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See detailVenlafaxine: the relationship between dose, plasma concentration and clinical response in depressive patients
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Psychopharmacology (2002), 16(4), 369-372

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of ... [more ▼]

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of 22 depressed patients using the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression improvement scale. The results indicate a moderate correlation between daily doses and plasma concentrations, together with a higher relationship between improvement on the MADRS scale and concentration. Moreover, plasma concentrations (for venlafaxine and its predominant metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine) up to 400 microg/l can be considered as effective, as already suggested in a previous study. No case of venlafaxine discontinuation occurred during the longitudinal study, and the incidence of adverse event, as estimated by the Target Emergent Symptoms and Side-effects scale, was low, suggesting that the drug is well tolerated for such plasma concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailTroubles anxieux et pathologies organiques: un diagnostic differentiel difficile
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Fuchs, Sonia; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 303-306

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting ... [more ▼]

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting atypical characteristics, and accompanied by symptoms of nervousness. The approach and the management of anxiety disorders are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther evidence on the relationship between dopamine and novelty seeking: a neuroendocrine study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2002), 33(6), 967-977

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively ... [more ▼]

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic. This study investigated the relationships between these major personality dimensions and growth hormone (GH) responses to both apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests in healthy subjects. GH responses to apomorphine were significantly correlated with NS when peak relative values were considered (r=0.47, P=0.03). HA and RD did not show any relationships with the endocrine responses. In contrast, no significant relationship existed between GH responses to clonidine and any of the three temperament dimensions. These results gave another support of the hypothesized link between NS and dopaminergic central neurotransmission. In contrast, the results did not confirm the association between RD and noradrenergic central neurotransmission, probably because RD is poorly validated. This partial confirmation might suggest that the link between personality traits and neurotransmission systems is probably indirect. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTroubles anxieux et pathologies organiques: un diagnostic differentiel difficile.
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Fuchs, S.; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 303-6

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting ... [more ▼]

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting atypical characteristics, and accompanied by symptoms of nervousness. The approach and the management of anxiety disorders are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detail5-HT1A dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5), 935-41

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used in these studies since fenfluramine and m-CPP are not only serotonergic agents but also induce release of catecholamines, particularly dopamine. Therefore, we tested whether subjects with BPD showed a blunted prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. METHODS: Flesinoxan challenge test was carried out in 20 BPD in-patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender but not for age. Since 16 BPD in-patients exhibited major depressive co-morbidity, a group of 20 depressed in-patients matched for gender but not for age was also included. RESULTS: BPD in-patients exhibited blunted PRL responses as compared to controls, whereas depressed in-patients did not differ from controls. Moreover, PRL responses were lower among BPD in-patients than among depressed in-patients. Among the BPD in-patients, PRL responses to flesinoxan were lower in patients with past history of suicide attempts (N = 8) than in those with a negative history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show major involvement of serotonergic function in BPD and are consistent with previous studies linking lower serotonergic activity with impulsivity. More particularly, our data suggest that BPD is characterized by lower 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. Moreover, the data support the involvement of 5-HT1A activity in suicidal behaviour. However, this conclusion is limited because other hormonal responses such as ACTH and cortisol were not assessed, and because BPD was assessed by a self-report questionnaire and not a structured clinical interview. [less ▲]

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See detailSerotonin, personality and borderline personality disorder
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Acta Neuropsychiatrica (2002), 14(2), 66-70

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance ... [more ▼]

