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See detailContribution au développement des capacités d’enseignement et de formation pour l’amélioration de la qualité du médicament (acronyme : DEV-AQM)
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

Contribution to the development of teaching capacity and training for the improvement of quality of the medicines. Contextualisation: The quality of medicines is a major problem of public health in the ... [more ▼]

Contribution to the development of teaching capacity and training for the improvement of quality of the medicines. Contextualisation: The quality of medicines is a major problem of public health in the development countries. Since 1990, this situation has deteriorated becoming worried mainly in the Central African region due to the degradation of social, economic and politic life, consequence of a long period of conflict and war. The resurgence of non-controlled drugs, the sale of illicit, deteriorated and even falsified drugs are real examples in the current practices, that is making difficult and even practically impossible an access to a safe, reliable and efficient medical treatment. It is known that even if a diagnosis is correctly made and a medical treatment is correctly prescribed, this treatment is doomed to failure if the medicine is not of a good quality. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda are among the countries that are facing such situations. Description of project purpose: The principal objective of this project is to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medicines and thus, of the public health in DRC and in Rwanda. More precisely, the project aims to strengthen the local capacity in order to respond to the need in the quality of medicines and to develop a platform of people in the pharmaceutical sector in the field of quality assurance and control. According to this main objective, the project aims in one hand to train people working in the pharmaceutical sector including the academic, the legal and the industrial, and in another hand to develop the tools to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medicines. Training and qualification of people, improvement of the teaching and making available the control documentation on quality are the sub-objectives pursued in the framework of this project. Chapter 2 : Six main activities are undergone in this project: The first activity is the seminar that is organised in order to promote the project and to initiate the importance of knowledge of the quality of medicine by awareness of the different authorities from government, from the churches and from the health sectors. The seminar is the preliminary step of this project that is done to select the different candidates. The second activity concerns the theoretical training, focused on the basis of the quality of drugs, the drug manufacturing and drug control / analysis taking into account the activity sector of each candidate. This activity is important since most of the candidates have been graduated a long time ago while working for a long time. This activity as well as the seminar is held in the beneficiary countries for one month. The trainers are among the Professors and Researchers from the “University of Liège”, the “University Libre de Bruxelles” and the “University Catholique de Louvain”, in Belgium. They are selected on basis of their expertise. The topics considered are the Quality Assurance, the Regulatory, the Statistical applied in the pharmaceutical industry, The Manufacturing and The Quality control of medicines, the Management in the Pharmaceutical sector. The theoretical training by e-learning using internet occurs in the third place. It is done as a complement to the second activity since it allows the candidate to have access to different and more documents available through the web site platform created for this purpose. This mode of teaching allows also the candidates to interact with other trainers concerning a particular subject of their working sector. The fourth activity is the practices that are done in Belgium in the different facilities of the laboratories associated to this project. This allows the different candidates to materialize the knowledge acquired during the theoretical teaching while considering their working sector, and to familiarize with the procedures dealing with their sector. The fifth activity is related to a specific training for auditor or evaluator. Indeed, this training is a specific requirement namely the creation of Federal Agency of Drug in DRC. The need is to improve the capacity of such organism to carry out efficiently the audits and evaluations of drug registration files before their commercialization. Finally, the sixth activity is the reintegration of the candidates within their professional environment. Considering the importance of this aspect, an accompanying is necessary to ensure that the acquired knowledge is valued in the professional environment. Chapter 3 : The expected impact At the end of this project, we expect that the different Authorities are aware with regard to the quality of drugs, the activities in the pharmaceutical sectors namely, the legal and industrial are improved since the actors are trained, qualified and gained competence. We expect also the improvement of teaching capacity in Pharmacy Schools taking into account the need of the pharmaceutical market, with the possibility of starting the post-university teaching programs. Finally, we expect the efficiency of activities in the pharmaceutical sector for the benefit of the DRC and Rwanda populations. Contact person : Philippe Hubert (ph.hubert@ulg.ac.be) / Roland Marini Djang’eing’a (rmarini@ulg.ac.be) Address : Service de Chimie Analytique, Département de Pharmacie, Bât. B36, Avenue de l'Hôpital, 1, 4000 Liège 1, Belgium. Tel. + 00 32 4 366 43 15 [less ▲]

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See detailLa majorité des sièges sans la majorité de voix : une aubaine pour les indépendantistes flamands?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

Article for general public (2011)

The Belgian electoral system leads to the overrepresentation of the larger political parties. With 39% of the votes, the N-VA could obtain 41 seats on 87.

