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See detailInterplay between KLF4 and ZEB2/SIP1 in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.
Koopmansch, Benjamin ULg; Berx, Geert; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2013), 431(4), 652

E-cadherin expression is repressed by ZEB2/SIP1 while it is induced by KLF4. Independent data from the literature indicate that these two transcription factors could bind close to each other in the ... [more ▼]

E-cadherin expression is repressed by ZEB2/SIP1 while it is induced by KLF4. Independent data from the literature indicate that these two transcription factors could bind close to each other in the proximal region of the E-cadherin gene promoter. We have here explored a potential competition between ZEB2 and KLF4 for the binding to the E-cadherin promoter. We show an inverse correlation between ZEB2 expression levels and KLF4 recruitment on the E-cadherin promoter in three breast cancer cell lines and in A431/HA.ZEB2 cells in which ZEB2 expression is induced by doxycycline (DOX). We identified a region of the E-cadherin promoter bound by KLF4 which is necessary for the activation of the E-cadherin promoter activity after KLF4 overexpression. This region is localized between positions -28 and -10 and thus overlaps with one of the ZEB2 binding sites. Deleting the bipartite ZEB2 binding site results in increased KLF4 induced E-cadherin promoter activity. Taken together, our results suggest that E-cadherin expression in cancer cells is controlled by a balance between ZEB2 and KLF4 expression levels. [less ▲]

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See detailKu proteins interact with activator protein-2 transcription factors and contribute to ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cell lines.
Nolens, Grégory ULg; Pignon, Jean-Christophe ULg; Koopmansch, Benjamin ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research [=BCR] (2009), 11(6),

INTRODUCTION: Activator protein-2 (AP-2) alpha and AP-2 gamma transcription factors contribute to ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer. In order to understand the mechanism by which the ERBB2 gene ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Activator protein-2 (AP-2) alpha and AP-2 gamma transcription factors contribute to ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer. In order to understand the mechanism by which the ERBB2 gene is overexpressed we searched for novel AP-2 interacting factors that contribute to its activity. METHODS: Ku proteins were identified as AP-2 alpha interacting proteins by glutathione serine transferase (GST)-pull down followed by mass spectrometry. Transfection of the cells with siRNA, expression vectors and reporter vectors as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to ascertain the implication of Ku proteins on ERBB2 expression. RESULTS: Nuclear proteins from BT-474 cells overexpressing AP-2 alpha and AP-2 gamma were incubated with GST-AP2 or GST coated beads. Among the proteins retained specifically on GST-AP2 coated beads Ku70 and Ku80 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The contribution of Ku proteins to ERBB2 gene expression in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines was investigated by downregulating Ku proteins through the use of specific siRNAs. Depletion of Ku proteins led to downregulation of ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, reduction of Ku80 in HCT116 cell line decreased the AP-2 alpha activity on a reporter vector containing an AP-2 binding site linked to the ERBB2 core promoter, and transfection of Ku80 increased the activity of AP-2 alpha on this promoter. Ku siRNAs also inhibited the activity of this reporter vector in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines and the activity of the ERBB2 promoter was further reduced by combining Ku siRNAs with AP-2 alpha and AP-2 gamma siRNAs. ChIP experiments with chromatin extracted from wild type or AP-2 alpha and AP-2 gamma or Ku70 siRNA transfected BT-474 cells demonstrated Ku70 recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter in association with AP-2 alpha and AP-2 gamma. Moreover, Ku70 siRNA like AP-2 siRNAs, greatly reduced PolII recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter. CONCLUSIONS: Ku proteins in interaction with AP-2 (alpha and gamma) contribute to increased ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAndrogen receptor controls EGFR and ERBB2 gene expression at different levels in prostate cancer cell lines.
Pignon, Jean-Christophe ULg; Koopmansch, Benjamin ULg; Nolens, Grégory ULg et al

in Cancer Research (2009), 69(7), 2941-2949

EGFR or ERBB2 contributes to prostate cancer (PCa) progression by activating the androgen receptor (AR) in hormone-poor conditions. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which androgens regulate EGFR ... [more ▼]