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance dimension of the blosocial model developed by Cloninger is related to serotonergic activity Higher scores on the harm avoidance dimension should theoretically reflect increased serotonergic activity However, correlation studies related serotonin activity to harm avoidance dimension have not yielded consistent findings. These controversial results are probably related to the complexity of the neurotransmitter systems, and the different assessment techniques used in these studies. Finally, recent genetic studies have examined the association between personality dimensions and serotonergic receptor polymorphisms with mixed results. Serotonin is not only related to some dimensions of normal personality Several psychopathological disorders are associated with serotonergic dysfunction. More particularly, borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be defined by many of the symptoms associated with serotonergic dysregulation, including affective lability, suicidal behaviours, impulsivity and loss of impulse control. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake drugs in treating the depressive and impulsive symptoms of patients with BPD. Moreover, some challenge studies have reported a lower serotonergic activity in BPD. Because these challenges are not specific, we have assessed the serotonergic activity in BPD with the flesinoxan challenge. Preliminary results showed that the prolactine responses to flesinoxan were significantly lower in BPD patients compared to those observed in controls. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological distress of surgical patients after orthotopic heart transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Transplant International (2001), 14(6), 391-395

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about ... [more ▼]

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the psychological state of the patient and time after surgery. The present study involved 41 consecutive OHT patients that underwent transplantation from January 1991 to December 1992, with a retrospective review of pretransplant psychiatric evaluations to define a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn., revised (DSM III-R) Axis I diagnosis. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Spielberger's State Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) between 1 and 41 months after transplantation. For comparison, 29 presumably healthy volunteers were given the same questionnaires. The study confirms the occurrence of abnormal psychological scores in the OHT group as compared to the reference population. Psychological scores, however, do not appear to be related to the time they were recorded after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Evolution and Assessment in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Heart Transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(3), 180-5

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This study purposed to assess the psychological evolution in patients having received psychological and/or psychiatric assistance before and during 1-6 postoperative months. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive transplant candidates were psychically evaluated as part of the preoperative protocol. In the waiting period, 1 and 6 months after OHT, they were asked to fill out the following questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire, the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Personal Reaction Inventory. RESULTS: A DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis was found in nine patients (41%); four patients (18%) presented with an Axis II diagnosis. One month after OHT, scores of depression, anxiety and general health significantly improved, while scores of social support, alexithymia and social desirability did not differ. In the sixth postoperative month, all psychological scores remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of preoperative psychopathology was reported in 22 candidates who received OHT. Surgical intervention obviously improved the quality of life after cardiac transplantation. If the impact of psychological and/or psychiatric aid remains difficult to appraise, these results emphasize the positive impact of surgery on psychological status and the appropriateness of the psychosomatician's social support intervention on patients facing the transplant process. [less ▲]

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See detailIncidence des perturbations psychoendocriniennes au centre interdisciplinaire de l’andropause (CIA) du CHU de Liège : bilan des 7 premiers mois d’activité
Allouch, A; Bruwier, M; Comte-Tassin, M et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2001), 62(4), 178

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See detailReply to Letter to the Editor
PITCHOT, William ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001)

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See detailLe médicament parmi les thérapies relationnelles : Enquête et réflexions.
David, Claire; WAUTHY, Jacques ULg; Vaulet, Véronique et al

in Revue des Hôpitaux de Jour Psychiatriques et des Thérapies Institutionnelles (2001)

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See detailAdding olanzapine to venlafaxine in treatment-refractory non-psychotic chronic depression
PITCHOT, William ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (2001)

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See detailVenlafaxine induced hair loss
PITCHOT, William ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (2001)

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See detailImplication de la neurohypophyse dans le stress psychique
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2001), 27(3, May-Jun), 245-59

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various ... [more ▼]

