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See detailCell walls of Streptococcus pyogenes, type 14. C polysaccharide-peptidoglycan and G polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complexes
Munoz, E.; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg; Heymann, H.

in Biochemistry (1967), 6(12), 3659-2670

About 20% of the organic phosphorus present in cell walls of Streptococcus pyogenes occurs as N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate residues (50 mµequiv/mg of walls). These groups link about 10% of the ... [more ▼]

About 20% of the organic phosphorus present in cell walls of Streptococcus pyogenes occurs as N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate residues (50 mµequiv/mg of walls). These groups link about 10% of the peptidoglycan subunits to a hitherto unrecognized polysaccharide. This polymer was isolated after degradation of trypsin-treated walls with Streptornyces F1 endo-N-acetylmuramidase; it consists of disaccharide peptide monomer (50 mµmoles/mg of walls) linked through a phosphodiester bridge to a polymer containing, per peptide monomer, five to six D-glucose residues, one glucosamine residue, and four to five unidentified hexosamine compounds. This polymer is designated as G polysaccharide. About 70% of the organically bound phosphorus in the cell walls (150 mµequiv/mg of walls) is present in the form of phosphodiester groups in the interior of the rhamnose-containing C polysaccharide. The linkages of the C-polysaccharide chains to the peptidoglycan are visualized as bridges of trirhamnose groupings, each bearing one β-linked N-acetylgluco-samine residue, bound at the reducing end, either directly or through an as yet undetermined intervening molecule, to C-4 of an N-acetylmuramic acid residue. After degradation of walls by endo-N-acetylmurami-dase, the C-polysaccharide chains remain bound to one N-acetylmuramic acid residue. This N-acetylmur-amic acid residue is substituted by one tetrapeptide monomer which in turn is linked via a di-L-alanyl bridge to another disaccharide peptide monomer. A structure for the cell walls of Streptococcus pyogenes is proposed that takes into account all of the recognized covalent linkages among the constituent polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe changing roles of teachers as required by educational innovations : research and teaching
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg; Bayer, E.

Report (1967)

Objective description o.f teacher behavior in the classroom remains necessary. And since we have not yet a really satisfying instrument for that description, research also remains necessary. To convey a ... [more ▼]

Objective description o.f teacher behavior in the classroom remains necessary. And since we have not yet a really satisfying instrument for that description, research also remains necessary. To convey a correct picture of teachin processes, it seems that research has still to solve some problems of observational procedures and to refine the analysis techniques, but it mainly must : 1. extract the teaching variables from the various concenptual systems used and empirically described and introduce them into a theoretical framework 2. define experimentally the conditions of a valid measurement of these variables 3. test the currently hypothetized relationships between these variables and the teachers personalities and properties, methods and systems of teaching, the pupils activities and personalities and their learnings. The recent papers of Biddle1, Gage and Unruh2 seem to present a promising base to discuss these problems and to build a useful framework for rosearch. When we have an efficient, easy to handle instrument at our disposal, the shall then be ablB to investigate whether the teaching methods observed are really in the line of the objectives chosen or not. Of course, another kind of research is also needed, but though important, it is of secondary rank in our perspective. When the general method best suited for reaching the objections imposed by our modern culture have been defined, we must then also define the best way to use the different aids, techniques, processes in that context, to train teachers, etc. It is evident, for instance, that there is an optimum duration of exposure of a definite class of individuals, learning definite subjects, to TV teaching, audio-lab training. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une nouvelle formation des maitresses de jardins d'enfants : nécessité d'une réforme
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in La formation du personnel pour les institutions destinées aux enfants d'âge préscolaire (1967, September)

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See detailThe peptide N alpha-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl)-N epsilon-(D-isoasparaginyl)-L-lysyl-D-alanine and the disaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramic acid in cell wall peptidoglycan of Streptococcus faecalis strain ATCC 9790
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg; Bricas, E.; Leyh-Bouille, Martine et al

in Biochemistry (1967), 6(8), 2607-2619

A major portion of the cell wall peptidoglycan in Streptococcus faecalis is composed of the disaccharide tetrapeptide β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-Nα-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl)-L-lysyl-D ... [more ▼]

