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See detailLASER CLAD HIGH SPEED STEEL THICK DEPOSITS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE LOCAL THERMAL HISTORY, THE MICROSTRUCTURES AND THE WEAR MECHANISMS
Mertens, Anne ULiege; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege et al

Conference (2018, January 04)

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their ... [more ▼]

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their complex microstructure containing very hard carbides as e.g. V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C. Direct laser deposition, also known as laser cladding, has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the production and repair of such thick coatings. Indeed, the very high cooling and solidification rates imposed by laser cladding result in strongly refined out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced wear resistance. However, the progressive accumulation of heat in the deposit during fabrication leads to variations of the thermal history as a function of position inside the build, resulting in turn into local variations of microstructure and wear properties. Consequently, this work aims to investigate the correlations between the local thermal history, the microstructures and the wear mechanisms of three HSS grades with varying contents of V, Mo and W so as to vary the type, size, morphology and amounts of the hard carbides. In a first step, 2D finite element simulations compute the thermal field during the direct laser deposition of 20 mm thick HSS coatings (a similar FE approach [Tran 2017] has already been published by the group on Ti alloy). The validated thermal history yields a deeper understanding of the microstructure generated as a function of the position inside the deposits. In a second step, the wear behaviour of the deposits is characterised at two different depths (i.e. at 2 mm from the free surface or at 2/3 of the total height) and for two constant test temperatures (i.e. room temperature [Hashemi 2017] and 300°C) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. In analysing the results of these tests, a particular attention was given to the role of the various carbides – including their type, morphology, hardness and failure mode – in determining the wear mechanisms of laser clad HSS deposits at the two tested temperatures. REFERENCES: Tran H.S., Tchuindjang J.T., Paydas H., Mertens A., Jardin R.T., Duchene L., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J. and Habraken A., 2017, “3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations” Mater. Des. 128, 130. Hashemi N., Mertens A., Montrieux H.-M., Tchuindjang J.T., Dedry O., Carrus R. and Lecomte-Beckers J., 2017, “Oxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: Influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology” Surf. Coat. Technol. 315, 519 [less ▲]

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See detailQuels futurs pour la fabrication de pièces métalliques ?
Habraken, Anne ULiege; Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Les processus de fabrication des pièces métalliques sont au cœur de nombreux enjeux technologiques, sociopolitiques et économiques. Ces dernières années, des procédés tels le 3D Printing ou encore le ... [more ▼]

Les processus de fabrication des pièces métalliques sont au cœur de nombreux enjeux technologiques, sociopolitiques et économiques. Ces dernières années, des procédés tels le 3D Printing ou encore le formage incrémental ont apporté un renouveau possible face aux méthodes de fabrication traditionnelles. Si le premier est, à présent, bien connu du grand public, le formage incrémental mérite encore quelques explications. Ce procédé, relativement lent, est de mieux en mieux maîtrisé. Il permet de réaliser des pièces métalliques aussi diverses qu’une prothèse, un panneau de façade ou de porte de boeing, un évier de cuisine, ... Il comporte de multiples variantes et est progressivement exploité par l’industrie pour du prototypage de pièces uniques et des petites séries. A l’ère de la révolution numérique, où les Fablabs, Repair Cafés et autres Hackers Labs permettent aux citoyens de créer leurs propres pièces et de devenir acteurs de l’innovation, ce procédé ouvre ainsi de nouvelles portes pour la conception de pièces métalliques. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of solution treatment on the fracture mechanisms of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Selective Laser Melting
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Mertens, Anne ULiege; Dedry, Olivier ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 21)

Al alloy AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) displays high hardness and tensile strength due to its very fine eutectic microstructure [1]. However, as-built material exhibits low ductility ... [more ▼]