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See detailAddendum to “Scattering of twisted particles: Extension to wave packets and orbital helicity”
Ivanov, Igor ULg; Serbo, Valery

in Physical Review. A (2011), 84(6), 065802

In a recent work [ Phys. Rev. A 84 033804 (2011)] we considered elastic scattering of a twisted particle from a plane wave and studied how the orbital helicity of the twisted particle changes after ... [more ▼]

In a recent work [ Phys. Rev. A 84 033804 (2011)] we considered elastic scattering of a twisted particle from a plane wave and studied how the orbital helicity of the twisted particle changes after scattering. We showed that for realistic beams the relative change can be small, |m′−m|/m≪1, thus resolving a controversy which existed in the literature. In this Addendum, using a more accurate analysis, we argue that in the kinematics of Compton backscattering a stronger statement is true: in fact m′≈m, and the difference |m′−m| even by a single unit is already suppressed. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity Reduces Sensitivity of Cell Death for TNF-Stimuli
Schliemann, Monica ULg; Bullinger, Eric ULg; Borchers, Steffen et al

in BMC Systems Biology (2011), 5

Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate ... [more ▼]

Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate membrane receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1), the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) activates pro-apoptotic signaling via caspase activation, but at the same time also stimulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated survival pathways. Differential dose-response relationships of these two major TNF signaling pathways have been described experimentally and using mathematical modeling. However, the quantitative analysis of the complex interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways is an open question as it is challenging for several reasons: the overall signaling network is complex, various time scales are present, and cells respond quantitatively and qualitatively in a heterogeneous manner. Results This study analyzes the complex interplay of the crosstalk of TNF-R1 induced pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways based on an experimentally validated mathematical model. The mathematical model describes the temporal responses on both the single cell level as well as the level of a heterogeneous cell population, as observed in the respective quantitative experiments using TNF-R1 stimuli of different strengths and durations. Global sensitivity of the heterogeneous population was quantified by measuring the average gradient of time of death versus each population parameter. This global sensitivity analysis uncovers the concentrations of Caspase-8 and Caspase-3, and their respective inhibitors BAR and XIAP, as key elements for deciding the cell's fate. A simulated knockout of the NF-kappaB-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling reveals the importance of this pathway for delaying the time of death, reducing the death rate in the case of pulse stimulation and significantly increasing cell-to-cell variability. Conclusions Cell ensemble modeling of a heterogeneous cell population including a global sensitivity analysis presented here allowed us to illuminate the role of the different elements and parameters on apoptotic signaling. The receptors serve to transmit the external stimulus; procaspases and their inhibitors control the switching from life to death, while NF-kappaB enhances the heterogeneity of the cell population. The global sensitivity analysis of the cell population model further revealed an unexpected impact of heterogeneity, i.e. the reduction of parametric sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailRose-Marie François, L'Adieu, Une promenade douce-amère
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Compte rendu du recueil de poèmes L'Adieu de Rose-Marie François

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See detailLe droit comme tissage. Sur Bruno Latour
Pieret, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 23)

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See detailDietary fibre characteristics and antioxydant activity of sesame seed coats
Elleuch, M.; Bedigian, D.; Besbes, S. et al

in International Journal of Food Properties (2011), 15(1), 25-37

The dietary fibre contained in the seed coats (testae) of sesame, by-products of the dehulling processes during the manufacture of sweetened sesame paste (halaweh), were evaluated with two assays: the ... [more ▼]

The dietary fibre contained in the seed coats (testae) of sesame, by-products of the dehulling processes during the manufacture of sweetened sesame paste (halaweh), were evaluated with two assays: the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method and the enzymatic-chemical method. Functional properties and antioxidant activity of sesame seed coats were also determined. The total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fibre contents measured were significantly higher using the AOAC method, than with the enzymatic-chemical method. The dietary fibre contained high amounts of neutral sugars (15.11 g/100 g seed coat dry matter), insoluble uronic acids (10.52 g/100 g seed coat dry matter), and lignin (5.42 g/100 g seed coat dry matter). Physical property analyses showed a high positive correlation between particle size reduction of seed coat, water holding capacity, and oil holding capacity; however, there was a negative correlation with bulk density. Sesame testae showed a relatively high polyphenol content (9.9 mg/g of seed coat dry matter). Aqueous methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts of seed coats yielded similar polyphenol levels (75 mg/g of extract), higher than those found in aqueous extracts (52.7 mg/g of extract). Aqueous organic solvent extracts possessed higher antioxidant activity than water extracts. Our results suggested that sesame seed coats can be used in the preparation of low calorie, high fibre, and antioxidant-rich foods. [less ▲]

