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See detailHead shape disparity of the cod icefishes Trematominae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei)
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Heindler, Franz M.; Dettai, Agnès et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents ... [more ▼]

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents a dominant component of the shelf fish fauna. After recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, 14 species of Trematomus are currently recognized (including Pagothenia and Cryothenia spp.) comprising both considerable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we aim to illustrate the main axes of shape variation in Trematomus and explore the evolution of their morphology. A dataset of 96 specimens representing 10 species of Trematomus from the collection of the Natural History Museum of Paris was assembled, and landmark-based geometric morphometrics was applied to quantify head shape disparity. Regular regression analysis revealed significant interspecific allometry while a low percentage of shape variation was explained by size (R2 = 0.11; P < 0.001). Main shape variation across species was explored using a principal component (PC) analysis on shape variables. Two groups diverged along PC1: (1) T. bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. pennellii and T. tokarevi have short cephalic profiles with larger cheeks (lowest values along PC1); and (2) T. lepidorhinus, T. eulepidotus and T. newnesi show lengthened cephalic profiles with larger eyes (highest values along PC1). Trematomus scotti differed from all other species mainly along PC3 indicating more elongated cheeks. Phenogram based on Procrustes shape distances will be compared to molecular phylogenetic trees and morphometric data will be mapped onto phylogenetic trees in order to illustrate the mode of phenotypic diversification of Trematomus during evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailBroadening of acoustic repertoire in Pomacentridae: tonal sounds in the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Frederich, Bruno ULiege

in Journal of Zoology (2016), 300(4), 241-246

Damselfish are prolific callers, identified as being able to produce different kinds of sounds (pops and chirps) associated with various behaviors. During courtship and chase behaviors, the coral reef ... [more ▼]

Damselfish are prolific callers, identified as being able to produce different kinds of sounds (pops and chirps) associated with various behaviors. During courtship and chase behaviors, the coral reef damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis produces a previously unknown additional kind of call that we have named the wiping sound. These calls have two to three long (54 ± 13 ms) units that do not show the usual percussive aspect of the pomacentrid sounds. Calls consist of a high-pitched (from 550 to 775 Hz) tonal sound in which the cycle repetition rate corresponds to the peak frequency. The high frequency of this tonal sound can be excluded as coming from the contraction of sound producing muscles. These sounds could be the result of a mechanism that drives the merging of successive pops. In the noisy environment of coral reefs and the resulting competition for acoustic space, the wiping sounds appear to be a good way to increase signal distinctiveness and opportunities for correct signal discrimination. This new kind of sound supports that acoustic communication is highly important in the biology of damselfishes and their diversification. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop: Comparative methods in evolutionary biology
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Santini, Francesco

Conference (2016, December)

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See detailTrophic specializations of damselfishes are tightly associated with reef habitats and social behaviours
Gajdzik, Laura ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Marine Biology (2016), 163

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the ... [more ▼]

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the relationships between diet, habitat and social behaviour in damselfishes (Pomacentridae) collected in 2014 at Moorea Island (17°30′S, 149°50′W), French Polynesia. Isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen, in association with stomach contents, delineate three trophic groups: pelagic feeders consuming zooplankton, benthic feeders mainly grazing on algae and an intermediate group feeding on prey from the whole bentho-pelagic compartment. Sulphur isotope ratios indicate segregation between species of the outer reef mostly depending on oceanic input of zooplankton and the lagoonal species relying on locally produced resources or even on terrestrial supply. We demonstrate a tight association between dietary specializations, habitat characteristics and social behaviours, and these correlations are further confirmed by integrating the phylogeny of Pomacentridae. We also provide evidence of phylogenetic conservatism for the stomach content and the habitat–behaviour characters. However, the isotopic trait is evolutionarily more labile probably because it thoroughly depicts the ecological niche of species. To summarize, pelagic feeders (mainly from the Chrominae) usually form shoals in areas close to the open ocean at a maximum depth of 20 m. Benthic feeders (well represented in the Stegastinae) are ubiquitous, solitary and mostly territorial species found at various depths. The intermediate group includes gregarious species from three subfamilies that forage in the lagoon usually above 12 m depth. Overall, we give insight into processes that have structured the damselfish community in Moorea. [less ▲]

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See detailTriclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus
Schnitzler, Joseph ULiege; Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Dussenne, Mélanie ULiege et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2016), 181