Al alloy AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) displays high hardness and tensile strength due to its very fine eutectic microstructure [1]. However, as-built material exhibits low ductility which is detrimental for applications where a high resilience is needed. To overcome this issue, solution heat treatment can be applied to soften and ductilize the material [2]. The very fine eutectic microstructure then turns into a dispersion of coarse globular Si precipitates. The distribution of Si precipitates seems to play a role in the fracture mechanism in as-built as well as solutionized tempers, but this effect is not yet fully understood [1,3]. Moreover, the lack of quantitative data makes it difficult to link precisely the fracture mechanisms to specific microstructural features. This study aims at investigating the role of the Si phase in the rupture mechanism, for both as-built and solutionized samples. It will focus more particularly on the heterogeneity of the distribution of Si precipitates where cracks are more likely to occur. Al cells size, along with the volume fraction and distribution of Si precipitates have been quantified by SEM image analysis. Al lattice parameter and Si crystallite size have been determined by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis. For the image analysis, two types of specific zones have been observed i.e. the core and boundary of melt pools and Al grains, at different locations for representativity. These quantitative data have been compared with typical features observed on the fractured surface of tensile specimen. 1. D.-K. Kim et al. J. Alloys Compd. 686 (2016) 281. 2. W. Li et al., Mat. Sci. & Eng. A. 663 (2016) 116, 3. N.T. Aboulkhair et al. Mat. Sci. & Eng. A. 667 (2016) 139. [less ▲]

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See detailVisco-plastic Chaboche model for nickel-based alloys under anisothermal cyclic loading
Morch, Hélène ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege

in Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Computational Plasticity (2017, September)

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have more or less influence on the overall behavior depending on the considered temperature. The unified constitutive model developed by Chaboche [1] is very efficient in representing this complexity as it is very adaptable and can contain many features. A basic Chaboche model contains a viscosity law and one or several hardening equations. Within these hardening equations, it is possible to add several features that will represent the complex behavior of the material. The aim of this study is to understand the role of the different parameters and the influence of the different features in an advanced Chaboche model adapted to cyclic anisothermal loading. This specific model was also developed in [2],[3]. However, part of this study is based on particular cases where different features of the model are analyzed [4]–[6]. [less ▲]

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See detail3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations
Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Paydas, Hakan ULiege et al

in Materials & Design (2017), 128

In this study, a 3D thermal model of laser cladding by powder injection applied to Ti-6Al-4V is developed. The manufactured part is made of a Ti-6Al-4V substrate on which successive layers of laser melted ... [more ▼]

In this study, a 3D thermal model of laser cladding by powder injection applied to Ti-6Al-4V is developed. The manufactured part is made of a Ti-6Al-4V substrate on which successive layers of laser melted powder are added, leading to a thick deposit. The computed temperature field and its time evolution are compared to experimental measurements. The temperature distribution in the substrate allows the prediction of the depths of the melt pool and the heat affected zone. Correlations between simulated thermal histories and the final microstructure in the thick deposit are established, leading to the enhancement of a dynamic shift of the critical transformation points due to high thermal rates during laser processing. The nature of the phases present within the deposit is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Si precipitates on fracture mechanisms of AlSi10Mg parts processed by Selective Laser Melting
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Rigo, Olivier; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 28)

Al alloy AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting displays a very fine cellular eutetic microstructure (melt pool fine, MP fine) due to fast cooling rate from the melt. Such microstructural ... [more ▼]

Al alloy AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting displays a very fine cellular eutetic microstructure (melt pool fine, MP fine) due to fast cooling rate from the melt. Such microstructural refinement results in high tensile strength and hardness. Studies have shown that a coarser cells region (melt pool coarse, MP coarse) as well as a heat affected zone (HAZ) can be observed at the melt pool boundary caused by a change of thermal history [1]. Those microstructural inhomogeneities act like a weak zone as demonstrated by the laser tracks observed on fracture features after tensile test [2]. This study aims at investigating in which zone fracture occurs. To do so, MP fine, MP coarse and HAZ were analyzed. Si precipitates spacing was compared with dimples size observed on fracture features. The Si precipitates fraction were quantified by image analysis. Hardness tests were performed in the 3 different zones by nanoindentation. [1] Thijs et al., Acta Mater. 61 (2013) pp. 1809-1819 [2] Tang et al., JOM 69 (2017) pp. 516-522 [less ▲]

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See detailThermal history modelling to understand microstructures observed in repair technology of Ti-6Al-4V
Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Paydas, Hakan ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 28)

Study of laser cladding as a possible technology to repair Ti-6Al-4V. Development of a FEM thermal to predict microstructure.