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See detailLes portails occidentaux d’Amiens : pistes pour des recherches sur la performativité et l’espace des images au Moyen Âge
Lekane, Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 22)

La recherche présentée aujourd’hui est à l’état d’ébauche. Je suis en effet à l’entame de mes recherches doctorales consacrées aux portails occidentaux de la cathédrale d’Amiens et à leur postérité dans ... [more ▼]

La recherche présentée aujourd’hui est à l’état d’ébauche. Je suis en effet à l’entame de mes recherches doctorales consacrées aux portails occidentaux de la cathédrale d’Amiens et à leur postérité dans l’Europe du 13e siècle. Je suis également à la recherche de pistes de réflexions et d’approches qui me permettront de renouveler le regard sur les portails d’Amiens, par ailleurs déjà largement étudiés. Cet atelier est pour moi l’occasion de me familiariser avec ces différentes approches des images, en particulier la performativité et le rapport des images à l’espace. Les ouvrages de Jérôme Baschet, l’Iconographie médiévale, et l’ouvrage collectif intitulé La performance des images m’ont permis de me familiariser avec ces concepts et de pouvoir transposer les réflexions, interrogations et approches à mon sujet doctoral. Dans le cadre de cette première présentation, je souhaiterais présenter succinctement les portails et leur iconographie mais également jalonner les recherches que je souhaite entreprendre en lien avec les deux problématiques privilégiées au sein de cet atelier de réflexion, en tentant de prendre en compte au mieux le contexte culturel dans lequel agissent les images. Ce sera également l’occasion pour moi d’éprouver ces problématiques et de ré-axer mes recherches grâce à vos remarques, critiques et réflexions. Mes recherches prendront en compte plusieurs questions relevant de la dynamique des images. Afin de rendre cohérentes ces pistes de recherches, j’ai décidé d’axer mes recherches sur le portail central, consacré au Jugement dernier, et plus exactement, sur la représentation particulièrement explicite des tourments de l’Enfer, et du choc salutaire que ces représentations exerçaient sur les fidèles. Cet impact des images sera mis en relation avec la morale contemporaine par le biais d’exempla ou de sermons. Ce portail sera également l’occasion de se pencher sur la question de l’axialité d’une église, mise en lumière notamment par Jérôme Baschet et dont, vous le verrez, Amiens est un exemple privilégié et riche de sens. Au terme de cette présentation, je définirai rapidement deux types d’étude que je souhaiterais mener par la suite et qui pourraient prendre place dans ce groupe de réflexion. Ces réflexions approchent trois modes de fonctionnement de l’image active: ainsi, je parlerai d’image qui font faire quelque chose; d’images qui interagissent; et d’images que l’ont fait agir par l’intermédiaire de la parole. [less ▲]

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See detailA compact system of small planets around a former red giant star
Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre et al

in Nature (2011), 480

Planets that orbit their parent star at less than about one astronomical unit (1AU is the Earth-Sun distance) are expected to be engulfed when the star becomes a red giant. Previous observations have ... [more ▼]

Planets that orbit their parent star at less than about one astronomical unit (1AU is the Earth-Sun distance) are expected to be engulfed when the star becomes a red giant. Previous observations have revealed the existence of post-red-giant host stars with giant planets orbiting as close as 0.116AU or with brown dwarf companions in tight orbits, showing that these bodies can survive engulfment. What has remained unclear is whether planets can be dragged deeper into the red-giant envelope without being disrupted and whether the evolution of the parent star itself could be affected. Here we report the presence of two nearly Earth-sized bodies orbiting the post-red-giant, hot B subdwarf star KIC 05807616 at distances of 0.0060 and 0.0076AU, with orbital periods of 5.7625 and 8.2293 hours, respectively. These bodies probably survived deep immersion in the former red-giant envelope. They may be the dense cores of evaporated giant planets that were transported closer to the star during the engulfment and triggered the mass loss necessary for the formation of the hot B subdwarf, which might also explain how some stars of this type did not form in binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAging effect on recollection and familiarity processes
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Angel, Lucie; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, December 22)

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See detailDéveloppement d’un procédé biotechnologique de production de molécules à note verte à partir de feuilles de betterave
Gigot, Cédric ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

