References of "Amory, Hélène"
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See detailPrognostic value of echocardiographic and Doppler parameters in horses admitted for colic complicated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Borde, L.; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (2014), 24(3), 302-310

Objective: To assess the prognostic value of echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) function in horses with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Design: Prospective observational ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess the prognostic value of echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) function in horses with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Veterinary teaching hospital. Animals: Forty-one horses admitted for colic with clinical evidence of SIRS. Interventions: All horses underwent Doppler echocardiographic examination on admission. LV echocardiographic parameters, including pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging parameters, were compared between nonsurvivors (n = 29) and horses that survived to discharge (n = 12). Measurements and Main Results: With comparable heart rate and LV preload estimate, LV stroke volume index, the velocity time integral, deceleration time, ejection time of Doppler aortic flow, and peak early diastolic myocardial velocity were lower in the nonsurviving than in the surviving horses, while pre-ejection period to ejection time ratio (PEP/ET) of Doppler aortic flow and the peak early diastolic filling velocity to peak early diastolic myocardial velocity ratio (E/Em) were higher (P < 0.05). A cut-off value of 0.26 for PEP/ET predicted mortality with 100% sensitivity and 42% specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.71), whereas a cut-off value of 2.67 for E/Em predicted mortality with 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.89). Conclusions: Echocardiography may provide prognostic information in colic horses with clinical evidence of SIRS. Especially, PEP/ET and E/Em could be useful markers of systolic and diastolic dysfunction, respectively, to detect horses with a high risk of death requiring more intensive cardiovascular monitoring as it has been reported in human patients with septic shock. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic value of echocardiographic and Doppler parameters in horses admitted for colic complicated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
Borde; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (2014)

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See detailLe syndrome de fièvre isolée ou piro-like.
Amory, Hélène ULiege; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2014), 46

Le diagnostic étiologique en cas de syndrome fébrile chez le cheval est particulièrement difficile, sauf s’il est accompagné de signes spécifiques. Face à un cas, après avoir réalisé une anamnèse et un ... [more ▼]

Le diagnostic étiologique en cas de syndrome fébrile chez le cheval est particulièrement difficile, sauf s’il est accompagné de signes spécifiques. Face à un cas, après avoir réalisé une anamnèse et un examen clinique approfondis, le vétérinaire devra dans la plupart des cas mettre en place une batterie d’examens complémentaires qui peuvent s’avérer onéreux. Il devra donc procéder en tenant compte du moindre élément du tableau clinique ou des examens complémentaires de base qui peuvent s’avérer fort utiles pour hiérarchiser les examens à mettre en place. Parmi les maladies infectieuses que le vétérinaire gardera à l’esprit sur un cas de fièvre isolée, sans atteinte claire d’un système particulier et sur lequel les autres hypothèses de diagnostic ont été écartées, que les maladies incluses dans le syndrome piro-like, à savoir la piroplasmose, la borréliose, la leptospirose, l’anaplasmose et l’anémie infectieuse équine, constituent des hypothèses à vérifier. [less ▲]

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See detailStéatite généralisée chez 3 chevaux adultes référés à l’université de Liège
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Garcia da Fonseca, Rita; Bayrou, Calixte ULiege et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2014), 184

In horses, two forms of generalised steatitis have been described: one subcutaneous nodular form and one diffuse systemic form. Three cases of the second form are described in this paper. The clinical ... [more ▼]

In horses, two forms of generalised steatitis have been described: one subcutaneous nodular form and one diffuse systemic form. Three cases of the second form are described in this paper. The clinical signs included depression, anorexia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, subcutaneous oedema, tachycardia and tachypnea. Blood analyses showed anemia, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, increased muscular enzymes activities, and low level of vitamine E concentration. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated an irregular hyperechoic band of peritoneal fat tissue. Ante mortem diagnosis was achieved in 2 horses, one on the basis of rectal biopsies and one on the basis of biopsies of the nuchal ligament. Despite a corticoids therapy and vitamin E supplementation, the 3 horses died or were euthanized. Those cases confirm that, in horses, diagnosis of systemic diffuse generalised steatitis is difficult and that the prognosis is poor. [less ▲]

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See detailAtrial Natriuretic Peptide as an indicator of the severity of valvular regurgitation and heart failure in horses
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Al Haidar, Ali; Remy, Benoît ULiege et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2014), 34(10), 1226-1233

Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers, routinely used for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance for treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their diagnostic and prognostic value in ... [more ▼]

Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers, routinely used for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance for treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their diagnostic and prognostic value in horses has received little study. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma atrial natriuretic concentration (ANPPl) in a large group of horses with various degrees of valvular regurgitation (VR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Clinical examination and two-dimensional, time-motion mode and Doppler echocardiography were performed on 91 horses admitted to the Equine Teaching Hospital of Liege University, with either no, mild, moderate or severe VR and presenting various stages of CHF. ANPPl was measured using a commercially available human RIA test. Mean values of body weight, age, ANPPl and echocardiographic parameters were compared between horses with no, mild, moderate and severe VR and between horses in different CHF stages. Correlation and linear regression of ANPPl with each echocardiographic parameter and with the percentage of dilation of each of cardiac chambers were assessed. Horses with severe or moderate VR had significantly higher ANPPl than horses with mild or no VR. ANPPl was significantly higher in horses presenting CHF than in horses without CHF. ANPPl was significantly correlated with the left atrial diameter and its percentage of dilation. These results suggest a diagnostic value of ANPPl in horses with VR, especially with tricuspid or mitral insufficiency with dilation of the atria. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtiopathogénie de la myopathie atypique et gestion raisonnée des cas
Votion, Dominique ULiege; Patarin, Florence; Cerri, Simona ULiege et al

in In Proceedings: Journée AVEF (Association des Vétérinaires Equins Français) (2013, December)

Atypical myopathy is an acute intoxication resulting from the ingestion of a toxin contained in the seeds of some trees of the genus Acer (i.e. « maple trees »). The causes of the emergence of the disease ... [more ▼]

Atypical myopathy is an acute intoxication resulting from the ingestion of a toxin contained in the seeds of some trees of the genus Acer (i.e. « maple trees »). The causes of the emergence of the disease due to trees naturalized for many decades remain undetermined. Currently, there is no cure for atypical myopathy but symptomatic treatment may be revisited on the basis of knowledge of the aetio-pathogenesis of the disease. This paper compiles recommendations following a discussion on treatment of atypical myopathy held in October 2013 at the University of Liege (Belgium) to provide emergency treatment distinguishing clinical management (1) at hospital, (2) in the field and (3) preventive measures to protect pasture companions. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Risk Factors for Various Cardiac Diseases in a Hospital-Based Population of 3434 Horses (1994-2011)
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(6), 1563-70

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for ... [more ▼]

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based equine population. Animals: Files of 3434 horses admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as suffering from moderate to severe cardiac disease. Methods: Observational study. After calculating prevalence for each cardiac disease, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (p<0.05 significant). Results: Mitral regurgitation (MR, 4.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 2.3%), aortic regurgitation (AR, 2.1%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR, 1.7%) were the most common cardiac abnormalities. Determinants were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), racehorses breed and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24), and high BW for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49). MR was the major valvular disease associated with AF, pathological ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; AR was not linked to CHF. Conclusions and clinical importance: Several previously suspected risks factors of a variety of equine cardiac diseases are statistically confirmed in the studied hospital-based population. Similar observation could be suspected in a larger randomized population and should be taken into account in health and sport’s monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailL’insuffisance mitrale chez le cheval : revue de la littérature et comparaison avec la pathologie chez l’homme et chez le chien
Al Haidar, Ali; Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Amory, Hélène ULiege

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2013), 157(1), 52-68

Abstract Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a one of the most common cardiac disease in the equine species. Furthermore, it is the valvular disease that presents the higher risk to be associated with reduced ... [more ▼]

Abstract Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a one of the most common cardiac disease in the equine species. Furthermore, it is the valvular disease that presents the higher risk to be associated with reduced athletic performance, to evolve into congestive heart failure and to become life threatening. The clinical diagnosis of MR depends mainly on the expertise of the veterinarian in cardiology and is above all based on cardiac auscultation. In all of the cases, the definitive diagnosis and the evaluation of the disease severity require performing a Doppler echocardiographic examination. Signs of left ventricular and/or left atrial overload, large regurgitation jet, pulmonary arterial hypertension or significant arrhythmias are negative prognosis factors. Clinical signs of congestive heart failure make the prognosis worse. Other echocardiographic parameters are used in human and dogs in order to determine the severity of the MR, but have been not validated in horses. Treatment of mitral regurgitation in the equine species is symptomatic and directed against the development of a congestive heart failure. A lot of drugs that are used in human or dogs are of limited value in horses for financial reasons and/or lack of pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic data in equine species. [less ▲]

