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See detailQuatrième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Cour-au-Bois" à Braine-le-Château Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Thomas, Jean-François et al

Report (2010)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on the site of "Cour au Bois" at Braine-le-Château. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has conducted a survey in the neighbouring to assess the global odour annoyance generated by the landfill site. [less ▲]

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See detailE-nose development to predict odour annoyance in a receptor site
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, November 05)

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See detailPotential of the Electronic Nose as a Tool for the Detection of Disturbances in Anaerobic Digestion Processes
Adam, Gilles ULg; Neyrinck, Roland ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien et al

in IWWG (Ed.) Venice 2010 Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste (2010, November)

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific ... [more ▼]

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion processes. Twelve semi-continuous anaerobic mini-digesters (1.6 L useful capacity) were fed with three different substrates: sucrose, maize oil and a mix 1:1 of sucrose and maize oil. Two feeding strategies were followed (i) a cautious organic load (1.3 gVS.L-1.day-1) and (ii) an increasing load strategy (1.3 to 5.33 gVS.L-1.day-1). Digesters were monitored during two months by analysing the biogas composition and collecting electronic nose measurements. The electronic nose was able to detect the impact of organic load variations. Overload situations were distinguished by the e-nose apparatus and the different feeding substrates induced distinct responses from the e-nose system. [less ▲]

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See detailOdour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion
Ubeda, Yolanda; Neyrinck, Roland ULg; Calvet, S. et al

Conference (2010, September)

The present work focuses on odour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion, located in the Luxembourg province (Belgium). This study pursues three main goals: 1.- To evaluate the effect of the ... [more ▼]

The present work focuses on odour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion, located in the Luxembourg province (Belgium). This study pursues three main goals: 1.- To evaluate the effect of the anaerobic digestion process on the odour level in the farm, 2.- To compare field and laboratory odour measurement techniques and 3.-To study the influence of the meteorological observation frequency on the odour plume, through the use of dispersion models. Three different approaches were used to characterize the odour: dynamic and field olfactometry and sniffing team method. Odour emissions from all sources were measured by duplicated through dynamic chamber and olfactometric analysis in two different situations: in normal conditions and after stirring the odour source. Two odour field measurement campaigns were conduced in the surroundings of the farm, and meteorological conditions were recorded two times per minute with a weather station. After comparing odour emissions with field measurements through dispersion modeling, we concluded that the best results were obtained using minimum and averaged odour emission rates. Emission rates measured in stirring conditions overestimated the reach of odour perceived in the field in three field campaigns. Overall odour emitted from the farm increased with the anaerobic digestion process. Although odour emission from digested manure is reduced in comparison with non-treated manure, the presence of agricultural wastes increases global odour emission. Finally, meteorological data were averaged each one, five and fifteen minutes. Odour shape was thinner and more extended with 15-minutes data, whereas it was larger and shorter with 30-secondes records. One minute and 5-minute values showed intermediate situations. In conclusion, different techniques to measure odours were compared in this study and, according to the results, field techniques seemed to be more realistic than dynamic olfactometry. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary study of effects of anaerobic digestion of manure on VFA content and Odor concentration
Ubeda, Yolanda; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Calvet, S. et al

Conference (2010, September)

In this study, the potential reduction of odor of anaerobic digestion has been evaluated in three commercial facilities located in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. Odor concentrations were measured by ... [more ▼]

In this study, the potential reduction of odor of anaerobic digestion has been evaluated in three commercial facilities located in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. Odor concentrations were measured by olfactometric analyses in two different situations: at normal conditions and after the stirring the odor source. Parallel to these measures, representative samples were taken for digested and untreated manure and other co-substrates present in the facilities. Volatile solids, total solids, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, soluble chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total kjeldhal nitrogen, volatile fatty acids, and pH were determined in laboratory. The performance of anaerobic digestion in terms of VFA concentration reduction achieved values of 77-96%. Odor concentration was reduced by anaerobic digestion in the two studied scenarios: at normal conditions and after the stirring the odor source. No significant effect of anaerobic digestion on chemical analyses was observed, except for an increase in the ammonia nitrogen content. Significant correlations were found between the logarithm of odor concentration and different odor compounds (VFA, acetic, butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric). Correlations between odor concentration, VFA and other parameters (VS, VSS and pH) were also obtained. These results confirm that anaerobic digestion may reduce odor annoyance potential and VFA concentrations. In addition, odor concentration seems to be related with other chemical parameters, therefore more research is needed to obtain further conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelevance of the resident diary method to map odour sources.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cors, Marie; Delva, Julien et al

in Chemical Engineering Transactions (2010, September), 23

A methodology based on the social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The ... [more ▼]