EGFR or ERBB2 contributes to prostate cancer (PCa) progression by activating the androgen receptor (AR) in hormone-poor conditions. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which androgens regulate EGFR and ERBB2 expression in PCa cells. In steroid-depleted medium (SDM), EGFR protein was less abundant in androgen-sensitive LNCaP than in androgen ablation-resistant 22Rv1 cells, whereas transcript levels were similar. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment increased both EGFR mRNA and protein levels and stimulated RNA polymerase II recruitment to the EGFR gene promoter, whereas it decreased ERBB2 transcript and protein levels in LNCaP cells. DHT altered neither EGFR or ERBB2 levels nor the abundance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), TMEPA1, or TMPRSS2 mRNAs in 22Rv1 cells, which express the full-length and a shorter AR isoform deleted from the COOH-terminal domain (ARDeltaCTD). The contribution of both AR isoforms to the expression of these genes was assessed by small interfering RNAs targeting only the full-length or both AR isoforms. Silencing of both isoforms strongly reduced PSA, TMEPA1, and TMPRSS2 transcript levels. Inhibition of both AR isoforms did not affect EGFR and ERBB2 transcript levels but decreased EGFR and increased ERBB2 protein levels. Proliferation of 22Rv1 cells in SDM was inhibited in the absence of AR and ARDeltaCTD. A further decrease was obtained with PKI166, an EGFR/ERBB2 kinase inhibitor. Overall, we showed that ARDeltaCTD is responsible for constitutive EGFR expression and ERBB2 repression in 22Rv1 cells and that ARDeltaCTD and tyrosine kinase receptors are necessary for sustained 22Rv1 cell growth. [less ▲]

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See detailThe IGF system in in-vitro human decidualization
Ganeff, Corinne ULg; Chatel, G.; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Molecular Human Reproduction (2009), 15(1), 27-38

Decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) is critical for a successful pregnancy but the molecular mechanisms of the process are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether the ... [more ▼]

Decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) is critical for a successful pregnancy but the molecular mechanisms of the process are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) network is involved in this cellular process. Expression kinetics of members of the IGF system was examined at both mRNA and protein levels during in-vitro decidualization of cultured human ESCs. We found a significant up-regulation of IGF-II as well as of IGF-I receptor and the A and B insulin receptor (InsR) isoforms. In addition, levels of the key adaptor proteins insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 increased, suggesting a potential involvement of the IGF signalling pathway in the decidualization process. Expression of two IGF binding proteins, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-4, which can inhibit IGF action, also increased. In order to determine whether IGF signalling was activated during decidualization, the phosphorylation status of the receptors and the adaptor proteins was estimated. Only IRS-2 was slightly phosphorylated in decidualized cells and was further activated by the addition of exogenous IGF-II. These results suggest that the IGF signalling pathway could play a crucial role in the functions of decidualized endometrial cells [less ▲]

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See detailThe combined immunodetection of AP-2alpha and YY1 transcription factors is associated with ERBB2 gene overexpression in primary breast tumors.
Allouche, Abdelkader; Nolens, Gregory ULg; Tancredi, Annalisa ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research [=BCR] (2008), 10(1), 9

INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 20% of human breast tumors and is the consequence of increased transcription rates frequently associated with gene amplification ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 20% of human breast tumors and is the consequence of increased transcription rates frequently associated with gene amplification. Several studies have shown a link between activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors and ERBB2 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor has been shown to stimulate AP-2 transcriptional activity on the ERBB2 promoter in vitro. In this report, we examined the relationships between ERBB2, AP-2alpha, and YY1 both in breast cancer tissue specimens and in a mammary cancer cell line. METHODS: ERBB2, AP-2alpha, and YY1 protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a panel of 55 primary breast tumors. ERBB2 gene amplification status was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Correlations were evaluated by a chi2 test at a p value of less than 0.05. The functional role of AP-2alpha and YY1 on ERBB2 gene expression was analyzed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection in the BT-474 mammary cancer cell line followed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant correlation between ERBB2 and AP-2alpha levels in the tumors (p < 0.01). Moreover, associations were found between ERBB2 protein level and the combined high expression of AP-2alpha and YY1 (p < 0.02) as well as between the expression of AP-2alpha and YY1 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the levels of both AP-2alpha and YY1 proteins were inversely correlated to ERBB2 gene amplification status in the tumors (p < 0.01). Transfection of siRNAs targeting AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma mRNAs in the BT-474 breast cancer cell line repressed the expression of the endogenous ERBB2 gene at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the additional transfection of an siRNA directed against the YY1 transcript further reduced the ERBB2 protein level, suggesting that AP-2 and YY1 transcription factors cooperate to stimulate the transcription of the ERBB2 gene. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of both AP-2alpha and YY1 transcription factors in ERBB2 oncogene overexpression in breast tumors. Our results also suggest that high ERBB2 expression may result either from gene amplification or from increased transcription factor levels. [less ▲]