La grande richesse des feuilles de betterave en 13-HPL (entre 10 et 12 UE1/g de poids frais), une enzyme produisant le (3Z)-hexénol, le (2E)-hexénal et le n-hexanal, fait de ce substrat un candidat ... [more ▼]

La grande richesse des feuilles de betterave en 13-HPL (entre 10 et 12 UE1/g de poids frais), une enzyme produisant le (3Z)-hexénol, le (2E)-hexénal et le n-hexanal, fait de ce substrat un candidat potentiel pour le développement d’un procédé biotechnologique de production d’arômes alimentaires. Maillon essentiel du système de défense des plantes, l’enzyme 13-HPL est inductible par des stimuli externes et son expression dépend de l’âge et de l’état physiologique de la plante. Au cours de ce travail, l’optimisation de l’expression de cette enzyme au sein du végétal a été étudiée préalablement au développement d’un procédé industriel visant à exploiter ce substrat. Ce procédé comprend successivement quatre opérations chimiques : une hydrolyse d’huile végétale riche en acides gras insaturés, une oxydation de ces acides, un clivage par les 13-HPLs et une purification des aldéhydes et des alcools synthétisés. Selon nos résultats, l’étape limitante de ce procédé est la synthèse d’aldéhydes qui présente, dans des conditions optimales de réaction, une capacité de production maximale de 0,502mM à l’échelle pilote (100L). L’inhibition suicide par le substrat et l’instabilité combinée de l’enzyme et de ces produits de réaction réduisent le taux de clivage des aldéhydes. La mise au point d’un système d’extraction des arômes volatils par flux gazeux et d’une alimentation fedbatch en substrat permet de réduire l’impact limitant de ces facteurs et d’accroître la capacité de production à 1,37mM. Afin de mieux comprendre les mécanismes réactionnels, l’enzyme 13-HPL de la betterave a été séquencée et clonée dans un vecteur procaryote permettant de disposer d’une source d’activité enzymatique indépendante des contraintes du milieu extérieur. L’utilisation de ces techniques a permis de développer un procédé bivalent (à la fois de source microbienne et végétale) de production d’arôme exploitable au sein de l’industrie alimentaire. [less ▲]

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See detailRégionalisme dans la politique mondiale
Santander, Sébastian ULg

Learning material (2011)

Il s'agit d'une structure détaillée du cours.

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See detailProcessus d'élaboration de la politique étrangère
Santander, Sébastian ULg

Learning material (2011)

Il s'agit d'une structure détaillée du cours qui porte sur l'Union européenne dans les relations internationales

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See detailNon stationary Wavelets
Simons, Laurent ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 21)

In the presentation, I first compare the construction of orthonormal bases of wavelets from a multiresolution in the stationary and the non stationary case. Then, I expose some generalizations of ... [more ▼]

In the presentation, I first compare the construction of orthonormal bases of wavelets from a multiresolution in the stationary and the non stationary case. Then, I expose some generalizations of characterizations of orthonormal bases of wavelets in the non stationary case. Finally, I speak about the non stationary case for the continuous wavelet transform. [less ▲]

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See detailShakespeare et Dieu
Delrez, Marc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

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See detailLes pestivirus à l'interface faune sauvage-faune domestique: pathogénie chez l'isard gestant et épidémiologie dans la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Martin, Claire ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Dans les Alpes du Sud de la France, des diminutions de populations de chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) ont été rapportées. Or, depuis une dizaine d’année, des pestivirus ont causé de fortes mortalités dans ... [more ▼]

Dans les Alpes du Sud de la France, des diminutions de populations de chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) ont été rapportées. Or, depuis une dizaine d’année, des pestivirus ont causé de fortes mortalités dans des populations d’isards des Pyrénées (Rupicapra pyrenaica). Bien que les signes cliniques associés à cette infection aient été caractérisés chez cette espèce, la pathogénie chez les animaux gestants est peu étudiée. De plus, des transmissions inter-espèces ont régulièrement été incriminées dans l’épidémiologie des pestiviroses ; ceci particulièrement au niveau des alpages où des contacts fréquents sont décrits entre ruminants sauvages et domestiques. Les objectifs de ce travail de thèse ont donc été, dans un premier temps, d’étudier la pathogénie de l’infection à pestivirus chez des isards et plus particulièrement ses effets sur la gestation. Dans un second temps, nous avons étudié l’épidémiologie de l’infection dans différentes zones de la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (PACA), tout d’abord chez des ruminants sauvages, puis à l’interface entre les ruminants sauvages et domestiques partageant les mêmes alpages (...). [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'essence à l'existence. Sartre, Levinas et la question de l'affectivité
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2011, December 20)

