Intact procedural motor sequence learning in developmental coordination disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ; Catale, Corinne ; Willems, Sylvie et al
in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2013), 34(6), 1974-1981
The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with ... [more ▼]
The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with and without DCD using the serial reaction time task, in which the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to minimize the impact of perceptuomotor coordination difficulties that characterize this disorder. The results showed that children with DCD succeed as well as control children at the procedural sequence learning task. These findings challenge the hypothesis that a procedural learning impairment underlies the difficulties of DCD children in acquiring and automatizing daily activities. We suggest that the previously reported impairment of children with DCD on the serial reaction time task is not due to a sequence learning deficit per se, but rather due to methodological factors such as the response mode used in these studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (14 ULg)
Comment définissons-nous nos souvenirs lors d'un témoignage oculaire ?
Schroyen, Sarah ; Adam, Stéphane ; Willems, Sylvie
Poster (2013, May)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (6 ULg)
CONTROLLED AND AUTOMATIC MEMORY RETRIEVAL IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
Bastin, Christine ; Genon, Sarah ; Willems, Sylvie et al
in Proceedings of the 8th Panhellenic Interdisciplinary Conference of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Enhancing the salience of fluency improves recognition memory performance in mild Alzheimer’s disease
Bastin, Christine ; Willems, Sylvie ; Genon, Sarah et al
in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2013), 33
Recognition memory can rely on recollection (recall of the details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (feeling that some information is old without any recollection). In Alzheimer’s disease (AD ... [more ▼]
Recognition memory can rely on recollection (recall of the details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (feeling that some information is old without any recollection). In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), whereas there is a clear deficit of recollection, the evidence regarding familiarity is mixed, with some studies showing preserved familiarity and others reporting impairment. The current study examined whether recognition memory performance can be improved in AD when the use of familiarity is facilitated by the salience of processing fluency due to an earlier encounter with the information. Fifteen AD patients and 16 healthy controls performed a verbal recognition memory task where the salience of fluency was manipulated by means of letters overlap. Studied and unstudied words were constituted of either two separate sets of letters (no-overlap condition, high fluency salience) or the same set of letters (overlap condition, low fluency salience). The results showed that, although performance was globally poorer in AD patients than in the controls, both groups performed significantly better in the no-overlap condition than in the overlap condition. This suggests that AD patients benefited as much as the controls from the salience of fluency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (20 ULg)
Memory impairments in dementia: Which memory and how does it fail?
Salmon, Eric ; Collette, Fabienne ; Genon, Sarah et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg)
Memory impairments in dementia: Which memory and how does it fail?
Salmon, Eric ; Collette, Fabienne ; Genon, Sarah et al
Conference (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (3 ULg)
The role of the salience of fluency in recognition memory in Alzheimer’s disease.
Bastin, Christine ; Salmon, Eric ; Willems, Sylvie
Conference (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
The role of the salience of fluency in recognition memory in Alzheimer’s disease
Bastin, Christine ; Salmon, Eric ; Willems, Sylvie
in Proceedings of the First joint meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (BAPS) and the Sociedad Española de Psicología Experimental (SEPEX) (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Parental educational level influence on memory and executive performance in children
Catale, Corinne ; Willems, Sylvie ; Lejeune, Caroline et al
in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2012), 62
Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship ... [more ▼]
Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PES and several domains of cognitive functioning and examine, through mediation analyses, the relationship between PES, language,and cognitive tasks. Method. – We first administered tasks measuring memory, executive and attentional abilities to 64 European native French speakers, divided into two groups of children according to parents’ educational status. Results. – The results suggest that, on most tasks, the effect of socio-educational status is mediated by language abilities. However, because the results were less clear for executive functions, we carried out a second experiment in which we administered more specific executive measures (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility, updating and reasoning) to 80 children. Conclusion. – The results confirmed the influence of the parents’ educational status on the executive functioning and also that, contrary to other cognitive functions, this influence on executive tasks is not completely explained by language differences. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (9 ULg)
Semantic Hyperpriming in Normal Aging: A Consequence of Instructions?
