References of "Nicolas, Jacques"
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See detailVers une proposition de mode de détermination de la distance minimale à respecter entre les bâtiments d'élevage et les habitations.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Otte, Benoît

Report (2004)

Le cahier des charges de cette petite étude prévoyait trois étapes: - précision de la faisabilité des lignes-guides pour la Wallonie, - comparaison des distances calculées par les lignes-guides aux zones ... [more ▼]

Le cahier des charges de cette petite étude prévoyait trois étapes: - précision de la faisabilité des lignes-guides pour la Wallonie, - comparaison des distances calculées par les lignes-guides aux zones de nuisances olfactive évaluées par d'autres méthodes, - proposition pour une réglementation ou un guide de bonnes pratiques applicables en Wallonie. Le groupe de recherche d'Arlon a décidé de tester la faisabilité des lignes-guides existant dans d'autres pays ou régions sur base d'études de cas concrets, avec visites de terrain. En simulant, pour chacun de ces cas, la dispersion des odeurs au moyen d'un modèle de dispersion atmosphérique, il est alors possible de vérifier si les limitations spatio-temporelles ainsi déterminées par les percentiles, sur base de débits d'odeur fournis par la littérature, sont cohérentes avec les distances préconisées par les lignes-guides. Les résultats de ces deux premières étapes peuvent alors servir à jeter les bases d'une méthode adaptée à la Wallonie. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET de Happe-Chapois Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre; Otte, Benoît

Report (2004)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns the site of Happe ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns the site of Happe-Chapois. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group used GC-MS analysis to determine the chemical composition of the atmosphere over the tipping area. [less ▲]

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See detailSeconde campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Cour-au-Bois" à Braine-le-Château Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre; Otte, Benoît

Report (2004)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns a second campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns a second campaign on the landfill site "Cour-au-Bois" at Braine-le-Château. The usual field inspection technique was applied together with a GC-MS analysis aiming at determining the chemical composition of the ambiant air around the tipping area. [less ▲]

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See detailSeconde campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Champ de Beaumont" à Monceau-sur-Sambre Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre

Report (2004)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The report concerns more particularly a second ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The report concerns more particularly a second measurement campaign on the landfill site of Monceau-sur-Sambre. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group used GC-MS analyses to evaluate the chemical composition of emissions and an atmospheric dispersion model to study the influence of local relief. [less ▲]

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See detailCONVENTION ''PLAN DE L'AIR EN REGION WALLONNE'' Rapport final – Partie ''odeurs'' Etude comparative des différentes méthodes de caractérisation quantitative et qualitative des odeurs dans l'environnement dans le but de déterminer une méthode applicable en région wallonne.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien

Report (2004)

The report presents a part of a complete study aiming at inventory policies, standards and measurement methods for air quality assessment. It concerns more particularly the "odour" part and considers ... [more ▼]

The report presents a part of a complete study aiming at inventory policies, standards and measurement methods for air quality assessment. It concerns more particularly the "odour" part and considers qualitative and quantitative methods, key odorous compounds, standards and guidelines for odour assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'un instrument d'évaluation des impacts de matériaux sensibles aux moisissures sur la qualité de l'air intérieur.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Kuske, Martyna

Report (2004)

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An original instrument was designed. It was based on the "electronic nose" principle. With suitable data processing tools and an adequate calibration, the instrument was able to distinguish, from the analysis of the gas phase, the emission of the clean material from the one of the same material contaminated by moulds and from the one of the product against humidity. Discriminating between different mould species was more difficult. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en évidence des zones touchées par la désertification par télédétection a basse résolution au Niger
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2004)

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are ... [more ▼]

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are well suited to this task. Here, we use time series of NOAA AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and rainfall data. In this study, trend analysis is used to identify areas within the biomes from 1981 to 1999 in Niger with apparent land degradation in semi-arid areas. It appears that most of Niger (98%) recorded increasing rainfall while only 76% experienced increasing maximum NDVI. However, the combination of the two variables through the ratio shows a widespread reduction of the rain-use efficiency with non significant trend for the stations located in northern Sahel (p=0.52), highly significant for those located in central Sahel (p=0.00009) and significant in southern Sahel (p=0.041). Overall, 75.3% of the sample recorded a significant reduction of the NDVIMax/RR ratio. Only one station out of four (24.7%) presented a stability of the ratio. These negative trends suggest a progressive diminution of the vegetation productivity as highlighted by the lowering of the NDVIMax/RR ratio. This situation suggest a consistently environmental degradation and that desertification processes continued during the last two decades over most of the Sahelian belt of Niger. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablishing the limit of detection and the resolution limits of odorous sources in the environment for an array of metal oxide gas sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2004), 99(2-3), 384-392

