, caspase-3-like analysis, and DNA laddering. Polyamine content was measured by HPLC. The intestinal transitory alteration appeared as soon as 2 hr after spermine administration. Apoptosis events increased strongly at the same moment in the small intestine. They were evidenced by Tdt-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling analysis, DNA laddering, and caspase-3-like activity. Changes observed are consistent with apoptosis, but caspase inhibitor did not reduce intestinal alteration, as did Zn2+ chelator. [less ▲]

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See detailEndogenous growth and regional dynamics in an OLG model with land
Artige, Lionel ULg

Conference (2001, November)

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See detailInvisible fences: Prose poetry as a genre in French and American literature
Delville, Michel ULg

in Modernism-Modernity (2001), 8(4), 705-706

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See detailSimulation de l'injection de résine sur renforts fibreux
Béchet, Eric ULg

Scientific conference (2001, November)

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Epidermolyse staphylococcique aigue chez une quinquagenaire
Fumal, I.; Paquet, Philippe ULg; JACOB, ERIC et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 745-747

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a bullous disease induced by bacterial exfoliative exotoxins. Children are most often affected. The prognosis is worse in adults and calls for treatment in an ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a bullous disease induced by bacterial exfoliative exotoxins. Children are most often affected. The prognosis is worse in adults and calls for treatment in an intensive care unit. We report a case in a quinquagenerian woman who suffered from angina a few days before the bullous erythroderma. [less ▲]

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See detailScantling Optimization Based on Convex Linearizations and a Dual Approach
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg

in Marine Structures (2001)

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See detailSynthèse et biosynthèse de substances défensives d'insectes
Laurent, Pascal ULg

Doctoral thesis (2001)

Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la synthèse et à la biosynthèse de substances défensives d’insectes et, plus particulièrement, aux alcaloïdes de coccinelles. Afin d’en ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la synthèse et à la biosynthèse de substances défensives d’insectes et, plus particulièrement, aux alcaloïdes de coccinelles. Afin d’en déterminer la configuration absolue, nous avons, dans un premier temps, entrepris la synthèse énantiosélective de la calvine et de la 2-épicalvine, deux alcaloïdes isolés des coccinelles du genre Calvia. Pour cela, trois voies différentes ont été étudiées. Dans la première, l’étape clé consiste en la déprotonation asymétrique de la 9-méthoxycarbonyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one. Cette stratégie a dû être abandonnée car nous ne sommes pas parvenus à mener à bien cette réaction. Les deux autres voies de synthèse partent toutes les deux du (-)-3-phényloxazolo[3,2-a]pipéridine-5-carbonitrile. Les étapes clés de ces synthèses sont : i) l’introduction régio- et hautement stéréosélective (ee > 99%) d’une chaîne pentyle en  de l’atome d’azote ; ii) le greffage d’un groupement méthoxycarbonylméthyle en position ’, soit par une séquence oxydation anodique-substitution nucléophile, soit en utilisant la méthode « CN(R,S) » ; iii) l’hydroxyéthylation de l’atome d’azote suivie de lactonisation, ce qui nous a permis d'obtenir les deux molécules cibles dans un rapport 1 : 1 avec des rendements respectifs de 6 et 5.5% pour la deuxième synthèse testée et de 11 et 10% pour la troisième voie. La configuration absolue (2S,6S) de la (+)-calvine et celle (2R,6S) de la (+)-2-épicalvine ont été déterminées par comparaison des pouvoirs rotatoires des benzoates de synthèse avec ceux des benzoates dérivant des alcaloïdes naturels. Afin de mieux cerner l’évolution des mécanismes de défense chimique de ces insectes, nous avons alors entrepris l’étude de la biosynthèse de deux composés isolés des coccinelles du genre Adalia : l’adaline et l’adalinine. Dans un premier temps, nous nous sommes proposé de déterminer la relation biogénétique existant entre ces deux molécules. Pour cela, nous avons synthétisé de l’adaline spécifiquement marquée au niveau de la chaîne pentyle par onze atomes de deutérium. Nous avons ensuite incorporé le produit marqué à des coccinelles du genre Adalia. L’analyse des gouttelettes d’hémolymphe par GC-MS a mis en évidence la présence d’adaline et d’adalinine marquées, suggérant donc une filiation entre ces deux molécules. Puis, afin de prouver l’origine polyacétate de l’adaline, nous avons établi un schéma de dégradation permettant d’obtenir le carbone du carbonyle de cette molécule sous forme d’acide benzoïque. Nous avons ensuite déterminé le pourcentage de radioactivité au niveau de ce carbone après incorporation de [1-14C] et de [2-14C]acétate de sodium. La comparaison des activités spécifiques relatives expérimentales et théoriques confirme sans ambiguïté que l’adaline est bien biosynthétisée par la condensation de 7 unités acétate. Au cours de ce travail, nous avons également mis au point une méthode de production in vitro d’alcaloïdes défensifs de coccinelles au moyen d’une suspension de tissus. Cette technique nous a permis d’explorer de manière plus précise le schéma de biosynthèse de l’adaline et de la coccinelline, de déterminer l’origine biogénétique de l’atome d’azote ainsi que l'organe responsable de la synthèse des alcaloïdes chez ces insectes. Nous avons ainsi pu démontrer que : i) la L-glutamine est la source d’azote ; ii) le corps gras est l’organe responsable de la biosynthèse des alcaloïdes chez les coccinelles ; iii) ceux-ci sont formés via la condensation d’unités acétate selon la voie des acides gras. Cette méthode de suspension de tissus nous a également permis de démontrer que le crématofurane et l’isocrématofurane, deux diterpènes isolés des fourmis Crematogaster brevispinosa rochai, sont biosynthétisés selon la voie classique de l’acide mévalonique. Enfin, chez les termites Nasutitermes lujae, les résultats obtenus sont trop préliminaires pour pouvoir tirer de conclusions concernant l’organe responsable de la biosynthèse des diterpènes défensifs. Cependant, grâce à la technique de suspension de tissus, nous avons tout de même observé une incorporation de [2-14C]acétate de sodium lorsqu’on utilise le termite entier ou seulement sa tête. [less ▲]