A methodology based on the social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The studied area covers about 8 km2 and includes13 potential odour emitting facilities. A network of 44 residents was implied in the survey, from which 19 were particularly considered for a detailed analysis. The questionnaire aimed at providing twice-daily an odour strength rating on a 6-level scale together with an odour qualifier. The fact that the response rate corresponding to "no-odour" was high (79%) is particularly discussed. Some tests are proposed to check the plausibility of the responses, the consistency within clusters of residents and the individual performance of respondents to discriminate among odour ratings. The odour rose is presented as an attractive and visual tool, particularly suited in the case of multi-source areas, to map the different odour emissions, to point out the more worrying ones, some others creating less annoyance and possible new unpredicted ones. The resident diary method proves to be very interesting, especially in the case of an industrial area, provided that validation checks are performed to insure the data reliability. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of odour impact from a landfill area and a waste treatment facility through the application of two atmospheric dispersion models.
Ubeda, Yolanda; Ferrer, M.; Sanchis, E. et al

Conference (2010, July)

Odour emission from landfill areas has a high potential to cause significant annoyance to people living in their surroundings. In order to avoid odour nuisance, it is crucial to select the best location ... [more ▼]

Odour emission from landfill areas has a high potential to cause significant annoyance to people living in their surroundings. In order to avoid odour nuisance, it is crucial to select the best location in the project phase of these facilities. In the present work, two different atmospheric dispersion models were employed to predict odour impact from a projected landfill area and a waste treatment facility. The first model used was a simplified Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion model developed by the authors. Calculated odour concentrations were represented using GIS tools (Esri ®ArcMapTM software). Regarding to the second model, it was a commercial bi-Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion one. The odour impact of the waste treatment facility is expected to be low, because of the high efficiency of air biofiltration treatments and the dispersion effect of the stack. The shape and the reach of odour percentile contours were quite similar, providing coherent results between two models. Concerning the landfill installation, odour concentrations were modelled for the prevailing winds. The results obtained with both models differ in the reach of odour. The maximum distance obtained by the simple dispersion model was 1.5 km, compared with the almost 5 km modelled by the commercial bi-Gaussian one. The reasons of this disparity could be caused by the difference in the dispersion coefficients employed in the two models and also an error related to ground level emission. In addition, the meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean typically present a high proportion of calm winds, which provided worse dispersion results and did not reflect the real odour dispersion. Odour emission rate seems to be overestimated, and this could explain the high distance reached by odour. Field measurements are required when landfill installation becomes operational, in order to determine the real impact of odour. Bi-Gaussian Dispersion Models may not be appropriate to quantify the odour impact from agricultural sources. [less ▲]

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See detailLong term stability of metal oxide-based gas sensors for e-nose environmental applications : an overview
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2010), 146

The e-nose technology has enormous potentialities for in site monitoring of off-odours. However a number of limitations are associated with the properties of chemical sensors, the signal processing ... [more ▼]

The e-nose technology has enormous potentialities for in site monitoring of off-odours. However a number of limitations are associated with the properties of chemical sensors, the signal processing performances and the real operating conditions of the environmental field. The field experience of the research group included testing of a large amount of sensors in different sensor technologies and among those the metal oxide-based gas sensors (Figaro type) are the best gas sensors for long term application, as stated during more than 1 year of field testing. To be usable for the off-odours field measurement, the e-nose has to deal with the lack of long term stability of these sensors. The drift and the sensors replacement have to be considered. In order to appraise the time evolution of the sensors and the effect on the results of an electronic nose, experimentation has been performed during more than 3 years on two identical sensor arrays. The two arrays contain the same six Figaro sensors and are in the same sensor chamber of the e-nose system. Both arrays have worked continuously, without break. This paper presents the drift of some TGS sensors for 7 years as well as the difference in the temporal behaviour of identical sensors and the consequence on the e-nose results after the sensor replacement in the sensors array. A correction of the drift and of the replacement effect is applied and the classification results are exposed, with and without correction. [less ▲]

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See detailOdor measurement : search for a proper analytical device
Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, March 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
See detailConvention de sous-traitance "FIDOR" Etude de faisabilité d'un réseau de nez électroniques pour estimer la nuisance olfactive autour d'un centre de compostage.
Cerisier, Christophe; Collard, Laurent ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Report (2010)

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and concerning an e-nose network named FIDOR, providing in real time the five components of the odour ... [more ▼]

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and concerning an e-nose network named FIDOR, providing in real time the five components of the odour annoyance, the Frequency, the Intensity, the Duration, the Offensiveness and the impact on the Receptor. The report is a complete description of the system and is the property of the company Odometric which commissioned the study. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between emission and olfactory tests
Degrave, Christophe; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has ... [more ▼]

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has been elaborated. Previous experience in off-odour measurements for environmental field investigations help us to propose a methodology based on the assessment of odour intensity and hedonic tone. Various floor covering materials were tested in the lab with a self-made instrument. The sampling procedure is based on a "Field and Laboratory Emission Cell" (FLEC). The odour of the material is compared to a 8-level butanol intensity scale generated through a vaporization chamber and 8 stainless steel capillaries distributing the diluted n-butanol to 8 sniffing ports. First results shows generally a correlation between bad hedonic tone and odour intensity. On the contrary, there are no systematic relations between VOC levels and odour perception. The less odorous materials (PVC) are also the ones with the higher level of total VOC and the linoleum had a strong odour with a low level of total VOC. The explanation lies in the chemical family composition of the emission. The PVC emission contains mainly alkanes compounds (non odorous family) whereas the linoleum contains also odorous chemical families like carboxylic acids and aldehydes. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical analysis of chamber VOCs emission data
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