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See detailHedgehog signaling pathway is inactive in colorectal cancer cell lines
Chatel, Guillaume; Ganeff, Corinne ULg; Boussif, Naima et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2007), 121(12), 2622-2627

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in human development. Abnormal activation of this pathway has been observed in several types of human cancers, such as the upper gastro ... [more ▼]

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in human development. Abnormal activation of this pathway has been observed in several types of human cancers, such as the upper gastro-intestinal tract cancers. However, activation of the Hh pathway in colorectal cancers is controversial. We analyzed the expression of the main key members of the Hh pathway in 7 colon cancer cell lines in order to discover whether the pathway is constitutively active in these cells. We estimated the expression of SHH, IHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, SUFU and HHIP genes by RT-PCR. Moreover, Hh ligand, Gli3 and Sufu protein levels were quantified by western blotting. None of the cell lines expressed the complete set of Hh pathway members. The ligands were absent from Colo320 and HCT116 cells, Smo from Colo205, HT29 and WiDr. GLI1 gene was not expressed in SW480 cells nor were GLI2/GLI3 in Colo205 or Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the repressive form of Gli3, characteristic of an inactive pathway, was detected in SW480 and Colo320 cells. Finally treatment of colon cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Hh pathway, did not downregulate PTCH and GLI1 genes expression in the colorectal cells, whereas it did so in PANC1 control cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is not common in colorectal cancer cell lines. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation by androgens of EGF receptor family members in prostate cancer cells
Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Waltregny, David ULg et al

in Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research (2006)

After an initial positive response to anti-androgen treatment, prostate cancer (PCa) cells usually become hormone-refractory in spite of their persistent expression of the androgen receptor (AR ... [more ▼]

After an initial positive response to anti-androgen treatment, prostate cancer (PCa) cells usually become hormone-refractory in spite of their persistent expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Overexpression of tyrosine kinase receptors in androgen-deprived PCa cells, such as those of the EGF receptor (EGFR) family, may be responsible for AR activation and growth of androgen-deprived tumours. Our goal is to understand the control of the expression of the EGFR family members by androgens in PCa. Hormone response was compared in hormone-sensitive LNCaP and hormone-insensitive DU145 PCa cell lines. These cells do not express ErbB4. EGFR, erbB2 and erbB3 protein half-life is much longer in DU145 than in LNCaP cells grown in complete medium. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) modulates EGFR and erbB2 transcript and protein levels only in LNCaP cells. ErbB3 is not an androgen-responsive gene. EGFR mRNA and protein levels are increased while erbB2 mRNA and protein levels are decreased after DHT treatment of cells cultured in steroid-deprived medium. ErbB2 mRNA and protein levels are increased in LNCaP cells following DHT withdrawal. In order to understand the mechanisms by which androgens control the expression of EGFR and ERBB2 genes, half lifes of the corresponding mRNAs and proteins were compared in cells grown in presence or absence of DHT. The effect of DHT on EGFR gene expression is complex. Indeed, DHT stabilizes the protein. Moreover, a superinduction of EGFR mRNA was observed in cells treated with cycloheximide (CHX) before addition of the hormone, suggesting an effect on transcript stability. In contrast, erbB2 mRNA and protein stability was not affected by DHT. CHX treatment for 2h before addition of DHT suppresses the androgen-induced down-regulation of erbB2 mRNA levels. In summary, androgen-mediated regulation of EGFR and ERBB2 genes expression is complex. DHT influences EGFR gene transcription, mRNA and protein stability. DHT does not affect erbB2 mRNA and protein stability but acts indirectly on transcription. Current experiments are undertaken to verify these observations by Chromatin-IP experiments on both genes promoters. [less ▲]