Stefaniak, Nicolas ; Meulemans, Thierry ; Willems, Sylvie
in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2010), 17(5), 615-632
Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous (focusing on both accuracy and speed), it is ... [more ▼]
Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous (focusing on both accuracy and speed), it is difficult to account for hyperpriming in older adults. By using the direct and mediated priming paradigms, this study investigates whether older adults’ response mode at testing may explain hyperpriming. First, we show that, under identical conditions, inducing a response mode that favors speed leads to greater priming effects in older adults. The pattern of results is similar to what is observed under standard instructions. Second, prompting a response mode that favors accuracy leads to greater priming effects in younger adults. We discuss various explanations for these findings and conclude, in accordance with the Ratcliff, Thapar, Gomez, and McKoon (2004a) diffusion model, that hyperpriming in normal aging is contingent on older adults’ response mode at testing. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
La fluence : un indice métacognitif omniprésent pour nos jugements
Scientific conference (2010, March)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
The mere exposure effect without recognition can depend on the way you look!
Willems, Sylvie ; ; Van der Linden, Martial
in Experimental Psychology (2010), 57(3), 185-192
In line with [Whittlesea, B. W. A., & Price, J. R. (2001). Implicit/Explicit memory versus analytic/nonanalytic processing: Rethinking the mere exposure effect. Memory and Cognition, 26, 547-565], we ... [more ▼]
In line with [Whittlesea, B. W. A., & Price, J. R. (2001). Implicit/Explicit memory versus analytic/nonanalytic processing: Rethinking the mere exposure effect. Memory and Cognition, 26, 547-565], we investigated whether the memory effect measured with an implicit memory paradigm (mere exposure effect) and an explicit recognition task depended on perceptual processing strategies, regardless of whether the task required intentional retrieval. We found that manipulation intended to prompt functional implicit-explicit dissociation no longer had a differential effect when we induced similar perceptual strategies in both tasks. Indeed, the results showed that prompting a nonanalytic strategy ensured performance above chance on both tasks. Conversely, inducing an analytic strategy drastically decreased both explicit and implicit performance. Furthermore, we noted that the nonanalytic strategy involved less extensive gaze scanning than the analytic strategy and that memory effects under this processing strategy were largely independent of gaze movement. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 142 (19 ULg)
Effects of time of day on age-related differences in cognitive tests.
Schmitz, Xavier ; Willems, Sylvie ; Meulemans, Thierry
Poster (2009, June 03)
Previous studies have shown a shift in the circadian rhythm – and more particularly in the optimal time of day (OTD) – across the adult life span (May et al., 1993). The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]
Previous studies have shown a shift in the circadian rhythm – and more particularly in the optimal time of day (OTD) – across the adult life span (May et al., 1993). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive efficiency and OTD in 113 healthy old adults (Age: M = 69, SD = 6.1, Range = 60-80) and 175 younger adults (M = 40.8, SD = 12.9, Range = 20-59). Participants performed a large battery of cognitive tests that assessed episodic memory, working memory, executive and attentional functions. Results on the MEQ (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; Horne & Östberg, 1976) confirmed the age-related shift toward a self-reported morning preference in older adults. Second, the categorization of participants according to their MEQ scores and the time of testing revealed that the OTD has a greater impact upon cognitive performance in older than in younger adults. Third, the age-related OTD impact was more striking in working memory (Brown-Peterson and Pasat) and episodic memory tasks (Buschke) than in other aspects of the cognitive functioning. In conclusion, older participants tested during their peak circadian periods tend to show greater performance on memory tasks that require careful or strategic processing relative to older participants who are tested at off-peak times of day. Taken together, these findings indicate that care must be taken when investigators are considering the effects of age on effortful memory tasks, which are particularly modulated by OTD in older adults. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease use metamemory to attenuate the Jacoby-Whitehouse illusion.