Odour identification with gas sensor arrays relies on two main parameters: the limit of detection, defined as the concentration of the analyte corresponding to the lowest detectable signal for the sensors ... [more ▼]

Odour identification with gas sensor arrays relies on two main parameters: the limit of detection, defined as the concentration of the analyte corresponding to the lowest detectable signal for the sensors, and the limit of resolution, defined for pair-wise comparisons of vapours, as the concentration levels below which a vapour can no longer be reliably recognised from another one on the basis of its response pattern. For real-life environmental odours, however, it is no longer possible to express such limits in "concentration" terms, because they are complex gas mixtures composed of hundreds of various compounds. The paper tries to assess both limits for odorous sources in the environment firstly by finding an equivalence of the odour concentration, expressed in odorous unit per cubic meter (ou/m3), and the concentration of a reference gas, here the ethanol, and secondly by working with a statistical metric, based on the magnitude and standard deviations along linear projections of clustered response data. The methodology is illustrated for a metal oxide gas sensor array and the odour generated by urban waste composting facilities, which is compared to the background air and to ethanol vapour. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of moulds growing on building materials by gas sensor arrays and pattern recognition
Kuske, Martyna; Padilla, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Technical digest of eurosensors : proceedings (2004)

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array Four mould species have been considered. Pattern Classification provides ... [more ▼]

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array Four mould species have been considered. Pattern Classification provides classification rates on the order of 80-90% for different species. Drift degrades slightyl these values subsequent test four months later. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation et test d'un nez électronique pour suivre en continu la nuisance olfactive générée par un centre de compostage
Ledent, Catherine; Dauby, B.; Nicolas, Jacques ULg et al

in Revue scientifique des instituts supérieurs industriels libres francophones (2004), 18

L'article présente le travail de fin d'études de Catherine Ledent. Celui-ci a consisté à la mise au point et au test sur le terrain (sur le centre de compostage à Habay) d'un nez électronique destiné à ... [more ▼]

L'article présente le travail de fin d'études de Catherine Ledent. Celui-ci a consisté à la mise au point et au test sur le terrain (sur le centre de compostage à Habay) d'un nez électronique destiné à être placé en continu sur un site industriel, de manière à détecter des occurrences d'odeur. Le prototype existant a été adapté de manière à satisfaire aux exigences du terrain. Par exemple, une régulation thermique de la chambre des capteurs a permis de s'affranchir des variations de température de l'ambiance. La phase de validation sur le terrain fut la plus exigeante: elle nécessitait en effet une présence constante de l'étudiante sur le terrain, de manière à identifier les causes possibles de variation des capteurs. En finale, le système a montré d'excellentes performances et peut servir de base à un développement technologique ultérieur. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET réhabilité de Belderbusch (Montzen) Enquête sur les nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien

Report (2003)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns the restored site of ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The present report concerns the restored site of Belderbusch. However, as first field inspections revealed no odour, the usual measurement methodology was not applied and a short survey in the neighbourhood population was conducted. [less ▲]

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See detailLa modélisation de la dispersion atmosphérique. Cas particulier des odeurs.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien

Report (2003)

The report was written in the frame of a general project concerning the "plan of air in Wallonia", aiming at inventory the policies, standards and measurement methods concerning the air quality. The ... [more ▼]

The report was written in the frame of a general project concerning the "plan of air in Wallonia", aiming at inventory the policies, standards and measurement methods concerning the air quality. The present report refers to the atmospheric dispersion models and their particular use to simulate the odour plumes. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Champ des 7 ânes" à Froidchapelle Estimation des nuisances olfactives et évaluation des erreurs de la méthode
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien

Report (2003)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The research group applied a field inspection ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The research group applied a field inspection technique based on the perception of a panel of experts sniffing the air around the region of interest and trying to delineate the odour plume. In a second step, the recorded meteorological data are entered into an atmospheric dispersion model and the odour emission rate of the facility is adjusted until the predicted odour impact zone fits about exactly the one which is measured in the field. The present report concerns the site of Froidchapelle. It presents also a discussion about the possible errors of the used method. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy K-NN applied to moulds detection
Kuske, Martyna; Rubio, R.; Nicolas, Jacques ULg et al

in Proceedings of ISOEN'03 (2003, June)

