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See detailSur l'hydrolyse du chlorure ferrique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1897), XXXIV(8), 255-268

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See detailObservations sur l'hydrolyse du chlorure ferrique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1897), XXXIV(8), 255-268

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 34(3), 255-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 34(3), 255-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric chloride by water already shown of H. Debray (Bulletin of the Chemical Society, Paris 12. 346), after which researcher a very much diluted neutral, nearly colorless iron perchloride solution dissociates with heating up under strong coloring into hydrochloric acid and colloidal ferric oxide. Beside the latter F. W. Krecke (Journal pr. Chemistry 3. 286) found an iron oxychloride compound. After F. Wiedemann (Journal pr. Chemistry, 9. 145) the magnetism of the ferric chloride solutions consists of the sum of the magnetism of the iron in the colloidal oxide and the magnetism of the iron is not changed chloride and therefore no basic salts will give, in which the iron possesses its own atomic magnetism. The studied solutions were middle concentration (30% to 0.06%), however not border lines. Antony and Giglio (Chem.-Newspaper 1895. 325; C. 95. II. 858) the decomposition of the ferric chloride found completed in hydrogen chloride and colloidal hydrate after 24 hours according to colorimetric method with dilutions up to 0.00083%. The latter happens under temporary formation of chlorohydrates, [FeCl2.OH and FeCl(OH)2], which depending upon applied water conditions with hydrogen chloride equilibrium systems form and also cause during the dilution of the irregularities arising in the color of the solution. These changes in the color the line conduction of the iron perchloride solutions follows after Goodwin (Journal of Physik. Chemistry, 21. 1; C. 96. II. 998) a sufficient dilution of the first ionization of the ferric chloride causes, on which the ions (Fe) unite with the ions (OH) first to the colorless, bivalent ions Fe(OH), which gives the colloidal brown ferric hydroxide then with further ions of OH. xFe(OH)... + 2x(OH) = xFe(OH)3. The decomposition of the ferric chloride will exist therefore not in a simple hydrolysis in hydrate and hydrogen chloride, but will be accompanied by ionization features. Solutions concentrated by the author implemented experiments with ferric chloride resulted in the following. Sublimated ferric chloride Fe2Cl6 separates in water without decomposition then only if the relationship of the solvent is extraordinarily small. With the increase of the latter place shift takes place in the ferric chloride, whereby the delivery is prepared of two of the six chlorine atoms. The salt regards now as a composition of Ferrochloride and chlorine Fe2Cl4.Cl2, which dissociates with increase of water completely into the groups of the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, if these groups can accept the neutral electrical condition. Chlorine in the status nascent reacts then with the water under formation of hydrogen chloride and oxygen, which transfer the group of Fe2Cl4 immediately into the Oxychloride Fe2Cl4O, which accepts the certain following structure: 3Fe2Cl4O = Fe2O3.2Fe2Cl6 and forms with hydrochloric acid and the water an equilibrium system modifying with the temperature. With still further dilution of the solution arrives by the designated phases at the complete decay. In van't Hoff's opinion about the nature of the solutions proven that the expansion of a salt draws the same consequences by its solvent, like those by increase of the temperature. Reaction of the potassium ferricyanide. Potassium ferricyanide does not give a low-brown color with ferric salt solutions of middle concentration, a clear reaction with a very much concentrated solution of ferric chloride (230%), with a 126% solution against it immediately a precipitation of citizen of Berlin blue and development of chlorine, from which it must be closed that the ferric chloride splits in the solution into Ferrochloride and chlorine: Fe2Cl6 = Fe2Cl4 + Cl2. Similarly behave after author ferric bromide, ferric iodide and ferric nitrate, only takes place slower at the latter the formation precipitation of citizen of Berlin-blue, therefore the dissociation: Fe2(NO3)4 + N2O5 + O seems to take place with difficulty; more rapidly the latter is caused with addition by some barium carbonate. Despite this behavior one may not really regard a solution of ferric chloride consisting of Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, as soon as chlorine leaves the compound, with the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2 an electrical charge is caused, whereby the Ferrochloride as cation and chlorine function as anion. Between these ions results an electrostatic attraction, which opposes its complete separation. Chlorine reacted with the water under formation from HCl, what latter by an air flow can be removed, while the oxygen remains connected with the group of Fe2Cl4 : Fe2Cl6 + H2O = Fe2Cl4O + 2HCl. About the reaction of the iron with ferric chloride. A metal plate from iron does not react nearly with a saturated ferric chloride solution. The iron separates into less concentrated solutions, all faster, the more easily these solutions with potassium ferricyanide give citizen of Berlin-blue. It is not the formation of the Ferrochloride, a consequence of the dissolution of the iron, but is from the latter cause, as due to the dissociation (see above) formed hydrochloric acid dissolves the iron under development of hydrogen. If with these location of the ferric chloride, the FeCl2 cation and Cl2 anion and between these ions make an electrostatic attraction valid (see above), then must have a difference of potential be stated and an electric current to be able to collected, whose intensity will depend on the dissociation of the ferric chloride. On the other hand, one will cause the delivery of the ions with the current conclusion, brings and/or the dispersion of FeCl2 and Cl2 without difficulty to conditions - an opinion, which was confirmed by the experiment. A small platinum cap flat at the reason is fastened on by means of metal catch of the ends of a galvanometer, given into the same a confirmed FeCl3-solution (laminate 5-6 mm) and brought a small iron disk (2 cm diameters)on the surface of the liquid which is connected with the other end of the galvanometer. In instants of the contact, the needle turn out into violent oscillations and places with the division 54°. After 4 hours, 4 cg had more separated iron than in a simultaneous experiment which the flow was not closed. The latter went from the iron to platinum, so that this cathode and the iron were anode. With the use of more diluted solutions of FeCl3 increases the intensity of the flow up to a solution of 40%, on which it decreases with the further dilution regularly, thus it goes through a maximum. Also the ease give with solutions of ferric chloride citizen of Berlin-blue under delivery of chlorine, walks by a maximum. In the end it is noticed that the investigations of the author, also contribute to the answer of the question of the molecular formula of the ferric chloride, which after the density of the formula Fe2Cl6, according to the b.p.-method in alcohol or ether solution however comes the formula FeCl3. It is still determined whether the place mixture of chlorine in the ferric chloride has solution not also in alcoholic or ethers. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur le spectre d'absorption de quelques corps organiques incolores et ses relations avec la structure moléculaire
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2e série (1897), I

