References of "Winandy, Laurane"
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See detailTemporal habitat shift of a polymorphic newt species under predation risk
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Colin, Mélanie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavioral Ecology (2016), 27(4), 1025-1032

The temporal partitioning hypothesis suggests that the evolution of different diel activity rhythms in animals might facilitate the coexistence between prey and predators. However, the temporal shift of ... [more ▼]

The temporal partitioning hypothesis suggests that the evolution of different diel activity rhythms in animals might facilitate the coexistence between prey and predators. However, the temporal shift of habitat use induced by predation has rarely been observed. The study of such a mechanism is particularly relevant for introduced species because it might explain how native species can persist or decline in response to the presence of alien species. The introduction of fish into ponds inhabited by amphibians has severe consequences for their occurrence and abundance. Fish particularly affect an alternative newt phenotype, the paedomorph, which does not undergo metamorphosis and maintains larval traits such as gills at the adult stage. In a laboratory design, we assessed the diel patterns of habitat use in the 2 distinct morphological phenotypes of palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus) in the presence or absence of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Both newt phenotypes avoided a risky habitat more in the presence than in the absence of fish. This habitat shift was more pronounced during the daytime (i.e., when the risk could be considered higher for the newts) than during nighttime. However, in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs showed less adaptive changes according to temporal risk and remained in their shelter for most of the time. Temporal and habitat partitioning at the diel scale between native and alien species might promote their coexistence, but diel change can also imply a cost in the overall reduction of the time allocated to essential activities, showing that species interactions remain complex. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of phenotypic diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Biological Conservation (2015), 192

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders ... [more ▼]

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders such as fish. Previous research has shown that they could recover after fish extirpation due to metamorphosed colonizers. However, not all amphibian phenotypes are able to persist to fish introduction and disperse. In many species of newts and salamanders, paedomorphs retain gills in the adult stage, which makes them fully aquatic. A proposed way to conserve this phenotype would be to remove introduced fish from their habitats. However, because paedomorphosis is usually not expressed in the presence of fish, it is unknown whether fish removal could allow the resilience of paedomorphs. This would be possible only if progenies of metamorphosed individuals could become paedomorphic in restored habitats. Through a quantitative survey in three types of ponds, including control ponds without fish, ponds in which fish were extirpated, and fish ponds, we determined abundances of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). The results show that paedomorphosis resilience is possible and even highly frequent, as paedomorphs were found in 80% of ponds where fish disappeared. Abundances were similar between these ponds and control ponds whereas fish ponds had almost no newts, indicating a very low resistance to invaders. This shows that conserving common phenotypes can help to preserve endangered phenotypes, as paedomorphs were produced through the reproduction of metamorphs. There is thus hope of maintaining intraspecific biodiversity though conservation action involving threat removal. [less ▲]

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See detailThe aggressive personality of an introduced fish affects foraging behavior in a polymorphic newt
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavioral Ecology (2015), 26(6), 1528-1536

The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer ... [more ▼]

The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer field that could shed light on cases of alien species introductions. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is frequently introduced worldwide and affects the abundance of newts, having an especially negative impact on an alternative phenotype, the paedomorph, which maintains larval traits at the adult stage, unlike the other phenotype, the metamorph, which has undergone metamorphosis. We experimentally assessed the impact of goldfish on the foraging behavior of both phenotypes of palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). More particularly, we assessed fish personality by analyzing the foraging activity and the aggressiveness toward newts, and newt personality by analyzing individual difference in boldness. In the presence of fish, fewer newts foraged than in their absence, and paedomorphs were more affected than metamorphs. We found strong personality differences in fish and fewer newts foraged in the presence of a more aggressive fish. Newts differed in boldness, but fish aggressiveness remains a key factor to explain newt behavior. Studying behavioral interactions between native and alien species helps to understand the mechanisms of coexistence and exclusion and why different phenotypes might be affected differently by the same threat. To a great extent, not only the presence of fish alters the foraging opportunities of newts but also the personality of the invader; integrating personality patterns of invaders is therefore a key to understanding the ecological consequences of alien species introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailAmphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introduction
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Animal Behaviour (2015), 109

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by ... [more ▼]