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be ... [more ▼]

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be obtained combining an extended linear discriminant analysis plus a fuzzy k-NN classifier. The classification ability of the classifier is assessed within the dataset by crossvalidation and also in a second dataset collected 5 months later. There is a slight decrease in the classification performance for all the algorithms, being the most sensitive the most accurate one. [less ▲]

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See detailAppliquer le nez électronique pour reconnaître et suivre en continu de mauvaises odeurs dans l'environnement
Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2003, January)

Le nez électronique avec une configuration très simple fournit des résultats encourageants pour détecter une odeur dans l’environnement. Il existe un réel espoir de pouvoir fabriquer des instruments ... [more ▼]

Le nez électronique avec une configuration très simple fournit des résultats encourageants pour détecter une odeur dans l’environnement. Il existe un réel espoir de pouvoir fabriquer des instruments portables capables de prévoir une odeur inconnue en temps réel sur le terrain. Le monitoring des odeurs environnementales est un challenge, mais une simple estimation est suffisante, il n'y a pas besoin de conditions opératoires très rigoureuses. Il reste néanmoins beaucoup de travail à faire avant que le nez électronique ne devienne une réalité dans l’environnement. La communication présente ce challenge en l'illustrant par de nombreuses applications réalisées par l'équipe de recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the odour of compost as a process variable
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Kuske, M.; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Kleperis, janis (Ed.) book of abstracts of the 10th international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose (2003)

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See detailThe use of sensor arrays for environmental monitoring: interests and limitations
Bourgeois, W.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg et al

in J. Environ. Monit. (2003), 5(6), 852-860

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ ... [more ▼]

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ monitoring. Their ability and performance under realistic conditions is discussed in this paper. Published studies report promising results despite a number of limitations that are associated with both the technology itself and its application in ever changing ambient conditions. Early investigations include the analysis of single substances as well as odour and wastewater organic load monitoring. Reported applications typically highlight the sensitivity of the currently available sensors to changes in temperature, humidity and flow rate. Two types of approaches are recommended to deal with these effects: either working under fixed experimental conditions or measuring the external parameters to numerically compensate for their change. The main challenge associated with the use of non-specific sensor arrays lies in establishing a relationship between the measured multivariate signals and the standards metrics that are traditionally used for quality assessment of gas mixtures. For instance, odour monitoring requires calibration against olfactometric measurements while investigations of wastewater samples still need to be correlated with organic pollution parameters such as BOD, COD or TOC. On the other hand, results obtained in the field have demonstrated how sensor arrays can be readily used as simple alarm devices or as early warning systems based on a general air/water quality index. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Cour-au-Bois" à Braine-le- Château Estimation des nuisances olfactives et suggestion d'une méthode simplifiée.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Chaplain, Anne-Sophie

Report (2002)

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The research group applied a field inspection ... [more ▼]

The study is made in the frame of a follow-up monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, initiated by the Ministry of Environment and managed by ISSeP. The research group applied a field inspection technique based on the perception of a panel of experts sniffing the air around the region of interest and trying to delineate the odour plume. In a second step, the recorded meteorological data are entered into an atmospheric dispersion model and the odour emission rate of the facility is adjusted until the predicted odour impact zone fits about exactly the one which is measured in the field. The present report concerns the site of Braine-le-Château. It presents also a possible simplified method based on a simple version of the Gaussian dispersion formula. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying the electronic nose in the environment : requirements for the sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Szuber, Jacek (Ed.) Papers from the 3rd international seminar on semiconductor gas sensors-SGS 2002, Ustron, Poland, 19-22 september 2002 (2002, September)

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the ... [more ▼]

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the environment and directly in the field. <br />For such emissions, the gas mixtures are very complex and only their odour should be of interest, and not their chemical composition. <br />Moreover, working in the field implies various constraints. <br />The obstacles of the monitoring of real life environmental odours with an electronic nose can be classified into three main areas : the final goal of the study (measuring an odorous annoyance), the analysed sample itself (influenced by the evolution of the process and of ambient parameters) and the operating conditions (necessity to transport the reference gas and the batteries in the field, influence of air humidity). <br />The paper describes the approach of FUL to the problem with various tests conducted in the field with home-made electronic noses based on tin oxide sensors and with very simple configurations. The conclusions, which can be extrapolated to any other sensor types, are promising, but the sensor performances (sensibility, reproducibility, electrical consumption, drift, etc.) should still be improved before reaching the final goal. [less ▲]

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