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16, 1-25; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The available, very detailed work follows ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16, 1-25; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The available, very detailed work follows the observations of the author's on the color water. During view of very thick layers of organic products author finds also the so-called uncolored compounds colored and observes that all compounds, which contain a hydroxyl group show a blue color, which all the more approaches the color water, when those is short the OH the following Kohlenstoffkotte. If the hydroxyl group is missing, then the products possess more or less deep-gold-yellow color. The spectral investigations more numerously, in groups of matching, organic compounds leads to the following general conclusions: The so-called uncolored organic compounds give a spectrum without absorption bands, if you consist mole of carbon chains, around those the heterologous atoms or groups in a homogeneous or symmetrical way are distributed. If these heterologous atoms or groups are however concentrated at an end of a chain or combines, then the compounds concerned give spectra with absorption bands. The number of the absorption bands seems to stand in direct relation to the number of the hydrocarbon remainders, which one can differentiate with respect to the examined compound; thus an ester two strips, their the acid radical, give whose different one corresponds to the alkyl, while the acid or the alcohol spectra with ever only one strip supplies. The position of the strips seems to be characteristic for each of the groups and remains generally the same, much with which other group the first being connected likes to apply only with more complicated compounds seems this rule not. If two groups are very closely with each other connected, then the positions of the individual absorption bands changed by the mutual influence (methyl benzene), it unite occasionally even to gang. Generally author regards his observations as a support of the ideas and the modern theory of the organic compounds, introduced of Kekuele into the science. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur le spectre d'absorption de quelques corps organiques incolores et ses relations avec la structure moléculaire
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1897), XXXIII(3), 165-195

