References of "2017"
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See detailVersatile Catalyst Materials Fabrication by Low-Pressure Plasma Treatments
Busby, Yan; da Silva Pires, Mathieu; Haye., Emile et al

Conference (2017, December 12)

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See detailLab meeting
Golestan Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat ULg

Report (2017)

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See detailDetermination of phenolic organohalogens in human serum from a Belgian population and assessment of parameters affecting the human contamination
Dufour, Patrice ULg; PIRARD, Catherine ULg; CHARLIER, Corinne ULg

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 599-600

Many in vitro or in vivo studies highlighted the potential deleterious effects of phenolic organohalogenated compounds (POHs) on the health, particularly on the thyroid system homeostasis, however few ... [more ▼]

Many in vitro or in vivo studies highlighted the potential deleterious effects of phenolic organohalogenated compounds (POHs) on the health, particularly on the thyroid system homeostasis, however few large scale human epidemiological studies have been carried out, especially in Europe. Further studies monitoring the human contamination by POHs, the sources of exposure and the influence of these compounds on thyroid health are still needed. Therefore we determined the concentrations of 16 POHs (pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 4 bromophenols (BPs), 3 hydroxy-polybromodiphenylethers (OH-PBDEs) and 7 hydroxy-polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs)) in serum from 274 people aged from 18 to 76 years old living in Liege (Belgium) and the surrounding area. A questionnaire about their alimentary habits, life style and home environment was also administered to the volunteers. The predominant compound measured in the population was PCP (median concentration of 593.0 pg mL−1). 4-OH-CB 107, 4-OH-CB 146 and 4-OH-CB 187 were detected in all samples and contributed for 75% of the sum of OH-PCBs (ΣOH-PCBs). The median measured in our population for ΣOH-PCBs was 143.7 pg mL−1. TBBPA and 2,4,6-tribromophenol were detected in 31% and 63.8% of the samples respectively while the detection frequency observed for the other BPs and the OH-PBDEs was close to zero. We computed multivariate regression models in order to assess the influence of demographic and lifestyle parameters on the PCP and ΣOH-PCBs contamination levels. Significant correlation was found between the PCP concentration and sex, smoker status, sea fish consumption and level of education, although the model seemed to be a poor (R2 = 0.14) predictor of the PCP concentration. The model computed for ΣOHPCBs was more explanatory (R2 = 0.61) and involved age, BMI and sea fish consumption. Finally, we assessed the parameters affecting the ΣOH-PCBs/ΣPCBs ratio. The model proposed involved age, BMI, smoker status and parent PCB level, and explained 41% of the variability of the ΣOH-PCBs/ΣPCBs ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailSepsis prediction in critically ill patients by platelet activation markers on ICU admission: a prospective pilot study
LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg; Delierneux, Céline ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2017), 5(1), 32

Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with ... [more ▼]

Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with predisposition to sepsis in critical illness remains unknown. The aim of this work was to identify platelet markers that could predict sepsis occurrence in critically ill injured patients. Results: This single-center, prospective, observational, 7-month study was based on a cohort of 99 non-infected adult patients admitted to ICUs for elective cardiac surgery, trauma, acute brain injury and post-operative prolonged ventilation and followed up during ICU stay. Clinical characteristics and severity score (SOFA) were recorded on admission. Platelet activation markers, including fibrinogen binding to platelets, platelet membrane P-selectin expression, plasma soluble CD40L, and platelet-leukocytes aggregates were assayed by flow cytometry at admission and 48h later, and also at the time of sepsis diagnosis (Sepsis-3 criteria) and 7 days later for sepsis patients. Hospitalization data and outcomes were also recorded. Of the 99 patients, 19 developed sepsis after a median time of 5 days. SOFA at admission was higher; their levels of fibrinogen binding to platelets (platelet-Fg) and of D-dimers were significantly increased compared to the other patients. Levels 48h after ICU admission were no longer significant. Platelet-Fg % was an independent predictor of sepsis (P = 0.030). By ROC curve analysis cutoff points for SOFA (AUC=0.85) and Platelet-Fg (AUC=0.75) were 8 and 50%, respectively. The prior risk of sepsis (19%) increased to 50% when SOFA was above 8, to 46% when Platelet-Fg was above 50%, and to 87% when both SOFA and Platelet-Fg were above their cutoff values. By contrast, when the two parameters were below their cutoffs, the risk of sepsis was negligible (3.8%). Patients with sepsis had longer ICU and hospital stays and higher death rate. Conclusion: In addition to SOFA, platelet-bound fibrinogen levels assayed by flow cytometry within 24h of ICU admission help identifying critically ill patients at risk of developing sepsis. [less ▲]