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See detailWear behaviour of laser clad High Speed Steels thick deposits
Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Dedry, Olivier ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 28)

The wear behaviour of 4 different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and 3 laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated at 2 different test temperatures, i ... [more ▼]

The wear behaviour of 4 different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and 3 laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated at 2 different test temperatures, i.e. at room temperature and at 300°C. For all four materials under both test conditions, oxidative wear was identified as the main wear mechanism. The 3 laser clad deposits exhibit a higher wear resistance compared to the conventional cast reference material, and this effect was mainly attributed to their strongly refined microstructures. Moreover, a detailed comparison of the wear behaviour of the 3 laser clad deposits, in correlation with their microstructures, allows a better understanding of the effect of the different carbides and of their morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailFE modeling of the cooling and tempering steps of bimetallic rolling mill rolls
Neira Torres, Ingrid; Gilles, Gaëtan ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2017), Volume 10,(Issue 3), 287305

Numerical simulations enable the analysis of the stress and strain histories of bimetallic rolling mill rolls. The history of rolling mill rolls is simulated by thermo-mechanical metallurgical finite ... [more ▼]

Numerical simulations enable the analysis of the stress and strain histories of bimetallic rolling mill rolls. The history of rolling mill rolls is simulated by thermo-mechanical metallurgical finite element code while considering two steps: post-casting cooling and subsequent tempering heat treatment. The model requires a notably large set of material parameters. For different phases and temperatures, Young modulus, yield limit and tangent plastic modulus are determined through compression tests. Rupture stresses and strains are obtained by tensile tests. Thermo-physical parameters are measured by such experimental methods as dilatometry, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and Laser Flash methods. Such parameters as the transformation plasticity coefiicients for the ferrite, pearlite and martensite phases are identified through an inverse method. From the simulation results, the profile of the stresses evolution at different critical times is presented. An analysis of the potential damage is proposed by comparing the predicted axial stress \vith rupture stresses. The perspective of the Ghosh and McClintock damage criteria is also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION IN HSS S690QL WELDED CONNECTIONS IN BRIDGES
Bouffioux, Chantal ULiege; Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June)

The fatigue and crack study of HSS S690QL steel welded pieces is first experimentally analyzed by fatigue tests on small samples of Base Material (BM), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Metal (WM ... [more ▼]

The fatigue and crack study of HSS S690QL steel welded pieces is first experimentally analyzed by fatigue tests on small samples of Base Material (BM), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Metal (WM) separately for several stress ratios, stress levels, on smooth and notched samples. The Lemaître-Chaboche fatigue model combined with the stress gradient method and the three sets of parameters are found to accurately describe the behavior of each material. Another experimental campaign with larger pieces (closer to the scale of the bridge connections) called "small scale samples", with/without welded stiffeners, with several geometries and with/without post-treatment has shown each effect separately: the scale and machining effects, residual stresses due to the welding, geometrical and post-treatments effects. Numerical simulations of these experiments are used to improve and validate the material data, with a study in real context and size. Then, the characterized fatigue damage model is coupled with the element deletion method to model the propagation of cracks along the welded samples and the numerical predictions are compared with experimental results in order to validate the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailOPTIBRI Opening and Project Overview
Habraken, Anne ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Bouffioux, Chantal ULiege et al

Conference (2017, May 03)

presentation of genesis of the project, his goal and objectives, the partnership, the task flowchart and main achievements

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See detailCharacterization of Fatigue Behaviour, from Material Science to Civil Engineering Applications
Bouffioux, Chantal ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, May 03)

Method used to characterise and numerically study the fatigue behaviour of HSS welded plates

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See detailThermal history modelling to understand microstructures observed in repair technology of Ti-6Al-4V
Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Hakan, Paydas et al

in Extended Abstract book of 14th Conf. on Computer Methods in Materials Technology KomPlasTech 2017 (2017, January)

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with a variable thickness are studied to assess the use of laser cladding as a ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with a variable thickness are studied to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology [1]. Solidification following melting and partial remelting of pre-existing layers is coupled with heat treatment of the solidified material due to the repeated heating and cooling cycles during building. The effect of the building strategy on the metallurgical characteristics of the material for a decreasing track length (DTL) or a constant track length (CTL) strategy is analyzed. Depending on the possible heat accumulation, the nature of the phases are determined by metallography and hardness maps of the deposits. Optical Microscopy (OM), Stereo Microscopy (SM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used in order to study the microstructure. The generation of the microstructure results from the material thermal history. This one is computed by Finite Element Method and a careful analysis establishes the link between the phase state and the detailed thermal history. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal use of High Strength Steel grades within bridge
Habraken, Anne ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Bouffioux, Chantal ULiege et al

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

The use of high strength steel in bridges is studied through the welding, the fatigue and the stability for three designs and also in term of life cycle impacts.