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See detailAndrogens regulation of the ERBB1 and ERBB2 oncogene expression in human prostate cancer cells
Pignon, Jean-Christophe ULg; Delacroix, Laurence; Waltregny, David ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2006), 61(2, MAR-APR), 95-95

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See detailDistal ERBB2 promoter fragment displays specific transcriptional and nuclear binding activities in ERBB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells
Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Begon, Dominique ULg; Chatel, Guillaume et al

in DNA & Cell Biology (2005), 24(9), 582-594

Overexpression of the ERBB2 gene occurs in 30% of human breast cancers and is correlated with poor prognosis. The deregulation is the consequence of an increased transcription level and gene amplification ... [more ▼]

Overexpression of the ERBB2 gene occurs in 30% of human breast cancers and is correlated with poor prognosis. The deregulation is the consequence of an increased transcription level and gene amplification. Several laboratories, including our own, have identified, in the proximal promoter, enhancers implicated in the gene overexpression. However, our previous studies of a 6-kb ERBB2 promoter fragment revealed the presence of repressing fragments, which were able to overcome the effect of the proximal enhancers. These repressing elements were functional in all cell lines, regardless of their endogenous ERBB2 expression level. Here, we show that a distal ERBB2 promoter region restores high transcription rates specifically in ERBB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. This distal promoter region thus contains enhancers essential for the overexpression of the gene. By EMSA, performed with nuclear extract of cells overexpressing (BT-474) or not (MDA-MB-231) the ERBB2 gene, we show that at least two sequences of the distal promoter region are bound exclusively by BT-474 extract. Further experiments reveal that AP-2 transcription factors contribute to this differential binding activity, by binding recognition sequences located 4500 bp and 4000 bp upstream of the transcription start site. These sites are occupied by AP2 in vivo, as demonstrated by ChIP assay. Inactivation of AP-2 proteins in ERBB2 overexpressing cells reduces the distal promoter activity up to 70%, indicating the AP-2 factors are implicated in the strong distal enhancing effect. Moreover, we identified a 54-bp fragment that is bound specifically by BT-474 nuclear extract. Further experiments did not lead to the identification of the protein responsible for this binding. Our results thus highlight the importance of ERBB2 distal promoter region and further implicate AP-2 in ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailYin Yang 1 cooperates with activator protein 2 to stimulate ERBB2 gene expression in mammary cancer cells.
Begon, Dominique ULg; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Vernimmen, Douglas et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(26), 24428-34

Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 30% of breast cancers and is generally correlated with a poor prognosis. Previous results from our and other laboratories indicated that elevated ... [more ▼]

Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 30% of breast cancers and is generally correlated with a poor prognosis. Previous results from our and other laboratories indicated that elevated transcriptional activity contributes significantly to the overexpression of ERBB2 mRNA in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors account for this overexpression through two recognition sequences located 215 and 500 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines overexpressing ERBB2. In this report, we examined the cooperative effect of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) on AP-2-induced activation of ERBB2 promoter activity. We detected high levels of YY1 transcription factor in mammary cancer cell lines. Notably, we showed that YY1 enhances AP-2alpha transcriptional activation of the ERBB2 promoter through an AP-2 site both in HepG2 and in HCT116 cells, whereas a carboxyl-terminal-truncated form of YY1 cannot. Moreover, we demonstrated the interaction between endogenous AP-2 and YY1 factors in the BT-474 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In addition, inhibition of endogenous YY1 protein by an antisense decreased the transcription of an AP-2-responsive ERBB2 reporter plasmid in BT-474 breast cancer cells. Finally, we detected in vivo AP-2 and YY1 occupancy of the ERBB2 proximal promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data thus provide evidence that YY1 cooperates with AP-2 to stimulate ERBB2 promoter activity through the AP-2 binding sites. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered expression of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in Crohn's disease
El Yafi, F.; Winkler, Rose ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2005), 139(3), 526-533