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See detailEU cultural policy : between economic paradigm and rhetoric on cultural diversity
Vlassis, Antonios ULg; Calligaro, Oriane

Book published by Scientific Journal: Politique européenne (2017)

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See detailIntroduction : La politique européenne de la culture. Entre paradigme économique et rhétorique de la diversité
Calligaro, Oriane; Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Politique Européenne (2017)

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See detailAlbertina, más viva que muerta
Dubois, Jacques ULg; Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

in Revista Linguística y Literatura (2017), 72(2),

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See detailBarthes entre sémiologie et sémiotique : le cas de la photographie
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Bertrand, Jean-Pierre (Ed.) Roland Barthes : continuités (2017)

Dans cet article, je vise à reparcourir les textes que Barthes a écrits sur la photographie, sans aucune ambition philologique ni chronologique. Le but est plutôt de revenir sur les questions que le ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, je vise à reparcourir les textes que Barthes a écrits sur la photographie, sans aucune ambition philologique ni chronologique. Le but est plutôt de revenir sur les questions que le médium photographique a posées à la sémiologie et continue, en partie, de poser à la sémiotique. La théorie barthésienne sera mise en contraste avec la sémiotique de l'image initiée par A.J. Greimas, et développée par l'Ecole de Paris (J.M. Floch, J. Fontanille...). [less ▲]

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See detailDu texte à la pratique : pour une sémiotique expérimentale
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Semiotica (2017), 218

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem ... [more ▼]

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem already formulated by Jean-Marie Floch in the article « Êtes-vous arpenteurs ou somnambules ? L’élaboration d’une typologie comportementale des voyageurs du métro » (1990). We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and practice, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis. Secondly, we propose the concept of we will consider the visualization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being unable to analyze practice [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the effects of hydrodynamics and mixing on mass transfer through the free-surface in stirred tank bioreactors
de Lamotte, Anne ULg; Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2017), 172

In stirred-tank bioreactors, flow structures of various length and time scales are implied in scalar transport phenomena, such as gas species transfer through the liquid free-surface and their ... [more ▼]

In stirred-tank bioreactors, flow structures of various length and time scales are implied in scalar transport phenomena, such as gas species transfer through the liquid free-surface and their homogenization in the bulk. A proper understanding of the underlying mechanisms, i.e. hydrodynamics, mixing and mass transfer, and of their interactions is required to design and develop reliable and efficient production-scale bioprocesses. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the coupling between gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen with mixing efficiency and circulation patterns inside an arbitrarily chosen stirred-tank configuration aerated through the liquid free-surface, a baffled 20 L-vessel agitated by two Rushton turbines. Based on global parameter values, the most appropriate rotating speed, N = 300 rpm, is selected in order to further study local hydrodynamic quantities using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as mixing and mass transfer dynamics using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). The results obtained with these local experimental methods are analyzed in detail. Their averages are first successfully compared to global data. Statistical analysis of their spatial distributions show that large-scale flow patterns significantly influence mass transfer through the free-surface of the stirred tank. Even if global measurements show that global characteristic times for mixing and mass transfer differ by two orders of magnitude, local experimental characterization shows persistent vertical gradients of dissolved gas concentrations. So the dissolved gas concentration is not as perfectly uniform as one might expect. [less ▲]

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See detailPratiques d’évaluation des acquis, ancienneté et attitudes face à l’évaluation
Romainville, Marc; Detroz, Pascal ULg; Auquière, Amélie ULg et al

