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See detailEtude des relations pucerons-virus en pomme de terre et perspectives de stratégies alternatives de lutte
Yattara, Almouner Ag Alhamis ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Abstract – Sustainable approach of crop production, including the implementation of biological control is essential in potato pest and disease control in general, and aphids and viruses associated in ... [more ▼]

Abstract – Sustainable approach of crop production, including the implementation of biological control is essential in potato pest and disease control in general, and aphids and viruses associated in particular. In addition, given to the lack of data available for Mali, it was essential to study the aphid and virus actors related to this geographical location. Here we firstly proposed to compare two techniques for trapping aphids. During two growing seasons, the yellow traps were found to be more effective (73.6%) than Malaise traps (26.4%) in the potato aphid survey. The use of trapping techniques and limitations of each of these were discussed in the context of the implementation of a monitoring crop pests in an area or issue of sampling aphids collected. How to efficiently proceed for this purpose was discussed. Then, as very few data documenting the presence and impact of aphids in Mali were available, we followed for three consecutive years, the abundance and diversity of aphids in the fields of potato consumption. Nineteen species of aphids have been identified for the first time in all investigated areas. As a corollary, the presence of potato virus Y and potato leaf roll virus was shown in the two main producing areas of potato. The occurrence of these viral diseases has proved to be very consistent from one year to another with relatively high levels. This study is a first quantification in this region of Mali of the importance of aphid vector- virus couples in cultured potato. Finally, a comparison with the conditions of production in Belgium was performed and higher abundance and richness of aphid species was found in Belgium than in Mali. Unlike Mali, only the potato virus Y detected by RT-PCR in the fields of plant production and consumption in Wallonia with the appearance of PVY-N and PVY-NTN strains. The relationship between the diversity of aphids - abundance and the presence of virus in the potato fields were examined to improve the control strategies of the virus. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid - phytovirus interactions: investigation of virus binding mechanisms in insect vectors by lectin use and proteomic approach
Yattara, Almouner Ag Alhamis ULg; Véronique Genin, Eric Haubruge; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2011, July 11)

Aphids are well known for their role in virus transmission to host plant. In some cases, the virus is transmitted from plant to plant simply attached to the cuticule of the mouthparts or the forget. For ... [more ▼]

Aphids are well known for their role in virus transmission to host plant. In some cases, the virus is transmitted from plant to plant simply attached to the cuticule of the mouthparts or the forget. For other, circulative virus transmission based on virion internalization through the aphid gut followed by transfer to salivary glands and finally to next plant during aphid feeding is required. In both situations, presence of receptor components through the digestive tract of the aphids is needed for virus binding and further transmission to next plants even if not localized at the same place. In order to investigate the specific binding of virus on particular aphid receptors, two aphid-virus models were selected to be tested using several lectins showing differential sugar binding specificities. Virus transmission efficacy assays with Myzus persicae and potato virus but also Acyrthosiphon pisum and pea enation mosaic virus were performed using a range of lectins to assess the potential competition of lectins and virus. Some interesting lectins were found to reduce the virus transmission with a 2 fold factor showing potential use of lectin in virus spread control. The aphids were also investigated by a proteomic approach using a two Dimension-Differential in Gel Electrophoresis (2D-Dige) coupled with mass spectrometry to determine the aphid proteins involved in virus transmissions. Head or digestive tubes of aphids were collected and investigated for non persistant or persistant virus models respectively. Differential abilities of aphids to transmit the selected virus models are discussed in relation with lectin affinity specificity and investigated aphid proteins found to be involved in vector-virus interactions. The application of lectin as potential way to reduce virus transmission by aphids will also be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversité des pucerons en parcelles de pomme de terre et impact sur la dissémination des viroses
Yattara, Almouner Ag Alhamis ULg; Véronique Genin, Lionel Hartert; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2010, July 05)

Protect crops against aphids is even less easy than the high proliferation potential and possible infestation by winged individuals from distant homes, require on the part of farmers regularly monitored ... [more ▼]

Protect crops against aphids is even less easy than the high proliferation potential and possible infestation by winged individuals from distant homes, require on the part of farmers regularly monitored. In addition, in the case of aphid vectors of virus diseases, it is necessary to detect the first attacks to limit the spread of the disease within the plot. In 2009, the abundance and diversity of aphids was studied using the yellow bins installed in a network of nine plots of potatoes throughout Wallonia. The evaluation of the diversity and abundance of aphid species were evaluated weekly by collecting the insects captured. At the same time catch and observations on the plots, a sample of thirty leaves of potato is taken from each of the nine plots and analyzed in the laboratory to detect any viral infections, mainly PVY and PLRV. During the growing season, six species of aphid were particularly abundant: Metopolophium dirhodum, Sitobion avenae, Aphis fabae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Rhopalosiphum padi and Acyrthosiphon pisum. The ELISA performed on leaf samples taken from different plots of potato revealed the presence of PVY and PLRV in six of nine plots sampled. We observed a greater diversity of aphid species in almost all plots investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du rôle des bactéries symbiotiques de pucerons dans l'adaptation aux plantes hôtes
Yattara, Almouner Ag Alhamis ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2007)

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