The fibrotic and antiapoptotic effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are mediated by type I IGF receptor (IGF-1R). IGFs could play a role in intestinal stricturing and in the maintenance of ... [more ▼]

The fibrotic and antiapoptotic effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are mediated by type I IGF receptor (IGF-1R). IGFs could play a role in intestinal stricturing and in the maintenance of inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to describe IGF-1R expression in CD intestinal lesions, to compare it to other intestinal inflammatory diseases and to correlate it with fibrosis and apoptosis. IGF-1R expression and apoptosis (active caspase-3) were studied by immunohistochemistry. Surgical intestinal specimens [17 CD, nine controls, six diverticulitis and four ulcerative colitis (UC)] were used. IGF-1R was expressed transmurally mainly by inflammatory cells (IC) and smooth muscle cells, both in diseased intestine and controls. IGF-1R positive IC were increased in the mucosa and the submucosa of CD (P < 0.007), and in involved areas compared to uninvolved areas (P = 0.03). In UC, the number of IGF-1R positive IC was only increased in the mucosa, and was not different from controls in the submucosa. In diverticulitis, the number of IGF-1R positive IC did not differ from controls. In CD submucosa, IGF-1R expression in IC was inversely correlated with apoptosis in uninvolved areas (P = 0.01). Expression of IGF-1R in submucosal fibroblast-like cells, subserosal adipocytes and hypertrophic nervous plexi was specific for CD. We have shown a transmural altered expression of IGF-1R in CD. This may suggest a role for IGF-1R in the maintenance of chronic inflammation and stricture formation in CD. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent mechanisms are implicated in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast and in other cancers
Vernimmen, D.; Guéders, Maud ULg; Pisvin, Sonia ULg et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2003), 89(5), 899-906

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast ... [more ▼]

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast cancer cells, the mechanisms leading to ERBB2 gene overexpression are increased transcription and gene amplification. In these cancers, AP-2 transcription factors are involved in ERBB2 overexpression, and AP-2 levels are correlated with p185(c-erbB-2) levels. In this work, we wanted to know if the same molecular mechanisms are responsible for the ERBB2 upregulation in non-breast cancers. We compared ERBB2 gene copy number, p185(c-erbB-2) and mRNA levels with AP-2 levels in several ovary, prostate, colon and pancreas cancer cells. A moderate expression of erbB-2 mRNA and protein were observed in some cells without gene amplification. In contrast to breast cancer cells, AP-2 factors were absent or low in some non-breast cells which did express ERBB2. It is thus likely that AP-2 is not a major player in the increased levels of erbB-2 transcripts in non-breast cancer cells. The transcriptional activity of the ERBB2 promoter in colon and ovary cancer cells was estimated using reporter vectors. The results showed that the promoter regions involved in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer cells are different from those that lead to the gene upregulation in colon and ovary cancers. In conclusion, our results indicate that different transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for the increased levels of erbB-2 transcript and protein in breast and non-breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of HTF (HER2 transcription factor) as an AP-2 (activator protein-2) transcription factor and contribution of the HTF binding site to ERBB2 gene overexpression
Vernimmen, Douglas; Begon, Dominique ULg; Salvador, Christophe et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 370(Pt 1), 323-329

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of human breast cancers and this is correlated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of the ERBB2 gene is due to increased transcription and gene amplification. Our ... [more ▼]