Conference (2017, November 16)

La présente communication est issue d’une recherche plus globale visant à identifier et à mieux comprendre les pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des étudiants auxquelles recourent les enseignants de ... [more ▼]

La présente communication est issue d’une recherche plus globale visant à identifier et à mieux comprendre les pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des étudiants auxquelles recourent les enseignants de l’enseignement supérieur et en particulier les facteurs personnels (ancienneté, attitudes vis-à-vis de l’évaluation…) et contextuels (année d’étude, taille du groupe, disciplines…) qui influencent ces pratiques. Les données ont été recueillies en 2016, d’une part, via une enquête en ligne (élaborée à l’aide du logiciel d’enquêtes Qualtrics) auprès d’enseignants de l’enseignement supérieur belge francophone que ce soit à l’Université ou en Hautes écoles (2292 réponses) et, d’autre part, via 37 entretiens semi-structurés individuels réalisés auprès d’un échantillon de ces mêmes enseignants dans des filières d’études contrastées. Les résultats présentés dans le cadre de cette communication ont trait à l’impact de deux variables personnelles : l’ancienneté des enseignants et leurs attitudes vis-à-vis de l’évaluation. Autrement dit, on cherchera à savoir si l’ancienneté et le développement professionnel qui l’accompagne traditionnellement ont des incidences sur le type de pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des enseignants. En particulier, recourent-ils à des outils de plus en plus diversifiés ou ont-ils tendance à se spécialiser dans l’un ou l’autre ? Et si oui, pourquoi ? Accentuent-ils par ailleurs le recours à l’évaluation continue par rapport au poids du contrôle terminal ? On cherchera ensuite à comprendre comment les pratiques se reconfigurent en fonction des attitudes des enseignants vis-à-vis de l’évaluation et en particulier vis-à-vis de sa fonction et de son rapport à l’apprentissage : dans quel sens une conception davantage intégrative de l’évaluation colore-t-elle les pratiques déclarées d’évaluation ? [less ▲]

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See detailDwelling on Dwelling: Home and Nature in (Native) American Literature
Lombard, David ULg

Conference (2017, November 16)

As Greg Garrard stresses, “[i]nterpretation and critique of the various inflections of dwelling is a major task for ecocritics interested in a predominantly political, rather than moral or spiritual ... [more ▼]

As Greg Garrard stresses, “[i]nterpretation and critique of the various inflections of dwelling is a major task for ecocritics interested in a predominantly political, rather than moral or spiritual, project of cultural critique that can take us beyond pastoral and nature writing, from the landscapes of leisure to the uneven terrain of real work” (2012). In this paper, I will examine American literary texts dealing with representations of dwelling or “home” as a refuge from the “tensions” or problems caused by modern civilisation and technology. Starting with Thoreau’s Walden (1854), I will focus on the relationships between such refuges, the natural environment, and socio-political critique. Indeed, Thoreau’s work displays a philosophy on nature and dwelling that has influenced other writers to ponder on the negative effects that modern technologies, capitalism and consumerism have had on the human self and, more largely, on our physical environment. Adopting an ecocritical perspective, I will therefore consider Thoreau’s stay in Walden Pond as well as Edward Abbey’s house trailer (Desert Solitaire, 1968), Christopher McCandless’s “magic bus” as depicted in Jon Krakauer’s Into the Wild (1992) or Ken Ilgunas’s “vandwelling” (Walden on Wheels, 2013) to study the socio-political and environmental concerns raised by dwelling experiences in such peculiar or isolated “homes”. Finally, I will also briefly discuss the Native American perspective through an analysis of Leslie Marmon Silko’s novel Ceremony (1977) as an example of the Laguna Pueblo’s perception of nature or the “land” as “home”. [less ▲]

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See detailUsage des boîtiers de vote électronique et développement professionnel de l’enseignant-universitaire
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Younes, Nathalie

Conference (2017, November 16)

Les boitiers de vote font l’objet de très nombreux articles. Les auteurs cherchent par exemple à voir si l’utilisation de cet outil a un effet sur la motivation des étudiants et leur participation au ... [more ▼]