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Here, we investigate the in vivo effects of exposure to triclosan (20, 50, and 100 μg L−1) on the thyroid system and the embryonic and larval development of C. variegatus. Triclosan exposure did not affect hatching success, but delayed hatching time by 6–13 h compared to control embryos. Triclosan exposure affected the ontogenetic variations of whole body thyroid hormone concentrations during the larval phase. The T3 peak around 12–15 dph, described to be indicative for the metamorphosis climax in C. variegatus, was absent in triclosan-exposed larvae. Triclosan exposure did not produce any deformity or allometric repatterning, but a delayed development of 18–32 h was observed. We conclude that the triclosan-induced disruption of the thyroid system delays in vivo the start of metamorphosis in our experimental model. We observed a global developmental delay of 24–45 h, equivalent to 4–7% prolongation of the developmental time in C. variegatus. The costs of delayed metamorphosis can lead to reduction of juvenile fitness and could be a determining factor in the outcome of competitive interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Marrama, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2016), 283

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the ... [more ▼]

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invert- ebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of caran- goid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. [less ▲]

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See detailEcomorphology and Iterative Ecological Radiation of Damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Cooper, W. James; Aguilar-Medrano, Rosalia

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailTrophic Ecology of Damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Olivier, Damien ULiege; Gajdzik, Laura ULiege et al

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailCerato-Mandibular Ligament: a Key Trait in Damselfishes?
Olivier, Damien ULiege; Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailOntogeny and Early Life Stages of Damselfishes
Kavanagh, Kathryn; Frederich, Bruno ULiege

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailMeet the Damselfishes
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Frederich, Bruno ULiege

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailInsight into biting diversity to capture benthic prey in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Olivier, Damien ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Frederich, Bruno ULiege

in Zoologischer Anzeiger (2016), 264

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, joining the hyoid bar to the coronoid process of the angular, allows Pomacentridae to slam their mouth shut in a few milliseconds. Previous works have revealed that ... [more ▼]

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, joining the hyoid bar to the coronoid process of the angular, allows Pomacentridae to slam their mouth shut in a few milliseconds. Previous works have revealed that such a mechanism is used to feed, but some variability in biting patterns has been observed between two damselfish species. The pelagic feeder Amphiprion clarkii performs two different kinematic patterns to bite fixed prey, one that does not depend on the c-md ligament (biting-1) and one that does (biting-2). The benthic feeder Stegastes rectifraenum only performs biting-2. The present study aims to shed light on the occurrence of biting-2 in the feeding behaviour of Pomacentridae. To test our hypothesis that biting-2 would be the only biting pattern for benthic feeders, we compared biting behaviours among four species: one pelagic feeder, A. clarkii, and three benthic feeders, Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Stegastes leucostictus and S. rectifraenum. Our results showed that the four species were able to perform biting-2, but they do not support that the use of this pattern is related to trophic habits. Contrary to S. rectifraenum, the two other benthic feeders randomly used biting-1 and biting-2 patterns, similar to A. clarkii. Two hypotheses are discussed for explaining this variability within Pomacentridae. Finally, it has been recently shown that some damselfishes do not possess the c-md ligament. We therefore included two species lacking the c-md ligament (Chromis chromis and Abudefduf troschelii) in our study and we demonstrate our expectation that they are unable to perform biting-2. [less ▲]

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See detailBiology of Damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege

Book published by CRC-Press, Taylor & Francis (2016)

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See detailPatterns of macroevolution : adaptive radiation and iterative ecological radiation
Frederich, Bruno ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, June 10)

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See detailBrain lateralization involved in visual recognition of conspecifics in coral reef fish at recruitment
Roux, Natacha; Duran, Emilio; Lanyon, Rynae G. et al

in Animal Behaviour (2016), 117

In vertebrates, brain functional asymmetries are widespread and increase brain performance. Some species of fishes are known to have brain asymmetries; however, little information is available on brain ... [more ▼]

In vertebrates, brain functional asymmetries are widespread and increase brain performance. Some species of fishes are known to have brain asymmetries; however, little information is available on brain lateralization in coral reef fishes and the impact this could have during the recruitment phase. In this study, soldierfish, Myripristis pralinia, at the larval and juvenile stage recognized conspecifics through visual cues. Larvae with the ablation of either the right or left telencephalic hemisphere lost the attraction towards conspecific cues. In contrast, juveniles with the ablation of the right (but not left) telencephalic hemisphere still displayed a preference towards conspecific visual cues. These results suggest the left telencephalic hemisphere is responsible for the lateralization process used in the visual recognition of coral reef fish juveniles. The determinism of lateralized perception of conspecifics during fish ontogeny may be a consequence of genetic factors, linked with the metamorphosis processes and/or environmental factors such as predation at recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we detect adaptive radiations in marine fishes?
Santini, Francesco; Carnevale, Giorgio; Marrama, Giuseppe et al

in Integrative and Comparative Biology (2016, January), 56

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is ... [more ▼]