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 33(3), 165-95; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The available, very detailed work ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 33(3), 165-95; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The available, very detailed work follows the observations of the author's on the color water. During view of very thick layers of organic products author finds also the so-called uncolored compounds colored and observes that all compounds, which contain a hydroxyl group show a blue color, which all the more approaches the color water, when those is short the OH the following carbon chain. If the hydroxyl group is missing, then the products possess more or less deep, gold-yellow color. The spectral investigations more numerously, in groups of matching, organic compounds leads to the following general conclusions: The so-called uncolored organic compounds give a spectrum without absorption bands, if you consist mole of carbon chains, around those the heterologous atoms or groups in a homogeneous or symmetrical way distributed are. If these heterologous atoms or groups are however concentrated at an end of a chain or combines, then the compounds concerned give spectra with absorption bands. The number of the absorption bands seems to stand in direct relation to the number of the hydrocarbon remainders, which one can differentiate with respect to the examined compound; thus an ester two strips, their the acid radical, give whose different one corresponds to the alkyl, while the acid or the alcohol spectra with ever only one strip supplies. The position of the strips seems to be characteristic for each of the groups and remains generally the same, much with which other group the first being connected likes to apply only with more complicated compounds seems this rule not. If two groups are very closely with each other connected, then the positions of the individual absorption bands changed by the mutual influence (methyl benzene), it unite occasionally even to gang. Generally author regards his observations as a support of the ideas and the modern theory of the organic compounds, introduced by Kekuele into the science. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur le rôle des composés ferriques et des matières humiques dans le phénomène de la coloration des eaux et sur l'élimination de ces substances sous l'influence de la lumière solaire
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1897), XXXIV(9-10), 578-600

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1897), 34(3), 578-600; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1897), 34(3), 578-600; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Authors investigation in 5 m are enough for pipe diluted solutions of ferric chloride on the one hand and of Humin substances (peat water) on the other hand on their color. One compares the dilution concerned with the content to iron and organic substances of our seas, lakes and flux, then it resulted that the water of these natural runs and basins would have to look to black brown instead of blue to green. An explanation for this difference resulted from the experiment to examine a mixture of diluted ferric salt solution and Humin substances solution for its color. Such a mixture is colored in the beginning dark, but under the influence of light more brightly and more brightly, as turbidity sit down to ground. The Humin substances is oxidized and to connect itself in more highly oxidized with metal oxides to insoluble compounds. With this process ferric oxide is reduced to ferrous oxide, whose color is hardly possible. Ferrous oxide can take up oxygen from air in the natural water again and exercise now as ferric compound its function with the elimination one the Humin substances again. Author compares the achievement of the iron with the purification the natural water with the achievement of hemoglobin in the animal blood. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'hydrolyse du chlorure ferrique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2eme serie (1897), XVI