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of human breast cancers and this is correlated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of the ERBB2 gene is due to increased transcription and gene amplification. Our previous studies have identified a new cis element in the ERBB2 promoter which is involved in the gene's overexpression. This cis element, located 501 bp upstream from the main ERBB2 transcription initiation site, binds a transcription factor called HTF (HER2 transcription factor). We report here the identification of HTF as an AP-2 (activator protein-2) transcription factor. The new cis element is bound by AP-2 with high affinity, compared with a previously described AP-2 binding site located 284 bp downstream. Co-transfection of an AP-2alpha expression vector with a reporter vector containing the newly identified AP-2 binding site in front of a minimal ERBB2 promoter induced a dose-dependent increase in transcriptional activity. We examined the contribution of the new AP-2 binding site to ERBB2 overexpression. For this purpose we abolished the new and/or the previously described AP-2 binding sequence by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the two functional AP-2 sites in the first 700 bp of the ERBB2 promoter co-operate to achieve maximal transcriptional activity. [less ▲]

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See detailOxytocin synthesis and oxytocin receptor expression by cell lines of human small cell carcinoma of the lung stimulate tumor growth through autocrine/paracrine signaling
Pequeux, Christel ULg; Breton, Christophe; Hendrick, Jean-Claude et al

in Cancer Research (2002), 62(16), 4623-4629

The objective of the present work was to investigate the existence of an oxytocin (OT)-mediated autocrine/paracrine signaling upon small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) cell growth. In that view, OT ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present work was to investigate the existence of an oxytocin (OT)-mediated autocrine/paracrine signaling upon small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) cell growth. In that view, OT receptor (OTR) expression, concomitant with OT synthesis and secretion, was evidenced on three different SCCL cell lines (DMS79, H146, and H345) and related to the vasopressin (VP) system. Specific OT, VP, OTR, Via VP receptor (V1aR), and V1b/V3 VP receptor (V1bR/V3R) transcripts were identified by reverse transcription-.PCR in all cell lines studied. Binding of I-125-(d(CH2)(5)(1),Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Orn(3),Tyr(9)-NH2)-vasotocin (OVTA) was observed on all SCCL cell lines, with a K-d (dissociation constant) ranging from 0.025-0.089 nm, depending; on the cell line and the analytical method. Selectivity of I-125-OVTA binding was confirmed by displacement curves obtained with various OTR and VP receptor agonists and antagonists (OT, OVTA, L-371,257, VP, F180). Immunocytochemistry identified cellular OT and VP, and peptide secretion was measured in supernatants of SCCL cultures. [H-3]Thymidine incorporations, applied on H345 cells, demonstrated a dose-dependent mitogenic effect of exogenous OT (1 and 100 nM) that was abolished by the OTR antagonist OVTA. A decrease of proliferation was also observed with OVTA alone, showing a functional mitogenic effect of tumor-derived OT. Taken together, these observations demonstrate the existence of a functional OT-mediated autocrine/paracrine signaling actively implicated in growth and development of SCCL tumors. Furthermore, these findings point to the potential of OT antagonists for development as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SCCL. [less ▲]

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See detailLe systeme IGF: synthese et donnees recentes
Winkler, Rose ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Boussif, N. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 725-39

We are entitled to state that our knowledge about the IGF system has literally exploded in the last years. Having been considered for some time merely as trophic and mitogenic factors, the IGFs now appear ... [more ▼]

We are entitled to state that our knowledge about the IGF system has literally exploded in the last years. Having been considered for some time merely as trophic and mitogenic factors, the IGFs now appear as molecules essential for the differentiation of many cell types, and even more so, as powerful protective agents for the nervous and the cardiovascular systems. However, these properties so beneficial in normal physiological conditions, are subverted by the cancerous cells who use them to extend their life span and resist therapy. The IGFs did not live up to expectations in the treatment of diabetes; however, today their capacity to improve the condition of patients suffering from severe neurological, renal or muscle diseases is tested. The IGF system might also be targetted by the anticancer treatments. In the following paper we have briefly summarized our knowledge on the IGF system, and presented in more detail the recent data. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Early T Cell Development: A Study Using Fetal Thymic Organ Cultures
Kecha, O.; Brilot, F.; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2000), 141(3), 1209-17

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both ... [more ▼]

