References of "1996"
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See detailModeling the Structural Behavior in Case of Fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (1996, July 15)

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See detailInner patterns and front propagation of dynamic random impurity model
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review Letters (1996), 77(3), 510-513

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front ... [more ▼]

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front and the impurities leads to an aggregation process along the front, and to the trapping of aggregates. The amplitude of this self-organization for collective impurity trapping is analyzed in two dimensions. A relationship exists between individual motion and the aggregation of particles. The results indicate that self-organizing features are different behind and on the front. [less ▲]

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See detailDiblock Copolymers as Emulsifying Agents in Polymer Blends: Influence of Molecular Weight, Architecture, and Chemical Composition
Cigana, P.; Favis, B. D.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1996), 34(9), 1691-1700

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This ... [more ▼]

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This work examines the influence of the molecular weight, architecture, and chemical composition of the interfacial agent on its ability to emulsify a polymer blend. The system chosen is a blend containing 80% polystyrene and 20% ethylene-propylene rubber, compatibilized by diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-hydrogenated butadiene). The emulsification curve, which relates the dispersed phase particle size to the concentration of interfacial agent added to the system, was used as a tool to characterize the efficacy of the different interfacial agents. The observed behavior is similar to that of classical emulsions: a rapid drop in phase size at low concentrations of interfacial modifier, followed by a levelling off to an equilibrium diameter value once a critical concentration has been reached. For systems compatibilized by symmetrical diblocks (i.e., containing approximately 50% styrene by weight), the volume average particle diameter decreased from 2.7 m for the unmodified system to about 0.4 m once interfacial saturation is reached. The critical concentration for emulsification decreased with increasing interfacial agent molecular weight, due to the higher interfacial area occupied by longer molecules; however, this parameter did not affect the equilibrium particle diameter. The asymmetrical diblock copolymer (30% styrene) was found to be less effective than the symmetrical ones over the entire range of concentrations studied (5 to 35% modifier, based on the volume of the minor phase). Asymmetrical diblock copolymers would tend to form micelles, whereas symmetrical copolymers are less constrained at the interface. No significant difference was observed between the emulsifying capability of tapered and pure diblocks of similar composition and molecular weight. [less ▲]

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See detailEthnic Politicians in Belgium
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (1996, July 03)

See detailBuckling of Hot-Rolled H-Section Columns at Elevated Temperature
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (1996, July 02)

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See detailTheorie laserinduzierter Rekombinationsprozesse
Schlagheck, Peter ULg

Master's dissertation (1996)

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See detailThe electroreduction of acrylonitrile : a new insight into the mechanism
Mertens, Marc; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(14), 4910-4918

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the ... [more ▼]

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the electropolymerization of AN occurs in acetonitrile in the presence of tetraethylammonium perchlorate in such a way that polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is “grafted” onto the cathode. This electrochemical reaction has been reinvestigated both in acetonitrile, a nonsolvent of PAN, and in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a good solvent for the polymer. The key role of the reduction potential on the electrografting reaction has been emphasized. The two electrochemical phenomena previously reported by Lecayon et al. have indeed been confirmed, but now it is clear that the “electrografting” of PAN selectively occurs at the less cathodic potential. At this potential, a PAN film is formed by a radical process and firmly secured onto the electrode, even in DMF. If the cathodic potential is further increased, the PAN film is easily removed from the metal and dissolves quickly in DMF. The transfer of one electron from the metal to the monomer occurs when the reduction is carried out at the more cathodic potential. A nonadherent PAN film is then formed onto Ni in acetonitrile, although the AN polymerization occurs in solution when acetonitrile is replaced by DMF. The AN polymerization is then consistent with an anionic process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Strategy for Multiple Immunophenotyping by Image Cytometry: Model Studies Using Latex Microbeads Labeled with Seven Streptavidin-Bound Fluorochromes
Gothot, André ULg; Grosdent, J. C.; Paulus, Jean-Michel ULg

in Cytometry (1996), 24(3), 214-25

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work ... [more ▼]

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work demonstrates the simultaneous discrimination by using image cytometry of aminomethylcoumarin acetate (AMCA), Lucifer yellow (LY), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), R-phycoerythrin (PE), PE-Texas red tandem (Red613), peridinin-chlorophyll protein (PerCP), and allophycocyanin (APC), which were all bound to latex beads as streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes. This has been the result of a step-by-step optimization of the several factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of multiple immunofluorescence analysis. First, 14 streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes were evaluated by using spectrofluorometry. A primary selection was then made of ten spectrally separable dyes that could be evaluated by using image cytometry. These dyes were bound to latex particles, and specific filter combinations were assembled to minimize crosstalk between fluorophores while preserving sufficient fluorescence intensity and counting statistics. Potential probe associations were then assessed by measuring the emissions of all fluorochromes that were detected by each filter combination. The resulting crosstalk matrix served as the basic tool both for final selection of the optimal filter combination and for dye set (composed, in this case, of the seven fluorochromes described above) and for mathematical correction of residual spectral overlap. Next, an image cytometry system was adapted to collect seven images of matched brightness with the selected combination of excitation/emission filters and dichroic mirrors. Finally, seven-parameter synthetic images were generated by digital image processing. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributive Justice and Social Equity: Québécois and French Students' Perceptions
Hudon, Raymond; Fournier, Bernard ULg