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16(2), 237-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16(2), 237-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric chloride by water already shown of H. Debray (Bulletin of the Chemical Society, Paris 12. 346), after which researcher a very much diluted neutral, nearly colorless iron perchloride solution dissociates with heating up under strong coloring into hydrochloric acid and colloidal ferric oxide. Beside the latter F. W. Krecke (Journal pr. Chemistry 3. 286) found an iron oxychloride compound. After F. Wiedemann (Journal pr. Chemistry, 9. 145) the magnetism of the ferric chloride solutions consists of the sum of the magnetism of the iron in the colloidal oxide and the magnetism of the iron is not changed chloride and therefore no basic salts will give, in which the iron possesses its own atomic magnetism. The studied solutions were middle concentration (30% to 0.06%), however not border lines. Antony and Giglio (Chem.-Newspaper 1895. 325; C. 95. II. 858) the decomposition of the ferric chloride found completed in hydrogen chloride and colloidal hydrate after 24 hours according to colorimetric method with dilutions up to 0.00083%. The latter happens under temporary formation of chlorohydrates, [FeCl2.OH and FeCl(OH)2], which depending upon applied water conditions with hydrogen chloride equilibrium systems form and also cause during the dilution of the irregularities arising in the color of the solution. These changes in the color the line conduction of the iron perchloride solutions follows after Goodwin (Journal of Physik. Chemistry, 21. 1; C. 96. II. 998) a sufficient dilution of the first ionization of the ferric chloride causes, on which the ions (Fe) unite with the ions (OH) first to the colorless, bivalent ions Fe(OH), which gives the colloidal brown ferric hydroxide then with further ions of OH. xFe(OH)... + 2x(OH) = xFe(OH)3. The decomposition of the ferric chloride will exist therefore not in a simple hydrolysis in hydrate and hydrogen chloride, but will be accompanied by ionization features. Solutions concentrated by the author implemented experiments with ferric chloride resulted in the following. Sublimated ferric chloride Fe2Cl6 separates in water without decomposition then only if the relationship of the solvent is extraordinarily small. With the increase of the latter place shift takes place in the ferric chloride, whereby the delivery is prepared of two of the six chlorine atoms. The salt regards now as a composition of Ferrochloride and chlorine Fe2Cl4.Cl2, which dissociates with increase of water completely into the groups of the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, if these groups can accept the neutral electrical condition. Chlorine in the status nascent reacts then with the water under formation of hydrogen chloride and oxygen, which transfer the group of Fe2Cl4 immediately into the Oxychloride Fe2Cl4O, which accepts the certain following structure: 3Fe2Cl4O = Fe2O3.2Fe2Cl6 and forms with hydrochloric acid and the water an equilibrium system modifying with the temperature. With still further dilution of the solution arrives by the designated phases at the complete decay. In van't Hoff's opinion about the nature of the solutions proven that the expansion of a salt draws the same consequences by its solvent, like those by increase of the temperature. Reaction of the potassium ferricyanide. Potassium ferricyanide does not give a low-brown color with ferric salt solutions of middle concentration, a clear reaction with a very much concentrated solution of ferric chloride (230%), with a 126% solution against it immediately a precipitation of citizen of Berlin blue and development of chlorine, from which it must be closed that the ferric chloride splits in the solution into Ferrochloride and chlorine: Fe2Cl6 = Fe2Cl4 + Cl2. Similarly behave after author ferric bromide, ferric iodide and ferric nitrate, only takes place slower at the latter the formation precipitation of citizen of Berlin-blue, therefore the dissociation: Fe2(NO3)4 + N2O5 + O seems to take place with difficulty; more rapidly the latter is caused with addition by some barium carbonate. Despite this behavior one may not really regard a solution of ferric chloride consisting of Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, as soon as chlorine leaves the compound, with the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2 an electrical charge is caused, whereby the Ferrochloride as cation and chlorine function as anion. Between these ions results an electrostatic attraction, which opposes its complete separation. Chlorine reacted with the water under formation from HCl, what latter by an air flow can be removed, while the oxygen remains connected with the group of Fe2Cl4 : Fe2Cl6 + H2O = Fe2Cl4O + 2HCl. About the reaction of the iron with ferric chloride. A metal plate from iron does not react nearly with a saturated ferric chloride solution. The iron separates into less concentrated solutions, all faster, the more easily these solutions with potassium ferricyanide give citizen of Berlin-blue. It is not the formation of the Ferrochloride, a consequence of the dissolution of the iron, but is from the latter cause, as due to the dissociation (see above) formed hydrochloric acid dissolves the iron under development of hydrogen. If with these location of the ferric chloride, the FeCl2 cation and Cl2 anion and between these ions make an electrostatic attraction valid (see above), then must have a difference of potential be stated and an electric current to be able to collected, whose intensity will depend on the dissociation of the ferric chloride. On the other hand, one will cause the delivery of the ions with the current conclusion, brings and/or the dispersion of FeCl2 and Cl2 without difficulty to conditions - an opinion, which was confirmed by the experiment. A small platinum cap flat at the reason is fastened on by means of metal catch of the ends of a galvanometer, given into the same a confirmed FeCl3-solution (laminate 5-6 mm) and brought a small iron disk (2 cm diameters)on the surface of the liquid which is connected with the other end of the galvanometer. In instants of the contact, the needle turn out into violent oscillations and places with the division 54°. After 4 hours, 4 cg had more separated iron than in a simultaneous experiment which the flow was not closed. The latter went from the iron to platinum, so that this cathode and the iron were anode. With the use of more diluted solutions of FeCl3 increases the intensity of the flow up to a solution of 40%, on which it decreases with the further dilution regularly, thus it goes through a maximum. Also the ease give with solutions of ferric chloride citizen of Berlin-blue under delivery of chlorine, walks by a maximum. In the end it is noticed that the investigations of the author, also contribute to the answer of the question of the molecular formula of the ferric chloride, which after the density of the formula Fe2Cl6, according to the b.p.-method in alcohol or ether solution however comes the formula FeCl3. It is still determined whether the place mixture of chlorine in the ferric chloride has solution not also in alcoholic or ethers. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur le spectre d'absorption de quelques corps organiques incolores et ses relations avec la structure moléculaire
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1897), 3