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various psychiatric diseases such an anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. AVP and OT are secreted into the hypophyseal portal circulation by neurons which project from the paraventricular nucleus to the external zone of the median eminence. AVP and OT-containing neurons in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei project to limbic areas, including the hippocampus, the subiculum, the ventral nucleus of the amygdala and the nucleus of the diagonal band. Specific AVP receptors which are pharmacologically different from the pressor and antidiuretic AVP receptors have been found in the anterior pituitary. OT receptors have been identified in a variety of forebrain sites. The neurohypophyseal secretion is regulated by the cholinergic muscarinic, histaminergic and beta-adrenergic systems. Stress alters the secretion of one or more of the hypothalamic factors which interact at the pituitary to increase the secretion of ACTH. AVP and OT have been shown to modulate the effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) on ACTH secretion and appear to play a key role in mediating the ACTH response to stress. Although AVP is a relatively weak secretagogue for ACTH, it markedly potentiates the activity of CRF both in vitro and in vivo. The role of OT is more complex. In vitro, OT stimulates ACTH release at high doses whereas in human it inhibits ACTH secretion at low doses. The type of stressor appear to determine the relative importance of these secretatogues in ACTH response. Several recent studies indicate that psychological stressors display a similar degree of variety of secretagogue release patterns as was found earlier for physical stressors. A bewildering array of technique produces a bewildering array of conclusions. In rats, OT may be an important secretagogue during a novel stimulus, whereas the role for AVP is less clear. Indeed two studies out of ten suggest a stimulating role for AVP. In response to frustration and submission, OT and AVP are secreted. Regarding social isolation, results are difficult to interpret and the role of AVP could be species-dependent. In contrast plasma OT levels do not change. After restraint, ACTH release is primarily mediated by the active increase of OT and AVP does not appear to play a role. When restraint is associated with moderate levels of physical components and during immobilisation, all two secretagogs are involved in the ACTH response. With fear, ACTH response appears to be driven by OT. In humans, one study indicates that high emotionality women increase plasma OT in response to uncontrollable noise. Various neuroendocrine dysregulations have been observed in psychiatric disease. Either an increase or a decrease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have been described in several illnesses. Effects of OT appear to be reciprocal to the effects of AVP. OT has been called the "amnestic" neuropeptide due to its capacity to attenuate memory consolidation and retrieval. AVP exhibits a central activating action on mood, memory and selective attention. Underweight patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormally high levels of centrally directed AVP and reduced OT levels. These modifications could enhance the retention of cognitive distortions of aversive consequences of eating. Patients with bipolar disorder show a biphasic secretion of AVP. Depressive episodes are associated with decreased vasopressinergic activity whereas manic episodes involve an increased release. AVP might be responsible for an increased catecholamine activity. In addition, lithium could act as an antagonist to AVP. In schizophrenic patients, studies using the apomorphine stimulation suggest increased oxytoninergic and decreased vasopressinergic functions. These findings are consistent with the beneficial role of AVP on schizophrenic symptoms noted in several trials. The increased OT could be responsible for "positive" symptomatology such as delusions and hallucinations. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances that could be influenced by OT. In animals, several studies have emphasized the role of AVP in promoting repetitive grooming behaviors and maintaining conditioned response to aversive stimuli. In OCD patients, one study have reported that AVP/OT ratio was negatively correlated with symptom severity. However, an independent report found similar AVP concentrations in OC patients without a personal or family history of tic disorder and in normal subjects. Whether these modifications are only a consequence of the central disturbances or whether those peptides could participate in the pathogenesis of these affections remains to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian normative data of the temperament and character inventory
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Le Bon, O.; Gauthier, Audrey ULg et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2001), 17(1), 56-62

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 ... [more ▼]

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 representative French-speaking subjects from Belgium are presented and the psychometric properties are discussed. Mean scores of temperament dimensions were appreciably different from those published by Cloninger. In our sample, novelty seeking and self-transcendence scores were lower and harm avoidance scores were higher compared to US norms. The other dimensions were almost identical. The factorial analysis showed that the hypothesized factor structure of temperament and character dimensions was almost confirmed. The present study also confirmed that the TCI scales were weakly related among themselves. The relationships were consistent with those reported by previous reports. Gender differences were also found for different dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between Clinical Effects, Serum Drug Concentration, and Concurrent Drug Interactions in Depressed Patients Treated with Citalopram, Fluoxetine, Clomipramine, Paroxetine or Venlafaxine
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Human Psychopharmacology (2000), 15(6), 453-459