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See detailLe deficit en alpha-1 antitrypsine. Une indication de transplantation hepatique pediatrique
De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 753-8

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the most common inborn error of metabolism leading to liver transplantation, and the second cause of liver transplantation in children after biliary atresia. The authors ... [more ▼]

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the most common inborn error of metabolism leading to liver transplantation, and the second cause of liver transplantation in children after biliary atresia. The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl, who was suffering from end-stage liver disease secondary to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. She was successfully treated by whole liver transplantation, the hepatic graft coming from a 3-year-old donor. Three months later she went back to school. The authors discuss the pathogenesis and the natural history of this frequent cause of liver transplantation in children. [less ▲]

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See detailPreoptic Aromatase Cells Project to the Mesencephalic Central Gray in the Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica)
Absil, Philippe ULg; Riters, L. V.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2001), 40(3), 369-83

Previous tract-tracing studies demonstrated the existence of projections from the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) to the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) in quail. GCt contains a significant number of ... [more ▼]

Previous tract-tracing studies demonstrated the existence of projections from the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) to the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) in quail. GCt contains a significant number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) fibers and punctate structures, but no ARO-ir cells are present in this region. The origin of the ARO-ir fibers of the GCt was investigated here by retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for aromatase. Following injection of fluorescent microspheres in GCt, retrogradely labeled cells were found in a large number of hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas and in particular within the three main groups of ARO-ir cells located in the POM, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the bed nucleus striae terminalis. Labeling of these cells for aromatase by immunocytochemistry demonstrated, however, that aromatase-positive retrogradely labeled cells are observed almost exclusively within the POM. Double-labeled cells were abundant in both the rostral and caudal parts of the POM and their number was apparently not affected by the location of the injection site within GCt. At both rostro-caudal levels of the POM, ARO-ir retrogradely labeled cells were, however, more frequent in the lateral than in the medial POM. These data indicate that ARO-ir neurons located in the lateral part of the POM may control the premotor aspects of male copulatory behavior through their projection to GCt and suggest that GCt activity could be affected by estrogens released from the terminals of these ARO-ir neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailSteroid-induced plasticity in the sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic innervation of the avian brain: behavioral implications
Panzica, G. C.; Aste, N.; Castagna, C. et al

in Brain Research Reviews (2001), 37(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 178-200

Vasotocin (VT, the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. In addition, in male quail and in other oscine and non-oscine ... [more ▼]