A major portion of the cell wall peptidoglycan in Streptococcus faecalis is composed of the disaccharide tetrapeptide β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-Nα-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl)-L-lysyl-D-alanine. The tetrapeptides are cross-linked through single D-isoasparaginyl residues extending from the C-terminal D-alanine of one tetrapeptide unit to the Nє-terminal L-lysine of another. It is the first time that the occurrence of an isoasparaginyl residue in a natural product has been described. The Streptomyces SA en-dopeptidase cleaves D-alanyl-D-isoasparaginyl linkages and is thus the first enzyme known to hydrolyze D-D peptide bonds. Treatment of the disaccharide Nα-( L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl)-N є-(D-isoasparaginyl)- L-lysil-D-alanine with 10 equiv of NaOH at 37° for 1 hr results in deamidation of the isoasparaginyl residue together with migration of the aspartyl-lysine peptide bond giving rise to a mixture of Nє-(β-aspartyl)- and N є-(α-aspartyl)lysyl peptides. Under the same alkaline treatment, the N-acetylmuramyl residue undergoes a lactyl elimination which results in the production of acyl peptides and a Morgan-Elson prochromogenic compound, without hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage. This conversion, interpreted to be the result of a β elimination, also occurs in the other disaccharide peptide monomers previously isolated from Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus roseus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cell Wall Peptidoglycan of Bacillus megaterium KM. I. Studies on the Stereochemistry of α,α'-Diaminopimelic Acid
Bricas, E.; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg; Dezelee, P.

in Biochemistry (1967), 6(8), 2598-2607

α,α'-Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) occurs in the wall peptidoglycan of Bacillus megaterium KM predominantly in the form of its meso isomer (about 85% of the total residues) and, in minor amounts, in the form ... [more ▼]

α,α'-Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) occurs in the wall peptidoglycan of Bacillus megaterium KM predominantly in the form of its meso isomer (about 85% of the total residues) and, in minor amounts, in the form of its DD isomer. The amino groups on the L carbon of the meso-DAP residues are involved in peptide linkages to the glutamic acid residues. Most of the amino groups on the D carbon of the meso-DAP residues are free; some of them are substituted, thus probably serving to cross-link peptide subunits. These amino groups can be liberated by a Streptomyces endopeptidase. None of the DD-DAP residues have amino groups free. Moreover, these groups are not liberated by endopeptidase treatment. The peptidoglycan upon enzymatic degradation yields mainly two fractions. A major fraction is composed of disaccharide peptide monomer subunits containing only the meso isomer of DAP. A second minor fraction is composed of disaccharide peptide oligomers containing both meso and DD isomers of DAP. The meso-DAP residues isolated as monodinitrophenyl derivatives from both fractions have optical rotations and optical rotatory dispersions identical with that of synthetic monodinitrophenyl-meso-DAP obtained by dinitrophenylation of the amino group on the D carbon. The assignment of the DD configuration to the DAP residues which are not meso rests upon the optical rotatory properties of their bisdinitrophenyl derivatives. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet d’observation du spectre infrarouge du soleil, à haute résolution, par ballons stratosphériques
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Delbouille, L; Roland, G

in Comptes-Rendus du colloque International du CNES "Utilisation des ballons pour la recherche scientifique ̎ (1967, July), II

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See detailSubstituents on the alpha-carboxyl group of D-glutamic acid in the peptidoglycan of several bacterial cell walls
Tipper, Donald J.; Katz, Walther; Strominger, Jack L. et al

in Biochemistry (1967), 6(3), 921-929

Several different carbohydrate-free peptides have been obtained from cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus and Arthrobacter crystallopoietes by degradation with lytic enzymes. They all contained one residue ... [more ▼]

Several different carbohydrate-free peptides have been obtained from cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus and Arthrobacter crystallopoietes by degradation with lytic enzymes. They all contained one residue of amide ammonia per repeating subunit. A peptide obtained from cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus contained no ammonia but had a glycine residue with a free carboxyl group. It has been demonstrated by Edman degradation that both the amide ammonia in the former two cell walls and the COOH-terminal glycine in the latter are substituted on the α-carboxyl group of glutamic acid. Other features of the structures of these peptides are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Differentiation in Megakaryocytes and Platelets
Paulus, Jean-Michel ULg

in Blood (1967), 29(3), 407-416

The properties of megakaryocytes and platelets mainly result from a summation and integration of the physiological activities of five cellular types: (1) a polyploid cell, (2) a glandular cell, (3) an ... [more ▼]

The properties of megakaryocytes and platelets mainly result from a summation and integration of the physiological activities of five cellular types: (1) a polyploid cell, (2) a glandular cell, (3) an enucleate element, (4) an endocytic cell and (5) a muscular cell. [less ▲]

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See detailAbondances anormales d'éléments dans les étoiles Ap
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Annales d'Astrophysique (1967), 30

From the data in Babcock's catalogue of magnetic stars and the data compiled by Bertaud, the proportion of Ap stars showing striking overabundancies of Si, Cr, Mn, Sr and Eu is deduced in terms of the ... [more ▼]