The relationship between clinical effects and plasma concentrations of citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine, paroxetine and venlafaxine was studied in 119 cases of major depression. Clinical effects were ... [more ▼]

The relationship between clinical effects and plasma concentrations of citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine, paroxetine and venlafaxine was studied in 119 cases of major depression. Clinical effects were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement scale. Antidepressants were quantified by a separative chromatographic methodology. Plasma concentrations in responder patients were compared with the plasma concentrations proposed in literature as effective values. We found that the usual therapeutic window is convenient for citalopram and clomipramine, but could be reduced for fluoxetine and increased for venlafaxine and paroxetine. Concurrent drug interactions were also evaluated and clomipramine or citalopram plasma levels were found to be influenced by the presence of associated drugs. A larger study is needed, taking into account not only plasma concentrations and clinical effects, but also some pharmacokinetic data, especially the metabolic activity characterising the patient, and the presence or not of associated drugs. Copyright 2000 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailP300 event-related brain potential and personality in depression.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2000), 15(6), 370-7

P300 is an event-related brain potential (ERP) particularly interesting to the study of cognitive processes in normal subjects and in psychopathology. P300 has been applied in depression with ... [more ▼]

P300 is an event-related brain potential (ERP) particularly interesting to the study of cognitive processes in normal subjects and in psychopathology. P300 has been applied in depression with controversial results. A major source for these controversial results could result from the diversity of depressed patients included in the different studies. Supporting this assumption, impulsivity, blunted affect, suicidal behavior and psychotic features significantly influence P300 amplitude. However, no data are available on the possible influences of the personality of depressed patients on P300. Since personality is related to P300 in normal subjects, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ERPs (P200, N200, and P300) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 54 depressed patients. The main results of the study concern the absence of major correlations between personality dimensions as assessed by the TCI and ERP parameters among depressed patients. Only weak partial positive correlations relate N200 latency with harm avoidance, and P300 amplitude (Pz) with the self-directedness dimension. N200 amplitude is also negatively correlated to persistence. However, the preliminary nature of the presented results with respect to the weak statistical significance should be underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailSerotonergic-1a activity and contingent negative variation.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Biological Psychology (2000), 52(3), 259-65

While cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and gabaergic effects on contingent negative variation (CNV) have been largely described, little is known about serotonergic influence. Therefore, the ... [more ▼]

While cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and gabaergic effects on contingent negative variation (CNV) have been largely described, little is known about serotonergic influence. Therefore, the relationship between CNV and serotonergic activity as reflected by prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a 5-HT(1A) full agonist, has been investigated in 28 healthy volunteers. To investigate the clinical implications of the relationship between CNV and serotonergic-1a activity, a group of 43 depressed patients was included in the study. Results among healthy volunteers showed a significant negative relationship between PRL response to flesinoxan and CNV amplitude at Fz, but no relationship for the other electrodes (Cz and Pz). In depressed patients, the relationships were not significant. Overall, this study does not support serotonergic effects on CNV. However, this information is indirect (correlations) and is limited to 5-HT(1A) activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects on nicotine administered via a transdermal delivery system on vigilance : a repeated measure study
Mancuso, Giovanna; Andrès Bénito, Pilar; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 142(1), 18-23

Tested 15 male smokers (aged 18-25 yrs) in a within-Ss design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Ss were tested on the Rapid Visual Information Processing ... [more ▼]

Tested 15 male smokers (aged 18-25 yrs) in a within-Ss design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Ss were tested on the Rapid Visual Information Processing test 1.3, 3 and 6.3 hrs after patch application, to verify the involvement of the dose of nicotine on the performance. The results confirm and extend the knowledge on the increasing effects of nicotine on vigilance previously found with orally and transdermally administered nicotine. Moreover, results show that such performance was independent of the time of nicotine absorption, which suggests that a relatively low dose of nicotine suffices to activate vigilance processing. Regarding motor performance, no convincing effect of nicotine was observed on reaction time. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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