Les boitiers de vote font l’objet de très nombreux articles. Les auteurs cherchent par exemple à voir si l’utilisation de cet outil a un effet sur la motivation des étudiants et leur participation au cours (Caldwell, 2007), sur leur engagement (Mc Gowan et Gunderson,2010), sur le climat de classe (Bain et Przybyla, 2009) ou encore sur les apprentissages qu’ils réalisent (Preszler et al., 2007). Au final, comme souvent lorsqu’il s’agit de technologie, il semble que ce soit la pédagogie supportée par l’outil qui fasse la différence : l’usage sera pertinent s’il entre en résonance et en concordance avec une pédagogie efficace. Certes, l’outil en lui-même peut avoir un effet sur la pédagogie. Influencer, de par son fonctionnement - les possibilités qu’il offre, parfois les contraintes qu’il fait peser - la manière de concevoir des dispositifs pédagogiques. Il peut ainsi modifier le rapport des enseignants à leur pédagogie, c’est-à-dire, finalement, stimuler ou catalyser le développement professionnel des enseignants dans le domaine de la pédagogie universitaire. L’effet de l’outil et de son usage sur ce développement professionnel est au cœur de notre article. En effet, nous avons greffé - sur deux dispositifs d’accompagnement technopédagogique d’enseignants novices dans le domaine des BVE - un dispositif de recherche observant l’effet de cet usage accompagné. L’un de ces dispositifs d’accompagnement était court : l’enseignant est interviewé à deux reprises et observé lors d’une séance de cours durant laquelle les BVE sont utilisés. L’autre est plus long et comprend des autoconfrontations, des interviews, le recueil de l’avis des étudiants… La méthodologie utilisée dans cette étude, de type qualitatif, confirme notre intuition de départ : l’usage accompagné de BVE chez des enseignants novices peut, sous certaines conditions dont nous ferons état lors de la communication, accélérer le développement professionnel de ces derniers. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Rhetorik des Friedens von Romain Rolland: ein Einfluß von Nietzsche
Franck, Thomas ULg

Conference (2017, November 11)

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See detailLe corps, le territoire et le temps du sujet borderline
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2017, November 09)

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg; Dupraz, Christian et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2017)

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western ... [more ▼]

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western Europe, light is likely to be the principal limiting resource for understorey crops, and most agronomic studies show a systematic reduction of final yield as shade increases. However the intensity of the crop response depends on both the environmental conditions and the shade characteristics. This study addressed the issue by monitoring winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, productivity and quality under artificial shade provided by military camouflage shade-netting, and using the Hi-sAFe model to relate the artificial shade conditions to those applying in agroforestry systems. The field experiment was carried out over two consecutive years (2013–14 and 2014–15) on the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium. The shade structures recreated two shade conditions: periodic shade (PS) and continuous shade (CS), with the former using overlapping military camouflage netting to provide discontinuous light through the day, and the latter using conventional shade cloth. The experiment simulated shading from a canopy of late-flushing hybrid walnut leaves above winter wheat. Shading was imposed 16 (2013–14) and 10 (2014–15) days before flowering and retained until harvest. The crop experienced full light conditions until the maximum leaf area index stage (LAImax) had been reached. In both years, LAI followed the same dynamics between the different treatments, but in 2013–2014 an attack of the take-all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) reduced yields overall and prevented significant treatment effects. In season 2014–15 the decrease in global radiation reaching the crop during a period of 66 days (CS: – 61% and PS: – 43%) significantly affected final yield (CS: – 45% and PS: – 25%), mainly through a reduction of the average grain weight and the number of grain per m2. Grain protein content increased by up to 45% under the CS treatment in 2015. Nevertheless, at the plot scale, protein yield (t/ha) did not compensate for the final grain yield decrease. The Hi-sAFe model was used to simulate an agroforestry plot with two lines of walnut trees running either north-south or east-west. The levels of artificial shade levels applied in this experiment were compared to those predicted beneath trees growing with similar climatic conditions in Belgium. The levels used in the CS treatment are only likely to occur real agroforestry conditions on 10% of the cropped area until the trees are 30 years old and only with east-west tree row orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of loading scenarios on buildings due to column damage
Colomer, Carles Segura; Hamra, Lotfi; D'Antimo, Marina ULg et al

in Structures (2017), Volume 12

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle ... [more ▼]