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See detailCan horses be clinically screened for West Nile fever ?
van galen; Calozet, L; Leblond, Agnès et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172(4), 101

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See detailEvaluation of acepromazine-induced hemodynamic alterations and reversal with norepinephrine infusion in standing horses
Pequito, Manuel; Amory, Hélène ULiege; De Moffarts, Brieux et al

in Canadian Veterinary Journal = Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne (2013), 54

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See detailRisks factors for valvular regurgitations in 3499 equids: a cross-sectional study.
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ACVIM Forum (2013)

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to statistically test risk factors for VR in a large population of equids. Hospital records were reviewed for 3.499 equids, admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011, aged ≥2 years, and which underwent thorough cardiac clinical evaluation. Of this population, 495 cases had ECG and echocardiography performed because of a clinical suspicion of cardiac disease. Chi-square test or logistic regressions (as appropriate) were used to test if breed, gender, age, body weight (BW), and co-existence of various cardiac diseases were risk factors for each VR. Moreover, the risk of development of congestive heart failure (CHF) was tested for each VR. Significance was set at p<0.05. Most of the studied animals were warmbloods, and observed prevalences were 4.4% for mitral regurgitation (MR), 2.1% for aortic regurgitation (AR), 1.7% for tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and 1.0% for pulmonary regurgitation (PR). Significant risk factors were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), and racehorses breed group and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24). No effect of age or BW was demonstrated for MR. MR was the major valvular disease associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachyarrhythmia, PR and CHF. TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; but AR was not linked to CHF. In conclusion, several previously suspected risks factors for VR were confirmed statistically in this study and should be taken into account in health and athletic monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk factors for atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 3499 equids admitted at the liege university equine hospital between 1994 and 2011
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ECEIM Congress (2013)

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for AF and VTA in a large equine population. Case files of 3499 equids admitted to the internal medicine department of the Liege University Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed. Amongst them, 495 horses with a suspicion of a cardiac abnormality underwent ECG and echocardiography. After calculation of prevalence of AF and VTA, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and presence of other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (significance set at p<0.05). In the studied population, prevalence of AF was high (2.3%), whereas prevalence of VTA was low (0.7%). Warmbloods and standardbreds were significantly overrepresented in AF cases. High BW was a risk factor for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49), whereas age was not. No effect of breed, age or BW was demonstrated for VTA. AF was observed significantly more frequently in horses presenting with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation, and pulmonary regurgitation, and VTA was significantly more frequent in horses with MR. Several previously suspected but not statistically demonstrated risk factors of AF were confirmed in this study and horses presenting valvular disease could be at increased risk of developing AF and VTA. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vermifugation régulière systématique des chevaux est-elle vraiment nécessaire ?
Caron, Yannick ULiege; Borde, L; Losson, Bertrand ULiege et al

in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2013)

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See detailTraditional and quantitative assessment of acid-base and shock variables in horses with atypical myopathy
van Galen, G; Cerri, Simona ULiege; Porter, S et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(1), 186-193

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of acid-base disturbances in atypical myopathy (AM) are limited. OBJECTIVES: Describe and compare traditional and quantitative acid-base abnormalities and cardiovascular shock ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of acid-base disturbances in atypical myopathy (AM) are limited. OBJECTIVES: Describe and compare traditional and quantitative acid-base abnormalities and cardiovascular shock status in horses with AM at admission. ANIMALS: 34 horses with AM, 15 healthy controls. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study. Records were searched for shock variables (packed cell volume [PCV], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], heart and respiratory rate) and acid-base variables (venous blood gas analysis, electrolytes, total protein, lactate) on admission. Base excess (BE) of free water (BEfw), chloride (BEcl), total protein (BEtp), and unidentified anions (BEua), anion gap (AG), measured strong ion difference (SIDm), and concentration of total nonvolatile weak acids ([Atot]) were calculated. Acid-base classifications, using simplified strong ion model and traditional approach, and shock grades were assigned. A 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Bonferroni correction compared variables in AM cases versus control horses. Significance was P < .05/16 for acid-base and P < .05/5 for shock variables. RESULTS: Tachycardia, tachypnea, and normal to increased PCV and BUN were common in AM cases. Respiratory, metabolic acid-base alterations, or both were mainly caused by respiratory alkalosis, lactic acidosis, and SIDm alkalosis, alone or in combination. Evaluated variables (except pH, potassium concentration, total protein, and related calculations) were significantly different (P < .001) between AM cases and control horses. The strong ion model provided a more accurate assessment than the traditional approach and identified mixed derangements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Acid-base derangements should be evaluated in horses with AM and this preferably with the strong ion model. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between echocardiographic measurements and body size in horses.
Al Haidar, Ali; Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Borde, Laura ULiege et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2013), 33(2), 107-114