Spring, W. Arch. SC. phys. Genève (1897), 3(4), 437-63; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The spectra water, several alcohols, ester ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Arch. SC. phys. Genève (1897), 3(4), 437-63; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The spectra water, several alcohols, ester, acids, halogen compounds, nitro compounds, the acetone, sugar canes, Benzaldehyde and several aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were examined. The lengths of the tubes stood in the relationship of the molecular weights and amounted for example for methanol 4 m, for amyl acetate 15 m. If one fills the one of two behind tubes each other present with water, the other one with alcohol, then one obtains the absorption spectrum of both liquids beside each other, and the same also takes place, if a layer aqueous alcohol is observed by appropriate thickness. The temperature does not exert influence, reference of the color of the liquids the earlier by the new observations (Bulletin of the Royal Academy of Belgium, [3.] 31. 246; C. 96. II. 75) confirms the observations. With the cyclic hydrocarbons blue fluorescence could be observed by lateral lighting of long tubes. This seems to be peculiar with the benzene core; only in the turpentine oil fluorescence is missing, perhaps the long side chains cover the influence of the benzene core. By the apparent colorless liquids those seem of symmetrical building to give for example carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide no absorption bands while an asymmetrical distribution of the substituents causes band spectrum. The number and situation of bands additives a characteristic is multiple, for example the esters possess the absorption bands alcohol and the acid. Only when very close combination of two groups, the same affect of each other in such a manner that the bands of the two components of the molecule shift their situation or to fall a resulting band together. This present is for example with the homologous of the case of benzene, with the benzene band approaches the methyl band are the more groups of methyls in the molecule. With the halogen derivatives occur a weak shift of the bands toward the breakable part of the spectrum, if chlorine by bromine, and if bromine is replaced by iodine. When general result of the numerous, discussed in detail relations between structure and absorption spectrum of the colorless compounds regard in conformity with the opinions of Kekule an organic compound is to be regarded as a system, in which the individual groups lost their individuality not yet completely. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLe pseudo-Aravatius
Kurth, Godefroid ULg

in Analecta Bollandiana : Revue Critique d’Hagiographie = A Journal of Critical Hagiography (1897), XVI

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See detailSainte Clotilde
Kurth, Godefroid ULg

Book published by Lecoffre (1897)

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See detailSur deux points de l’histoire des globules polaires
Van Beneden, Édouard ULg

in Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1897), 34

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See detailL'astronomie moderne
Le Paige, Constantin ULg

Speech (1897)

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See detailBranchie
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Richet, Charles (Ed.) Dictionnaire de physiologie. 002. Tome II (1897)

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See detailBiuret
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Richet, Charles (Ed.) Dictionnaire de physiologie. 002. Tome II (1897)

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See detailBenzoïque (acide)
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Richet, Charles (Ed.) Dictionnaire de physiologie. 002. Tome II (1897)

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See detailEmile du Bois-Reymond, professeur de physiologie à l'université de Berlin
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1897), XI

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See detailSur les formules de Chandler
Folie, François ULg

in Annuaire de l'Observatoire Royal de Belgique (1897), 64

There are numerous works by American astronomer Seth Chandler about the latitude variations. François Folie almost admitted his theories about the period of eulerian motion but after a study of this issue ... [more ▼]

There are numerous works by American astronomer Seth Chandler about the latitude variations. François Folie almost admitted his theories about the period of eulerian motion but after a study of this issue, he concluded that it wasn't solved yet. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la nécessité d'une réaction en astronomie sphérique
Folie, François ULg

in Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1897), 3e série, t. 33(2), 154-163

The author shows without calculation that if the Oppolzer’s formulae, inaccurate according to him, are related to the instantaneous equator, the hour definition must absolutely be modified.

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See detailDe l'aberration planétaire
Folie, François ULg

in Annuaire de l'Observatoire Royal de Belgique (1897), 64

Author’s corollaries sequence on the diurnal nutation, the latitude variations and other related phenomena.

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See detailL'expression de l'heure dans le système de l'axe instantané
Folie, François ULg

in Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1897), 3e série, t. 33(5), 397-406

The author shows that the absolute uniformity of hour is the base of the spherical astronomy.