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both in fetal and postnatal life, whereas IGF-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) decline after birth but are still detectable on the seventh week. By in situ hybridization, IGF-2 transcripts were located in the outer cortex and medulla of the postnatal thymus, and on the whole surface ofthe epithelial-like network in the fetal thymus. The effects of anti-IGFs and IGF-receptors neutralizing Abs on the generation of pre-T cell subpopulations were then investigated using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOC). FTOC treatment with an anti-IGF-2 mAb, an anti-IGF-1R mAb, or an anti-M6P/IGF-2R polyclonal Ab induced a blockade of T cell differentiation at the CD4-CD8- stage, as shown by a significant increase in the percentage of CD4-CD8- cells and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD8+ cells. Moreover, anti-IGF-2 Ab treatment induced an increase in CD8+ cells suggesting that thymic IGF-2 might have a role in determining differentiation into the CD4 or CD8 lineage. Anti-IGF-1 Ab treatment decreased the proportion in CD4-CD8- cells and increased the frequency in CD4+CD8+. FTOC treatment with anti-(pro)insulin did not exert any significant effect on T cell development. These data indicate that the intrathymic IGF-mediated signaling plays an active role in the early steps of T cell differentiation during fetal development. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis in the Human Thymus
Kecha, Ouafae; Martens, Henri ULg; Franchimont, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (1999), 11(6), 435-40

The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated in the normal human thymus. Using ribonuclease protection assays (RPA), IGF-II transcripts were detected in the normal ... [more ▼]

The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated in the normal human thymus. Using ribonuclease protection assays (RPA), IGF-II transcripts were detected in the normal human thymus. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses, promoters P3 and P4 were found to be active in the transcription of IGF2 gene within human thymic epithelial cells (TEC). No IGF-II mRNA could be detected in human lymphoid Jurkat T cells with 30 cycles of RT-PCR. By Northern blot analyses, IGFBP-2 to -6 (but not IGFBP-1) were found to be expressed in TEC with a predominance of IGFBP-4. Interestingly, Jurkat T cells only express IGFBP-2 but at high levels. The type 1 IGF receptor was detected in Jurkat T cells but not in human TEC. The identification of the components of the IGF axis within separate compartments of the human thymus adds further evidence for a role of this axis in the control of T-cell development. The precise influence of thymic IGF axis upon T-cell differentiation and immunological self-tolerance however needs to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailIGF-II in primary human colorectal tumors: peptide level, activated promoters, parental imprinting and gene rearrangement.
Winkler, Rose ULg; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Bensbaho, K. et al

in Hormone & Metabolic Research (1999), 31(2-3), 148-54

IGF-II is a polypeptide growth factor with growth and differentiation promoting activities, involved in human development. We have reported previously IGF-II mRNA and peptide overexpression in primary ... [more ▼]

IGF-II is a polypeptide growth factor with growth and differentiation promoting activities, involved in human development. We have reported previously IGF-II mRNA and peptide overexpression in primary human colon cancers. Here we show that the IGF-II peptide content is increased in six primary colon cancers compared to the corresponding healthy tissues. The IGF-II transcripts in healthy and cancerous colon tissues were identified by Northern blotting and RT-PCR. Promoters P3 and P4 were active in most tissues. Relaxation of parental imprinting was observed in two tumors and one healthy tissue, without any correlation with the IGF-II transcript levels. Rearrangements of the IGF-II gene in two tumors containing very high amounts of IGF-II mRNA are described. Fragments containing the breakpoints were cloned by the vectorette-PCR strategy. In both tumors, the breakpoints occurred in repetitive sequences. In one tumor (T11), the breakpoint was localized 2 kb downstream the end of exon 9. The second tumor (T18) contains two modified alleles. In one rearranged allele the breakpoint is located in exon 9. The exact position of the breakpoint in the second rearranged allele has not been identified. In future experiments, the correlation between the gene rearrangements and IGF-II mRNA overexpression will be studied. [less ▲]

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See detailThymic insulin-related polypeptides in diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rats
Kecha, Ouafae; Winkler, Rose ULg; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Diabetologia (1999), 42 (Suppl. 1)

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See detailThymic insulin-related polypeptides: role in T cell selection and in central self-tolerance of the insulin family
Kecha, Ouafae; Brilot, Fabienne; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in The Endocrine Society (Ed.) Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society (1999)

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