Vasotocin (VT, the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. In addition, in male quail and in other oscine and non-oscine birds, a sexually dimorphic group of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular neurons is located in a region homologous to the mammalian nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm) and in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). These cells are not visible in females. VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations. Quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrate that, in quail, these elements are expressed in a sexually dimorphic manner (males>females) in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction: i.e., the POM (copulatory behavior), the lateral septum (secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]), the nucleus intercollicularis (control of vocalizations), and the locus coeruleus (the main noradrenergic center of the avian brain). In many of these regions,VT-ir fibers are closely related to aromatase-ir, GnRH-ir, or estrogen receptor-expressing neurons. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of estradiol-benzoate to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT-immunoreactivity in all sexually dimorphic regions of the male quail brain. Conversely, the inhibition of estradiol (E,) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in adult testosterone (T)-treated females) results in a male-like distribution of VT-ir cells and fibers. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreactivity in both the VT-immunopositive elements of the BSTm and the innervation of the SL and POM, whereas T-replacement therapy restores the VT immunoreactivity to a level typical of intact birds. These changes reflect modifications of VT mRNA concentrations (and probably synthesis) as demonstrated by in situ hybridization and they are paralleled by similar changes in male copulatory behavior (absent in castrated male quail, fully expressed in CX+T males). The aromatization of T into estradiol (E-2) also controls VT expression and, in parallel limits the activation of male sexual behavior by T. In castrated male quail, the restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in POM, BSTm and lateral septum could be fully mimicked by a treatment with E-2, but the androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had absolutely no effect on the VT immunoreactivity in these conditions. At the doses used in this study, DHT also did not synergize with E, to enhance the density of VT immunoreactive structures. Systemic or i.c.v. injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of all aspects of male sexual behavior. VT, presumably, does not simply represent one step in the biochemical cascade of events that is induced by T in the brain and leads to the expression of male sexual behavior. Androgens and estrogens presumably affect reproductive behavior both directly, by acting on steroid-sensitive neurons in the preoptic area, and indirectly, by modulating peptidergic (specifically vasotocinergic) inputs to this and other areas. The respective contribution of these two types of actions and their interaction deserves further analysis. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science BY All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the oxygen budget of the Black Sea waters using a 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Lacroix, Geneviève

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 31(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 175-202

The ventilation of the Black Sea waters by physical and biogeochemical processes is investigated using the Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) laboratory 3D coupled hydrodynamical ... [more ▼]

The ventilation of the Black Sea waters by physical and biogeochemical processes is investigated using the Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) laboratory 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model. In particular, the penetration at depth of the winter mixing, the generation of unstable motions by frontal instabilities, the exchanges between the north-western shelf and the open sea along the shelf break, the primary production distribution, the generation of detritus and the resulting consumption of oxygen for their recycling are studied. The GHER 3D hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the Black Sea's general circulation and the associated synoptic and mesoscale structures. This model is coupled with a simple ecosystem model defined by a nitrogen cycle which is described by seven state variables: nitrate, ammonium, dissolved oxygen, phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic and benthic detritus. The model simulates the space-time variations of the biogeochemical state variables. In particular, the spatial variability of the phytoplankton biomass annual cycle, imparted by the horizontal and vertical variations of the physical and chemical properties of the water column, is clearly illustrated. For instance, on the north-western shelf, the seasonal variability of the circulation and in particular, the reversal of the surface current at the end of spring, has a strong influence on the transport of the rich nutrient Danube waters and, thus, on the repartition of the primary production. Furthermore, the results illustrate the seasonal and vertical variations of the dissolved oxygen concentration resulting (a) from its atmospheric and photosynthetic productions in the surface layer, (b) from its loss to the atmosphere in spring and summer and (c) from its consumption associated with the detritus decomposition, the ammonium oxidation during the nitrification process, as well as the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. The simulated sea surface, phytoplankton fields are compared with satellite estimates of chlorophyll-a fields. Comparisons are made with seasonal mean pictures and snapshot images, illustrating the mesoscale motions of the main coastal current. In the central Black Sea and the Danube delta area, comparisons with available field data are also made. As a general rule, all these comparisons show a quite good qualitative agreement. In particular, at the surface, the simulated phytoplankton space-time distribution is in a good qualitative agreement with satellite observations. However, on a quantitative point of view, the model underestimates the bloom intensity especially in the Danube discharge area. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail
Absil, Philippe ULg; Baillien, M.; Ball, G. F. et al

in Brain Research Reviews (2001), 37(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 38-58

This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and ... [more ▼]

This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons, Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme, Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been identified. The potential significance of these processes for the physiology of reproduction is critically evaluated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science BY. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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