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See detailScience, économie et pouvoir: les ingénieurs et la construction de l'État Indépendant du Congo
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 20)

On a peu publié sur les ingénieurs au Congo avant 1908. L’auteur abordera le thème dès le début, donc dans la période de l'exploration. A cette époque les ingénieurs étaient déjà concernés par la ... [more ▼]

On a peu publié sur les ingénieurs au Congo avant 1908. L’auteur abordera le thème dès le début, donc dans la période de l'exploration. A cette époque les ingénieurs étaient déjà concernés par la résolution des problèmes de transport (surtout la navigation - construction de bateaux pour Stanley aux chantiers d'Hoboken près d'Anvers), de construction d'une infrastructure de base (routes, maisons, ports, entrepôts, sanitariums, camps militaires) etc. Une très grande entreprise qui impliquera les équipes d'ingénieurs autour d'Albert Thys, Jean Jadot et Edouard Empain est évidemment la construction du chemin de fer dans le Bas-Congo. Après 1902, le groupe Empain a constitué la Compagnie des Chemins de Fer du Congo supérieur aux Grands Lacs africains. Ensuite viennent les contributions en agronomie (développement de plantations et implication des ingénieurs de Gembloux) et dans les mines (surtout au Katanga). C'est donc sur ces sujets que Jan Vandersmissen rassemblera des informations peu connues et développera ses idées. Il étudiera le thème en liaison avec la grande politique et les structures économiques et scientifiques en Belgique - la Cour, les milieux politiques et financiers, les banques et grandes entreprises (ex. Cockerill, Union Minière, etc.), les institutions scientifiques (les sociétés savantes, les universités, l'Ecole militaire, Gembloux, Ecole des Mines etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation du niveau de stress du cheval en compétition et en milieu hospitalier : Mesures comportementales, physiologiques et appréciation du tempérament
Peeters, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Both in humans and in animals, stress is sometimes considered as useful for the accomplishment of certain tasks. But it might also have a negative influence on health, welfare or safety. We often impose ... [more ▼]

Both in humans and in animals, stress is sometimes considered as useful for the accomplishment of certain tasks. But it might also have a negative influence on health, welfare or safety. We often impose on our domestic horses a lifestyle very different from their natural one. As soon as we interact with this animal, either during manipulations or in competition, we face him to various stressors. This stress can affect their health, their well-being as well as their sportive performances. Horses’ stress might also lead to a lack of safety for people handling them (horsemen, riders, breeders, veterinarian,...). Stress can be assessed by various indirect ways. Among all responses possibly shown by horses submitted to a stressor, we mainly focused on behavioural responses and on a physiological response: changes in cortisol secretion. Our first goal was to validate the use of saliva for free cortisol level determination. Secondly, we used this technique to assess stress level of both horses and riders during equestrian competitions. We compared riders’ and horses’ stress levels and we examined the potential relationship between the stress levels and the competition performances. The results showed that cortisol levels significantly increased during competition, both in horses and riders. The best performances were achieved by riders with the smallest increase in cortisol during competition. And, more surprisingly, the best performances were achieved by horses with highest cortisol increase. In this study, stress of both partners seems to have an opposite influence on their performances during competition: positive effects for horses (‘eustress’) but negative effects for riders (‘distress’). It would be interesting to test these measurements under other competition conditions. We also have tested the relationship between the horse’s temperament (scored by the owner), the stress levels in competition and the obtained performances. It came out that a higher increase in cortisol is more related to some ‘excitement’ rather than anxiety, and was mainly found in curious, motivated and active horses. This stress follow-up in competition should improve the welfare of the horse and his rider, and should probably also enhance performances achieved by the pair. In clinical settings, we identified the stress-related behaviours, that use to lead to a low ‘easiness of manipulation’. We also tested the relationship between temperament assessed by the owners, by the clinic staff and the stress-related behaviours. More particularly, we observed a predictive effect of a simple test (weigh scale test) on the appearance of these stress-related behaviours. This test would allow clinicians to anticipate potential difficulties during examinations and to prevent deriving injuries. Improving the stress measurement techniques and horses’ temperament assessment is essential for domestic horse welfare studies, as they occur in hospital, during competition, or in other stressful situations. Using physiological stress measurements, as salivary cortisol, is very useful and more reliable if they are used in conjunction with ethological methods.  [less ▲]

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