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by fish introduction; however, mechanisms of the exclusion observed in the field are still not well known. In particular, whether newts skip breeding and leave water for land in response to fish introduction and how aquatic shelter may influence their choice remain open questions. To investigate these questions, we experimentally studied the use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats during the breeding season of palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus, in the presence and absence of goldfish, Carassius auratus. We determined the consequences of habitat choice on newt fitness by assessing sexual activity and number of eggs. There was a strong, significant avoidance of the aquatic environment in the presence of fish, particularly when no aquatic shelter was available. This escape from the water had an impact on reproduction: newts decreased their sexual activity and laid fewer eggs. The availability of shelters favoured coexistence but did not prevent a large proportion of the newts from leaving water and skipping reproduction. This study shows how the presence of fish and the absence of aquatic shelters can lead to newts forgoing aquatic life, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind the coexistence and exclusion patterns found in the wild. More broadly, these data contribute to explaining aquatic versus terrestrial life in favourable and unfavourable environments. [less ▲]

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See detailNewts skip aquatic life and forego reproduction in response to alien fish introduction
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Conference (2015, September 10)

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See detailExpression of sexual ornaments in a polymorphic species: phenotypic variation in response to environmental risk
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2015), 28(5), 1049-1056

Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are ... [more ▼]

Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are differently expressed in alternative phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such phenotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity of seasonal ornamentations in response to environmental pressures such as in the presence of fish (predation risk). This is an important question to understand the evolution of polyphenisms. We used facultative paedomorphosis in newts as a model system because it involves the coexistence of paedomorphs that retain gills in the adult stage with metamorphs that have undergone metamorphosis, but also because newts exhibit seasonal sexual traits. Our aim was therefore to determine the influence of fish on the development of seasonal ornamentation in the two phenotypes of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus). During the entire newt breeding period, we assessed the importance of phenotype and fish presence with an information-theoretic approach. Our results showed that paedomorphs presented much less developed ornamentation than metamorphs and those ornamentations varied over time. Fish inhibited the development of sexual traits but differently between phenotypes: in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs lack the phenotypic plasticity of sexual traits to environmental risk. This study points out that internal and external parameters act in complex ways in the expression of seasonal sexual ornamentations and that similar environmental pressure can induce a contrasted evolution in alternative phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of goldfish on terrestrial and aquatic microhabitat use in the palmate newt
Darnet, Elodie; Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Poster (2014, December 12)

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See detailFire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Acta herpetologica (2014), 9(1), 43-49

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds ... [more ▼]

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus) typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France). The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%). The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(11), 82736

The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are ... [more ▼]

The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians. [less ▲]

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See detailCues from introduced fish alter shelter use and feeding behaviour in adult alpine newts
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ethology (2013), 119(2), 121-129

Amphibians are particularly affected by alien fish introductions and are declining worldwide. However, the behavioural mechanisms behind the observed cases of coexistence and exclusion patterns between ... [more ▼]

Amphibians are particularly affected by alien fish introductions and are declining worldwide. However, the behavioural mechanisms behind the observed cases of coexistence and exclusion patterns between adult amphibians and fish are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that adult newts display different feeding and space use behaviour in the presence of fish cues (i.e. access less food resources and use more shelters than when fish cues are absent). To achieve this we measured behavioural patterns in 100 adult Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris) in a replicated laboratory design (20 tanks × 7 replicates across time). Half of trials involved individuals in indirect (visual and olfactory) contact with goldfish (Carassius auratus), a non-predatory species for adult newts. In the presence of fish, significantly more newts hid under shelters than in their absence, but this difference decreased over time. A lower number of newts fed in comparison with controls. These results show that newts responded to fish presence even in the absence of direct contact, but the differences were small. Newts decreased vital activities such as exploration of open areas and feeding. They also adjusted shelter use over time, suggesting a process of habituation or a risk assessment in the absence of direct risk. These results reveal that exploring behavioural patterns can aid in understanding the causes of exclusion and coexistence patterns between fish and amphibians. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of visual and automatized behavioral markers to assess methodologies: a study case on PIT-tagging in the Alpine newt
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavior Research Methods (2011), 43(2), 568-576

Biomarkers are now widely used as tools in various research fields to assess individual integrity. The recent advances in quantification methods of behavioral patterns, such as computerized video-tracking ... [more ▼]

Biomarkers are now widely used as tools in various research fields to assess individual integrity. The recent advances in quantification methods of behavioral patterns, such as computerized video-tracking procedures, make them valuable biomarkers. However, the corollary of these novelties is that they remain relatively unknown and unused. In this study, we show that such tools can assess the validity of research methods, such as individual recognition. To demonstrate this we employed as a model a marking method (Passive Integrate Transponders: PIT-tagging) widely used in amphibians. Both detailed visual observations and video-tracking methods were complementary in highlighting components at different behavioral scales: locomotion, feeding, and breeding. We illustrate the scientific and ethical adequacy of the targeted marking method but also suggest that more studies should integrate behavioral analyses. Such biomarkers are a powerful tool to assess conservation concerns when other techniques cannot detect detrimental effects. [less ▲]

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