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See detailDamage prediction in single point incremental forming using an extended Gurson model
Guzman, Carlos Felipe; Yuan, Sibo ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege et al

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2017)

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) has several advantages over traditional forming, such as the high formability attainable by the material. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain this ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) has several advantages over traditional forming, such as the high formability attainable by the material. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain this behavior, but there is still no straightforward relation between the particular stress and strain state induced by SPIF and the material degradation leading to localization and fracture. A systematic review of the state of the art about formability and damage in SPIF is presented and an extended Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model was applied to predict damage in SPIF through finite element (FE) simulations. The line test was used to validate the simulations by comparing force and shape predictions with experimental results. To analyze the failure prediction, several simulations of SPIF cones at different wall angles were performed. It is concluded that the GTN model underestimates the failure angle on SPIF due to wrong coalescence modeling. A physically-based Thomason coalescence criterion was then used leading to an improvement on the results by delaying the onset of coalescence. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser Cladding Finite Element Modelling Application to Ti6Al4V,
Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Brusten, Romain; Jardin, Ruben et al

Conference (2016, November 03)

Corrélation entre les champs thermiques prédits et la microstructure observée.

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See detailQuasicontinuum analysis of interaction between screw dislocation and coherent twin boundary
Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Tummala, Hareesh et al

Conference (2016, September 07)

The interaction between pure screw dislocation with dislocation line directions lying parallel to the twin plane and Coherent Twin Boundary Σ3 of copper has been studied using Quasi-Continuum method. The ... [more ▼]

The interaction between pure screw dislocation with dislocation line directions lying parallel to the twin plane and Coherent Twin Boundary Σ3 of copper has been studied using Quasi-Continuum method. The coherent twin boundary provides high barrier to slip transmission. The dislocation pile-up modifies the stress field at its intersection with the grain boundary. We introduce a methodology to calculate the stress barriers during slip–GB interaction. Screw dislocation approaching the boundary from one side may either propagate into the adjacent twin grain by cutting through the twin boundary. Quantitative estimation of critical stress for transmission phenomena is performed by using virial stress. The mechanism and critical stress obtained were in line with the literature. Such information can be used as input for Discrete Dislocation Dynamics models [less ▲]

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See detailSingle Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility
Habraken, Anne ULiege

Conference (2016, September 06)

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See detailModeling the ductile fracture and the plastic anisotropy of DC01 steel at room temperature and low strain rates
Tuninetti, Victor; Yuan, Sibo ULiege; Gilles, Gaëtan et al

Scientific conference (2016, September)

This paper presents different extensions of the classical GTN damage model implemented in a finite element code. The goal of this study is to assess these extensions for the numerical prediction of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents different extensions of the classical GTN damage model implemented in a finite element code. The goal of this study is to assess these extensions for the numerical prediction of failure of a DC01 steel sheet during a single point incremental forming process, after a proper identification of the material parameters. It is shown that the prediction of failure appears too early compared to experimental results. Though, the use of the Thomason criterion permitted to delay the onset of coalescence and consequently the final failure. [less ▲]

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See detailA 2D and 3D thermal model of powder injection laser cladding
Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULiege; Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege et al

Conference (2016, July 05)

Thermal 2D and 3D finite element models were elaborated to retrieve the high temperature gradients generated during multi-layer laser cladding deposition. The model can deliver the complete thermal ... [more ▼]

Thermal 2D and 3D finite element models were elaborated to retrieve the high temperature gradients generated during multi-layer laser cladding deposition. The model can deliver the complete thermal history of the deposition process. Convection and radiation phenomena were taken into account. Key points from the specimen had their temperature evolution saved with thermocouples during the production and used later to calibrate the numerical model. The method to compute the heat input in the 2D model once the 3D model has been validated is described. An accurate thermal history of the specimens is the first step to predict crack by thermo-mechanical model and microstructure by thermo-metallurgical model. [less ▲]

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