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle impact. The transmitted vertical forces from the column to the structure are decisive in understanding the response of the building and are the subject of analysis of this paper. The classic definition of a column loss scenario is extended here by means of a simplified analytical approach to characterize the axial forces appearing in the column during the damage process. A simple closed-form solution is proposed to define the loading scenario on the structure and compared to the classic rectangular (un)loading approach. In certain cases, the proposed analysis shows a more unfavorable loading situation for the structure, which needs to be accounted for during design. [less ▲]

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See detailTree species and time since afforestation drive soil C and N mineralization on former cropland
Rahman, Md Masudur ULg; Bàrcena, Teresa G; Vesterdal, L

in Geoderma (2017), 305

Conversion from agriculture to forestry is considered a measure for mitigation of atmospheric CO2 but the impacts on soil C and N processes remain still unclear. We investigated heterotrophic respiration ... [more ▼]

Conversion from agriculture to forestry is considered a measure for mitigation of atmospheric CO2 but the impacts on soil C and N processes remain still unclear. We investigated heterotrophic respiration (RH), specific carbon mineralization (CMIN) and nitrogen mineralization (NMIN) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (Karst.) L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) chronosequences on former cropland by laboratory incubation. The RH was estimated as the release of C per gram soil and CMIN as the release of C per gram of soil organic matter (SOM). Seven Norway spruce stands (16–44 years), eight oak stands (4–43 years), a cropland, a 35 years old permanent pasture and a 200-year-old oak-dominated forest were sampled (0–5 cm and 5–15 cm soil layers) in early spring. The SOM content gradually increased with stand age in 0–5 cm but remained the same in the 5–15 cm soil layer. The RH in the 0–5 cm layer gradually increased with time since afforestation in both tree species while there was no change in CMIN. In 5–15 cm, neither RH nor CMIN changed significantly after afforestation, but oak stands had significantly higher RH than Norway spruce. The NMIN and nitrification in 0–5 cm significantly increased with stand age and only nitrification was higher in oak. In 5–15 cm, only NMIN in oak increased with stand age, but both NMIN and nitrification were significantly higher in oak than spruce. Cropland RH, CMIN and NMIN rates were comparable to those found within the first decades of afforestation, whereas the 200-year-old forest and the pasture generally had RH and NMIN rates similar to the older chronosequence stands. We conclude that potential RH and soil N mineralization increased with time since afforestation and were tree species specific. Soil organic C stock gains observed in this area during the first 45 years after afforestation were not driven by decreased SOM decomposability, leaving increased litter C inputs as a more likely explanation. The lower CMIN in the 200-year-old forest suggests that future studies should include older forests to assess if the stability of C and the retention of N may increase in a longer term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and theoretical analysis of shear bolted connections for tubular structures
D'Antimo, Marina ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2017), 138

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap ... [more ▼]

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap shear joints, the analysed connection evidences a reduced confinement of the bearing area associated to the use of long bolts and the presence of a gap in the member, which can lead, consequently, to a reduction of the bearing resistance. In order to investigate the behaviour of shear connections made up of thin and thick SHS (Square Hollow Section) profiles and long bolts, an experimental test campaign including 24 specimens and FE simulations have been conducted. Both experimental and FE results have confirmed the influence of local instability on the hole in bearing resistance of thin profiles and the poor accuracy of the available standards for this particular joint typology. In particular, the performed comparisons have shown that, for thin profiles, EC3 model is likely to overestimate the resistance, while for higher thickness of the SHS conservative predictions are obtained. The present paper presents the conducted experimental and numerical investigations, highlighting at the end the need for a proper formulation able to account for the local instability effect on the bearing resistance. [less ▲]

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