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is often invoked in evolutionary studies to explain the astonishing diversity of groups such as the cichlids of the African rift lakes, silverswords plants and honeycreeper birds in Hawaii, and anole lizards in the Neotropics. Recent surveys of the scientific literature, however, revealed that most studies of adaptive radiation do not recover the expected signal of early burst of lineage diversification, and in several animal groups rates of cladogenesis and phenotypic evolution may often be unlinked, thus creating complex patterns in the tempo of lineage and trait diversification. Furthermore, in spite of the dramatic increase in number of studies of the tempo and mode of evolution in marine fishes during the past decade, very little evidence has been uncovered to support the idea that adaptive radiations played a role in generating their staggering diversity, and even when a signal of radiation is recovered this virtually never conforms to the “traditional” early burst scenario. Using examples from our research on diverse groups of marine teleost fishes such as jacks and allies (Carangoidei), pufferfish and allies (Tetraodontiformes) and snappers (Lutjanidae), we will discuss why it is so difficult to recover a signal of adaptive radiation in general, and early burst in particular, and offer some suggestions on how to test for these patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailModular Diversification of the Locomotor System in Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Aguilar-Medrano, Rosalia; Frederich, Bruno ULiege; Barber, Paul H.

in Journal of Morphology (2016)

As fish move and interact with their aquatic environment by swimming, small morphological variations of the locomotor system can have profound implications on fitness. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have ... [more ▼]

As fish move and interact with their aquatic environment by swimming, small morphological variations of the locomotor system can have profound implications on fitness. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have inhabited coral reef ecosystems for more than 50 million years. As such, habitat preferences and behavior could significantly constrain the morphology and evolvability of the locomotor system. To test this hypothesis, we used phylogenetic comparative methods on morphometric, ecological and behavioral data. While body elongation represented the primary source of variation in the locomotor system of damselfishes, results also showed a diverse suite of morphological combinations between extreme morphologies. Results show clear associations between behavior, habitat preferences, and morphology, suggesting ecological constraints on shape diversification of the locomotor system. In addition, results indicate that the three modules of the locomotor system are weakly correlated, resulting in versatile and independent characters. These results suggest that Pomacentridae is shape may result from the interaction between (1) integrated parts of morphological variation that main- tain overall swimming ability and (2) relatively independent parts of the morphology that facilitate adaptation and diversification. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic ecology of the seagrass-inhabiting footballer demoiselle Chrysiptera annulata (Peters, 1855); comparison with three other reef-associated damselfishes
Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Michel, Loïc ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2016), 146(1), 21-32

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming ... [more ▼]

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming behavior, from almost non territorial to monoculture farmers. In addition, few species inhabit seagrass meadows but, presently, none can be considered as seagrass-eating specialists. The footballer demoiselle, Chrysiptera annulata, is found in the seagrass meadows on the reef flat of the Great Reef of Toliara (Madagascar, Mozambique Channel). Regarding this unusual habitat for pomacentrid, this study aimed to answer 3 questions: 1) What is the diet of C. annulata? 2) Do the resources supporting this diet include seagrass? 3) Does its trophic niche overlap those of other sympatric damselfishes (Pomacentrus trilineatus, Chrysiptera unimaculata and Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus) living in close association with macrophytes or eating algae? Stomach content examination and stable isotope analysis showed that the footballer demoiselle is not a seagrass consumer but is an omnivorous/herbivorous species heavily relying on algal resources and small invertebrates. SIAR, a stable isotope mixing model, indicated it assimilated large amount of turf algae and various benthic or planktonic invertebrates in lower proportions. SIBER metrics pointed out that isotopic niche of the footballer demoiselle partly overlaps the one of its congeneric C. unimaculata, but not those of P. trilineatus and P. lacrymatus. Trophic strategies of C. annulata differed both from farming species such as P. lacrymatus or from less territorial herbivores such as P. trilineatus. Its seagrass meadow habitat on the Great Reef of Toliara allow the conquest of an unusual habitat for damselfishes and could limit competition with C. unimaculata, a species displaying the same territorial behavior and the same isotopic niche but living on the reef itself. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogenetic comparative methods
Santini, Francesco; Frederich, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2015, December)

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