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See detailCan an Electronic Nose Assess the Biomethanation Process?
Adam, Gilles ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Poster (2010, January 12)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (11 ULg)
See detailHORIZONTAL EVALUATION METHOD FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS DIRECTIVE HEMICPD
Lor, Marc; Vause, Kevin; Dinne, Karla et al

Report (2010)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of odour sources in an industrial park from resident diaries statistics
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cors, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2010), 44

A methodology based on social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The ... [more ▼]

A methodology based on social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The studied area covers about 8 km2 and includes13 potential odour emitting facilities. The network involved 44 residents in the survey, among whom 19 were particularly considered for a detailed analysis. The questionnaire aimed at providing an odour rating twice-daily on a 6-level scale together with an odour type. The fact that the response rate corresponding to “no-odour” was high (79%) is particularly discussed. Some tests are proposed to check the plausibility of the answers, the coherence within clusters of residents and the individual performance of respondents to discriminate among odour ratings. The odour rose is presented as an attractive and visual tool, particularly suited in the case of multi-source areas, to map the different odour emissions, to point out the most worrying ones, to identify others creating less annoyance and possibly new unpredicted ones. The resident diary method has proven to be particularly useful, conjointly to other ones, to the case of multi-sources facilities in large areas, when the purpose is the assessment of the long-term evolution of odour annoyance. [less ▲]

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See detailTroisième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET de Mont-Saint- Guibert Estimation des nuisances olfactives Influence de la topographie locale.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Delva, Julien et al

Report (2009)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a third campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a third campaign on the site of Mont-saint-Guibert. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied a 3D analysis to study the influence of the local topography on the shape and the size of the odour plume. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure des émissions gazeuses, et plus particulièrement des odeurs, comme outil de caractérisation de matériaux et de processus
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe et al

Conference (2009, September)

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le ... [more ▼]

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le marché des matériaux (dont les "bio-matériaux") dont les émissions atmosphériques demeurent dans des limites acceptables. Plusieurs initiatives, essentiellement volontaires, existent au niveau européen pour évaluer ces émissions. Un des objectifs de la directive européenne des produits de construction (CPD) est d'harmoniser les méthodes d'évaluation. La comparaison de 4 chambres d'émission, de tailles différentes, l'usage de méthodes d'évaluation physico-chimiques couplées à des méthodes sensitives de mesure des odeurs et l'utilisation de la technique des nez électroniques constituent l'originalité de la démarche du projet mené par l'université de Liège en collaboration avec deux autres institutions belges. Plus généralement, le nez électronique représente un outil particulièrement bien adapté au suivi d'ambiances gazeuses au cours du temps. L'odeur émise peut ainsi servir comme "variable de process" pour suivre en continu, voire contrôler, des processus utilisant la bio dégradation de produits, comme le compostage, la bio méthanisation ou le bio séchage. [less ▲]

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See detailHorizontal evaluation method for the implementation of the construction products directive - emissions from construction products into indoor air
Lor, Marc; Vause, Kevin; Dinne, Karla et al

in 9th International Conference and Exhibition on Healthy Buildings 2009 (2009, September)

Worldwide different (mostly voluntary) approaches exist to evaluate emissions from construction products. The importance of the relation between construction products and health & environment is ... [more ▼]

Worldwide different (mostly voluntary) approaches exist to evaluate emissions from construction products. The importance of the relation between construction products and health & environment is highlighted in the mandatory European Construction Products Directive (CPD). One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials as stated in the Essential Requirement N°3 “Hygiene, health and the environment” (ER3). The Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI) is involved in the implementation of ER3 by participation in standardisation work on CEN (CEN/TC 351) and EOTA (EOTA PT9) level. This paper presents first results of ongoing BBRI research activities in collaboration with VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) and ULg (Université de Liège) concerning “horizontal evaluation method for implementation of the CPD (HEMICPD)”: http://www.bbri.be/go/hemicpd. [less ▲]

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See detailDeuxième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le site de traitement des déchets de Habay Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Delva, Julien et al

Report (2009)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on the site of Habay, which is more than a simple landfill area, as it includes also other waste treatment facilities, such as composting and biodrying. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied the electronic nose methodology to monitor the odour in the vicinity of the sources and a survey in the surroundings to try to validate the different results. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des relevés du réseau de vigies-odeur à Malvoisin.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Thomas, Jean-François

Report (2009)

The waste landfill area at Malvoisin was in the rehabilitation phase, involving various works, such as reshaping the waste mass. The research group decided to follow the evolution of the potential odour ... [more ▼]

The waste landfill area at Malvoisin was in the rehabilitation phase, involving various works, such as reshaping the waste mass. The research group decided to follow the evolution of the potential odour annoyance in the surroundings due to these works. A first survey in the surrounding population was followed by the setting up of a network of volunteers noting each day their personal feeling of the odour. The conclusion was that the odour was not excessive. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)