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the optimal body size variable, and to determine mathematical model that best fits echocardiographic measurements to body size in the equine species. 150 ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the optimal body size variable, and to determine mathematical model that best fits echocardiographic measurements to body size in the equine species. 150 horses of various breeds, aged 1 week to 17 years old, body weight (BW) 38 to 890 kg, and free from cardiac disease were used in this study. Based on their age (i.e. younger or older than 2 years), animals were separated into 2 groups. In each horse, the body weight (BW), height at withers (HT), thoracic circumference (TC) and the body length (BL) were measured, the body surface area (BSA) was calculated, and a standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed allowing classic cardiac measurements to be taken. Correlations between each echocardiographic measurement and each of the anthropometric variables were assessed via a Pearson’s product-moment analysis and using linear, logarithmic, and power regression analysis in all animals and within the 2 groups. The dimensional, but not the functional, echocardiographic measurements showed a close correlation with all body size variables, especially during growth. The relationship between cardiac measurements and body size was best described using power regression models with TC as the anthropometric variable, but the relationship was also very accurately described using BW, BSA, or BL. In the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using power regression equations on TC. Such a correction for body size could increase the diagnostic value of echocardiography in equine cardiology. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of breed, sex, age and body weight on Echocardiographic Measurements in the Equine Species
Al Haidar, Ali; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), In press

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age ... [more ▼]

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean ± SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 Kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged  2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailRepeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats.
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege; Moonen, Marie ULiege et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2012), 8

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values ... [more ▼]

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche clinique et examens complémentaires lors de la diarrhée chronique chez le cheval
Cerri, Simona ULiege; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Equine (2012), 8(29), 78-85

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See detailAnimal Models of Mitral Regurgitation Induced by Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Rupture.
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Moonen, Marie ULiege; Pierard, Luc ULiege et al

in Journal of Heart Valve Disease (The) (2012), 21

Background – Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular disease throughout the world. Various diagnostic techniques have been developed to assess the causes and severity of MR, and the therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Background – Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular disease throughout the world. Various diagnostic techniques have been developed to assess the causes and severity of MR, and the therapeutic approaches to this disease have been widely documented. However, treatments for chronic MR remain controversial, and various animal models of chronic MR (including chordae tendineae rupture, rapid pacing and ischemia) have been developed to study the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to this disease. The objective of this paper is to review the animal MR models that have been developed using a mitral valve chordae tendineae rupture technique. Animal models – Dogs and sheep have been the animals most commonly used in MR models induced by mitral valve chordae tendineae rupture, mainly due to considerations of cardiac size. Chordae tendineae cutting is performed using closed or open chest techniques. In the closed chest model, long flexible grasping forceps are positioned percutaneously in order to tear the mitral valve chordae. In the open chest model, cardiopulmonary bypass is performed and either selected chordae are cut under direct visualization, or a non specified number of chordae are cut using a metal device inserted through the left ventricular apex. Whatever the model used, MR has been found to become chronic 3 to 6 months after the induction of MR by chordae rupture. The reported mortality and complication rates of these models are high. Conclusion – In the long term, experimental evolution of chronic MR is similar to the evolution occurring naturally in patients suffering from chronic MR. These models could thus be useful in understanding the disease better and in testing new therapeutic modalities. This review summarizes the physiological effects of each of these techniques and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Moonen, Marie ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2012), 170(6), 154

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The ... [more ▼]

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one day interval using a standardized 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in 6 other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep. [less ▲]

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