Willems, Sylvie ; Germain, Sophie ; Salmon, Eric et al
in Neuropsychologia (2009), 47(12), 2672-6
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relying predominantly on familiarity for recognition, research has suggested that they may be particularly susceptible to memory illusions driven by conceptual ... [more ▼]
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relying predominantly on familiarity for recognition, research has suggested that they may be particularly susceptible to memory illusions driven by conceptual fluency. Using the Jacoby and Whitehouse [Jacoby, L.L., & Whitehouse, K. (1989). An illusion of memory: False recognition influenced by unconscious perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 126-135] illusion paradigm, we extended these findings and found that AD patients were also sensitive to perceptually driven false recognition. However, AD patients were equally able to disregard perceptual fluency when there was a shift in the sensory modality of the study and test stages. Overall, these findings support the notion that patients with AD can be susceptible to fluency-based memory illusions but these patients can strategically control the fluency attribution following their metamemory expectation in exactly the same way as elderly adults and young adults. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 ULg)
Troubles des émotions et de la cognition sociale. Traité de Neuropsychologie de l’enfant.
Catale, Corinne ; Willems, Sylvie
in Poncelet, Martine; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial (Eds.) Traité de Neuropsychologie de l’enfant (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 ULg)
Does implicit memory during anaesthesia persist in children?
; ; et al
in British Journal of Anaesthesia (2009), 102(3), 37984
Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to ... [more ▼]
Background. Recent studies suggest that implicit memory (especially perceptual implicit memory) persists during adequate general anaesthesia in adults. Studies in children, however, have failed to demonstrate implicit memory during general anaesthesia, possibly because of differences in methodological design. We therefore designed a prospective study with the aim of evaluating implicit memory in children undergoing general anaesthesia, using a perceptual memory test based on the mere exposure effect, previously tested in a control group. Methods. Twelve infrequent neutral words were played 12 times in a random sequence via headphones to 36 children aged 8–12 yr during elective or emergency surgery. The children were not premedicated, and general anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The word presentation started immediately after the surgical incision. Within 36 h after the stimulus presentation, the memory was assessed by using a forced-choice preference judgement task. Time constraint and word deterioration with a low-pass filter were used to prevent the subjects from utilizing intentional retrieval. The implicit memory score was obtained by calculating the proportion of target words preferred, which was compared with the chance level (0.5). Results. The percentage of correct responses given by the children was comparable with the chance level. The memory score was mean (SD) 0.48 (0.16) (95% CI 0.43–0.53). Conclusions. The use of a perceptual implicit memory test based on the mere exposure procedure in children failed to reveal any evidence of implicit memory under general anaesthesia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 55 (8 ULg)
False memory and surprise: round #3
Willems, Sylvie ; Dehon, Hedwige
Poster (2008, May)
Three experiments examined the links between surprise feeling and a false memory phenomenon, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) effect. In DRM paradigm, subjects studied lists of related words (NIGHT ... [more ▼]
Three experiments examined the links between surprise feeling and a false memory phenomenon, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) effect. In DRM paradigm, subjects studied lists of related words (NIGHT, DREAM, etc.) that were associated with non-presented critical word (e.g., SLEEP) for which high false recognition rate is after noted. Roediger and coll. (in press) suggested that this effect occur because critical words are highly activated by their semantic association with words that are in the list. Whittlesea et al. (2005) proposed an alternative explanation, based on the discrepancy-attribution hypothesis. According to that account, false recognition results when a feeling of surprise comes from a discrepancy between subject’s expectation about processing fluency and real processing fluency. When Whittlesea and coll. have provided a range of evidences for this account, Roediger and coll. found that subjects were not surprised when they encountered non-presented critical word during recognition test. We explained these discrepant findings by methodology differences between these two studies. Whittlesea et al. noted that various procedures that eliminate surprise eliminate the false memories. However, they used a modified DRM procedure (e.g., RSVP presentations and recognition judgment for each critical word directly after the study of each list of related words). In contrast, Roediger and coll. used a classical DRM procedure but did not eliminate surprise feeling. Rather, they investigated whether subjects experienced the critical word as surprising by asking them to make judgments of surprise on a recognition test. In this study, we used various procedures that eliminate surprise like Whittlesea but we used classical DRM paradigm like Roediger. Experiment 1 replicates the DRM effect. Experiment 2 & 3 shows that the DRM effect is decreased but not abolished when participants are prevented from being surprised by critical word. It is proposed that experience of surprise participate to DRM effect, but not alone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)