Conference (1996, July)

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See detailIGF-I and IGFBPs in plasma of growing Landrace and large withe pigs.
Messina, M.; Prandi, A.; Nicolas, Nathalie et al

in Proceedings of the 14th IPVS Congress (1996, July)

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See detailTAQ1 restriction fragment length polymorphism for pig growth hormone in pigs.
Nicolas, Nathalie; Fumiere, Olivier; Prandi, A. et al

in Proceedings of the 14th IVPS Congress (1996, July)

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See detailSimulation-based analysis of the renewal of a passive solar commercial building
Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings PLEA 96 International conference (1996, July)

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See detailUltrastructural Modifications in Cultured Fetal Quail Hepatocytes Exposed to Pesticides and Pcbs
Hugla, J. L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(2), 145-55

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfacial agents for polymer/liquid crystal dispersions
Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1996), 197(7), 2209-2217

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In ... [more ▼]

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In case of covalent bonding, the additive is too much "soluble" in polystyrene and no interfacial activity is observed. Ionic bonding of the LC to polystyrene chains deeply changes the situation, all the other conditions being the same, The dipolar interactions of the ion pairs are clearly favorable to the localization of the additive at the polymer/LC interface. The higher polarity of the ammonium sulfonate pairs com-pared to the parent ammonium carboxylate ion pairs accordingly accounts for a higher interfacial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular distribution of the ORF4 gene product of varicella-zoster virus is influenced by the IE62 protein
Defechereux, Patricia; Debrus, Serge; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of General Virology (1996), 77(Part 7), 1505-1513

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate-early protein of VZV (IE62) is a transactivator of VZV gene expression, In transfection assays, IE4 has been shown to enhance activation induced by IE62, To investigate the functional interactions underlying this observation, indirect immunofluorescence studies were undertaken to determine whether IE62 could influence IE4 intracellular localization in transfected cells, In single transfections, IE4 was predominantly found in cytoplasm, In cotransfection with IE62, the IE4 localization pattern was altered, with nuclear staining predominating over cytoplasmic staining, This effect was specific to the IE62 protein since the gene products of ORF63 and ORF61, which are also regulatory proteins, did not influence IE4 distribution, The use of IE62 mutants indicated that IE62 influence is independent of its transactivation function and that the integrity of regions 3 and 4 is required, IE62 remained nuclear whether IE4 was present or not, These observations underline differences in the regulation of gene expression between VZV proteins and their herpes simplex virus type 1 homologues, In infected cells, IE4 was only sometimes found to colocalize with IE62 in nuclei, This observation suggests that when all VZV proteins are present, complex interactions probably occur which could diminish the influence of IE62. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablishment of a Rabbit Model for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 Neurological Acute Infection
Meyer, Gilles; Lemaire, Mylène; Lyaku, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 51(1-2), 27-40

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with BHV-5 or bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) by the intraconjunctival, intracerebral or intranasal routes. BHV-5 or BHV-1 inoculated in the conjunctiva induced virus proliferation in the eye mucosae and the nasal cavity of rabbits without meningo-encephalitis. On the other hand, only BHV-5 infection by intranasal or intracerebral routes produced a fatal meningo-encephalitis. The intranasal route was used in a further experiment for the establishment of a rabbit model for BHV-5 infection. A total of 45 rabbits were inoculated intranasally with BHV-5 or BHV-1. The results showed that intranasal inoculation of BHV-5 strain N569 in rabbits was followed by the development of a lethal meningo-encephalitis for 66% of rabbits while all BHV-1 infected rabbits remained healthy throughout this experiment (28 days). Analysis between the mortalities of rabbits infected with BHV-5 and BHV-1 were highly significant (p < 0.001). The presence of BHV-5 in the central nervous system (CNS) was confirmed by virus isolation (essentially the cerebrum, midbrain and pons) and by immunohistochemical staining of BHV-5 antigen (essentially in the neurons of the cerebrum) only in BHV-5 infected rabbits showing clinical signs of meningo-encephalitis. The findings obtained confirmed the suitability of a rabbit model for the establishment of BHV-5 neurological acute infection and also as a valuable tool for the comparative study of BHV-5 and BHV-1 neuropathogenicity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Thymic Repertoire of Neuroendocrine Self-Antigens: Physiological Implications in T-Cell Life and Death
Martens, Henri ULg; Goxe, B.; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Immunology Today (1996), 17(7), 312-7

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related ... [more ▼]

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related precursors can influence the early steps of the immune response, while T-cell precursors are educated to recognize the principal neuroendocrine families. Here, we summarize the observations that support the dual role of the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related polypeptidte precursors in T-cell differentiation. [less ▲]

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