From the data in Babcock's catalogue of magnetic stars and the data compiled by Bertaud, the proportion of Ap stars showing striking overabundancies of Si, Cr, Mn, Sr and Eu is deduced in terms of the spectral type. However this correlation with the spectral class originates at least as much from variations of the visibility of the lines with temperature than from a real dependance of the abundance anomalies on the spectral type. The abundance factors in the Ap stars in regard to the normal ones increase in the average more or less exponentially with the atomic number or the atomic mass. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques réflexions sur l'astrophysique moléculaire
Swings, Polydore ULg

in Hack, M. (Ed.) Modern astrophysics. A memorial to Otto Struve (1967)

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See detailLa pédagogie expérimentale en Belgique
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in International Review of Education (1967), 13(3), 298-305

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See detailEchelle biostratigraphique du Dinantien de la Belgique
Conil, R; Lys, M; Pirlet, H et al

in Service géologique de Belgique Professional Paper (1967), 13

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See detailLes idées politiques et sociales de F.A. Diesterweg, à l'occasion du 100e anniversaire de sa mort
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Paedagogica Historica (1967), VII(1), 50-76

Diesterweg sent - plus qu'il ne comprend, je crois - qu'il importe donc de rechercher une forme sociale qui rende possible la conciliation entre deux exigences en apparence opposées : le libre ... [more ▼]

Diesterweg sent - plus qu'il ne comprend, je crois - qu'il importe donc de rechercher une forme sociale qui rende possible la conciliation entre deux exigences en apparence opposées : le libre épanouissement de l'individu et la subordination aux nécessités de la communauté. Seul l'Etat véritablement démocratique peut répondre à de telles aspirations. Vivant dans une des périodes les plus réactionnaires de l'histoire de l'Occident, Diesterweg est conscient que cette Europe de l'Ancien Régime dont Metternich se croit appelé par le destin à être le médecin, porte en soi le cancer - le mot revient souvent sous la plume du pédagogue - qui le conduira inéluctablement à la mort. Deiters a dit de Diesterweg : ce fut un démocrate bourgeois avec un sens social nettement accusé >> ( I ). La formule nous paraît pertinente. Bourgeois, Diesterweg l'est à maints égards et si sa pédagogie réussit à s'imposer partiellement malgré la réaction, c'est précisément parce qu'elle répond en grande partie aux aspirations profondes de toute la bourgeoisie libérale de l'époque. Cette bourgeoisie se veut économiquement libre et la pédagogie de Diesterweg présente des caractères individualistes; la bourgeoisie désire l'unification de l'Allemagne qui, supprimant les barrières douanières, permettra la circulation plus facile d'une production industrielle que les marchés locaux ne peuvent plus absorber, et Diesterweg exalte les vertus nationales. Mais, homme de coeur, libre des entraves du capitalisme, le pédagogue ne peut fermer les yeux sur la misère du prolétariat. Lui qu'on a tant accusé d'irréligiosité, souffre dans son âme de chrétien au spectacle de la misère. Croyant encore juger le peuple <<de l'extérieur >>, il s'identifie cependant à lui et comprend et ( I) H. Deiters, Adolf Diesterweg - S cbriften und Reden, Berlin, Volk und Wissen Verlag, 1950, I-II, p. xln. G. DE LANDSHEERE partage ses aspirations. Ainsi naissent toutes ses propositions dans le domaine social. Si Diesterweg sort en apparence du domaine scolaire - et il s'en excuse avec humilité -c'est pour y revenir immédiatement. A société nouvelle, école nouvelle. Ainsi, nous voyons s'élaborer le plan d'un enseignement démocratique. Paul Barth a écrit avec raison : « En Diesterweg, tout le rationalisme revit; on peut même dire qu'il vit pour la première fois». [less ▲]

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See detailLes relations Sr-Ca dans les plagioclases des anorthosites du Rogaland méridional
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1967), 91

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See detailSur une forme monoclinique de l'ilvaite
Bartholomé, Paul; van de Plas, L.; Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1967), 91

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See detailDosage du Sr et du Rb dans les feldspaths et roches acides. Applications à quelques roches standards
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1967), 90

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See detailLe zooplancton des lacs artificiels du Haut Katanga méridional, étude faunistique et écologique
Magis, Noël ULg

Book published by Editions F.U.L.R.E.A.C. (1967)

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See detailContribution du conditionnement animal à l'étude expérimentale des substances psychotropes
Dallemagne, M. J.; Richelle, Marc ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1967), 22(1), 1-16

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